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Campus Emergency

In: Social Issues

Submitted By blues031
Words 5240
Pages 21
CONTENT
1. Introduction 1 1.1 Background 1 1.2 Purpose 2 1.3 Scope 2 1.4 Outline 2
2. Methodology 3 2.1 Data and Material Collection 3 2.2 Profile of Sample 3 2.3 The Questionnaire 4 2.4 Limitations 4
3. Results 5 3.1 NUS Students’ Awareness of Emergencies on Campus 5 3.2 NUS Students’ Readiness for Emergencies on Campus 5 3.3 Percentage of Right Answers Between Males and Females 8 3.4 Percentage of Right Answers Among Four Nationalities 8 3.5 Percentage of Right Answers Among Five Faculties 9 3.6 Students’ Attitudes towards Emergencies on Campus 11
4. Discussion 14 4.1 Comparison between Males and Females 14 4.2 Comparison among Four Nationalities 15 4.3 Comparison Between Five Faculties 17 4.4 Comparison among Three Types of Emergencies 18
5. Conclusions 19
6. Recommendations 21
References 23
Appendix 25 Questionnaire 25

1. Introduction
1.1 Background
The possibility of emergencies occurring on campuses is an issue that campus authorities worldwide are aware of and for which definite procedures have in most cases been put in place. Campus emergencies include sudden illnesses, accidents and natural disasters. In recent years, such unexpected problems have happened again and again. On January 21st 2007, Chai Ming Hui, a final-year student in University Malaysia Sarawak, was struck by lightning when she was answering a phone call. On November 13th 2010, a 99-year-old building in Tsinghua University caught fire and the emergency caused a panic among students and staff. Much more recently, on April 13th 2011, Michele Dufault, an outstanding undergraduate in Yale University, died in an accident while conducting a chemistry experiment.
Compared with most universities in the world, NUS has a good safety record. There was no major accident recorded either in the newspapers or on the Internet in the last few years. However, we cannot take it for granted that NUS will be insulated permanently from certain emergencies even if we discount the minor accidents which are bound to occur. Sports injuries including fainting, fractures, and ankle sprains, and sudden illnesses such as asthma, choking, and heart attacks, happen every single day in campus life.
After reading these cases and statistics, we realized the significance of this issue of campus security. Since it relates closely to the safety of university students, we decided to do a research on whether NUS students are ready for emergencies on campus. We also hope that this research will generate more awareness of the need to be prepared for emergencies on campus amongst NUS students.
1.2 Purpose
a. Our research aims to find out the level of awareness of campus emergencies amongst NUS students and whether they are equipped with enough knowledge to deal with such emergencies.
b. We also aim to find if any difference exist between genders, nationalities and faculties in how they might deal with emergencies on campus.
c. Based on our research results, we hope to give some suggestions to relevant authorities in NUS on how NUS students can be better equipped to deal with emergencies on campus.

1.3 Scope
Unforeseen emergencies can arise anywhere, but we only focus on emergencies on campus. Different kinds of emergencies could occur in NUS, but we only pay attention to those which are relevant to NUS students` daily life. Also, differences exist in ways of dealing with emergences in many aspects, but we only focus on gender, faulty and nationality.
1.4 Outline
The following sections contain Methodology, Results, Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendation. Methodology will show how the survey was conducted and how data was collected. In findings, some prominent results will be presented in the form of graphs and tables. Based on the results, we will discuss what causes the differences between different genders, faculties and nationalities, and why some students wrongly respond to emergencies based on based on Internet and library research. Finally we will draw a conclusion and give some suggestions to relevant authorities in NUS on how NUS students can be better equipped to deal with emergencies on campus.

