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Cafr Budget Analysis

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CAFR BUDGET ANALYSIS 2
CAFR Budget Analysis
The Governmental Accounting Standards Board (GASB) and the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) serve similar functions for different accounting entities. The GASB maintains accountability over state and local governments, while the FASB maintains adherence to standards for not-for-profit entities. Both governments and not-for-profit organizations use an expenditure approach to accounting where budgetary needs are the first priority over financial statements. Governments however, have additional reporting items that fall within the purview of the power to summon resources. Governments and not-for-profit entities have a different business model than that of for-profit organizations, because governments and not-for-profit entities primary business goal is something other than profit. Governments differentiate themselves from not-for-profit entities by the ability to use taxes, licenses, and legislature as a means to levy revenue to pay for expenses. Not-for-profit organizations primarily use grants, investments, and contracts to earn revenue (Copley & Engstrom, 2007).
Modified Accrual Method
Since governments and not-for-profit organizations use a different business model than traditional businesses, a modified accrual method is used to account for assets, liabilities, and capital. The GASB and FASB allow for the creation of individual accounting entities called funds that track the funding and expenses for that entity. Each fund has a separate set of accounts and must balance. Governments have a general fund for taxes, unassigned resources, and general operations. The accounting equation for these organizations using the modified accrual method becomes assets – liabilities = fund balance. The modified accrual method creates some items that may not be recognized on the balance sheet and must be disclosed in...

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