2. Methodology
2.1 Data and Material Collection
We did some research mainly about the typical emergencies that occur on campuses worldwide and in NUS, the importance of first aid and other emergencies on campus, the importance of students’ awareness of safety, and what measures NUS has taken in this aspect. The relevant information was retrieved from the Internet and newspapers, or obtained from resources in the NUS Medical Library. The data was obtained by analyzing the results of questionnaires done face to face or online, as well as e-mail surveys completed by members of the Befrienders. We also consulted Dr. Patrick Tan, from the University Health Centre, for some information.
2.2 Profile of Sample
Our research is based on a questionnaire (please refer to Appendix 1) conducted in NUS. In total, 112 respondents of whom 54 were males and 58 females participated in our survey. A total of 61 Singaporeans, 13 Malaysians, 10 Indians, 25 Chinese and 3 students of other nationalities took part. They are all NUS students from different faculties. We also interviewed Dr. Patrick Tan to obtain his views on this issue.
2.3 The Questionnaire
The survey was conducted at the Central Library, Science Library, and Music Library, on April 19, 2011. The questionnaire was also established on a professional questionnaire website called Ask Form (www.askform.cn) and received 6 replies. The respondents were asked to answer eleven questions dealing with how they would respond to common emergencies. Six questions were about their common knowledge of first aid; three questions were about their personal information and opinion; the other two were open questions about students’ subjective attitudes towards emergencies. The data was analyzed based on gender, major of study and nationality.
2.4 Limitations
Because of the limited resources, space and time, there are only 11 questions in the questionnaire and only 112 NUS students participated in this survey. As the survey was given our randomly, the numbers of the participants of different genders, nationalities and majors are not balanced. Thus the results of the research are somewhat limited and our study is amateurish.

3. Results
3.1 NUS Students’ Awareness of Emergencies on Campus

Figure 1
Figure 1 shows some emergencies which NUS students think are quite common on campus. From the diagram we can see that respondents mark Lab accidents as the most common emergency (74), followed by sprains (52), cuts on the hand (49), fire (32), fainting (32), and Asthma (30) as the top six.

3.2 NUS Students’ Readiness for Emergencies on Campus

Figure 2
Figure 2 shows the percentage of when respondents last received training on first aid. As much as a quarter of respondents never underwent first aid training. Only 10.3% of students last received training in junior college and approximately another 22.6% of students received training in the military. The diagram also indicates that around two fifths of students last received training in secondary school or in university. CPR Scalds

Figure 3 Figure 4
Figure 3 shows respondents’ level of knowledge in dealing with CPR. 61.33% of the respondents claim that they are not well equipped with the knowledge of how to conduct CPR. In contrast, only 15.80% of the respondents are confident in administering CPR.
Figure 4 shows respondents’ level of knowledge in dealing with scalds. 58.50% of the respondents are not confident of their ability to cope with strokes. By comparison, only 8.50% of the respondents believe they will know how to deal with strokes appropriately. Sprains Choking Figure 5 Figure 6
Figure 5 shows respondents’ level of knowledge in dealing with sprains. We can see that 47.17% of the respondents regarded themselves as green horns in dealing with fractures. Surprisingly, merely 1% of respondents believe they can handle fractures very well.
Figure 6 shows respondents’ level of knowledge in dealing with choking. We can see that 47.17% of our respondents would fail to handle choking well. Only 19.81% of our respondents are good at dealing with choking.

Figure 7
Figure 7 shows NUS students’ readiness should a fire break out. The diagram indicates that 55.7% of students did not pay attention to the position of fire extinguishers. In contrast, two thirds of students were aware of the position of the fire exits and 58.5% of them were also not confident in using fire extinguishers.

Figure 8
However, as indicated in figure 8, an overwhelming number of students had no idea how to use AED machines. 3.3 Percentage of Right Answers Between Males and Females

Figure 9
Figure 9 shows the comparison between the accuracy rate of males and that of females in answering the five questions. As the diagram indicates, of all the five questions, the accuracy rates of males are higher than those of females. For question 3 and 8, which question about how to deal with asthma and lightning, the accuracy rates of male and female are approximately the same. For the other three questions, which ask about the knowledge of dealing with scalds, sprains and choking, males perform much better than females. Generally speaking, males have a better grasp of how to deal with emergency than females.

3.4 Rate of Correctness Among Four Nationalities

Figure 10

Figure 10
Figure 10 above shows the percentage of right answers among Singaporeans, Indians, Malaysians and Chinese. As for asthma, Singaporeans (59.30%) and Malaysians (61.50%) gave an appropriate response, whereas Indians have a lower accuracy rate of 36.40%. Where scalds are concerned, Indians (81.20%) and Singaporeans (83.00%) performed very well compared with Chinese. It also shows that compared with Singaporeans and Malaysians, Chinese and Indians fared worse in dealing with choking (Indian 27.20%, Chinese 37.50%). And it is noteworthy that all the Malaysians responded appropriately to lightning. Overall, Singaporeans and Malaysians have a better knowledge of how to cope with emergencies than Chinese and Indians.

3.5 Rate of Correctness Among Five Faculties

Asthma

Figure 11
Figure 11 shows the percentage of correct answers to the question of asthma among five faculties. As reflected on the graph, the Medicine faculty has the highest score, followed by Arts, Science, Pharmacy and Engineering.

Scalds

Figure 12
Figure 12 shows the rate of correctness to the question of scalds among five faculties. Respondents from both the faculties of Medicine and Pharmacy answered all the questions correctly, followed by Science, Engineering and Arts. The rates are 79.5%, 78.25 and 60% respect ively. Sprains

Figure 13 Figure 13 shows the rate of correctness to the question of sprains among five faculties. The Medicine school still tops the faculties with 100% accuracy. The other four faculties follow with accuracy rates ranging from 75% to 86.7%. Choking

Figure 14 Figure 14 shows the rate of correctness to the question of choking among five faculties. As before, students from the Medicine school perform much better when dealing with choking, and the accuracy rate is still 100%. This is followed by the Arts, Engineering, Science and Pharmacy, faculties ranging from 73.3% to 50%.

3.6 Students Attitudes towards Emergencies on Campus No training and courses | 40.2% | Seldom encounter emergencies | 33.9% | Do not have time | 7.1% | No interest | 4.5% | Others can help | 3.6% | Do not think it important | 1.8% | Forget | 1.8% |

Figure 15 Figure 15 shows respondents’ opinions on why many students are not well equipped with knowledge in dealing with emergencies. They provided various replies, which can be divided into seven categories. As the chart demonstrates, 40.2% of students believed that there are no trainings or courses to attend, while 33.9% reckoned that students seldom encountered emergencies on campus. And 4.5% of those who were surveyed regarded a lack of interest as the main reason, whereas another 3.6% of them thought some students may take it for granted that others would help them when accidents happens. Some students also believed that they did not think it is important to master the skills and may forget them even after attending courses.

Figure 16 Figure 16 shows students’ willingness to attend courses on emergencies. As indicated in the pie chart, 69% students surveyed agreed to attend courses on emergencies if such relevant courses were to be conducted. However, nearly one-quarter of students would refuse to attend and another 7% were not sure, depending on the situation.

Useful and helpful | 25 | Get prepared | 19 | Help others | 7 | Improve knowledge | 6 |

Figure 17 Reasons why students were willing to attend are divided into four categories. As indicated, 25 students think courses on emergencies are useful and helpful; 19 students wanted to get prepared for emergencies through the courses; another 13 of respondents provided the reasons of helping others and improving knowledge in this aspect. Not enough time | 20 | No interest | 9 | Not relevant | 5 | Have attended before | 4 | Too lazy to attend the course | 2 |

Figure 18 The number of respondents who refused to participate is also considerable. Most reasons cited were the lack of time and interest. Five students thought that the courses would have no relevance to their life and another four students claimed to have taken relevant courses recently. Only two respondents gave the reason of being too lazy to attend the courses.

4. Discussion

4.1 Comparison Between Male and Female
After analyzing figure 9, we notice that males have a better grasp of how to deal with emergencies than females. In order to explain this result, we searched the Internet for some relevant information and finally summarized two possible reasons.
In Singapore, National Service is mandatory for all able-bodied adult males. Therefore, intensive and systematic training relevant to emergencies not only equips Singaporean young males with enough knowledge to deal with emergencies but also with the acute awareness of the emergencies which may happen around them at any time. In comparison, Singapore does not have any compulsory service similarly to the National Service for adult Singaporean females. The best possible way for females to get trained to handle emergencies is to attend the courses provided by schools which may however be relatively less comprehensive and professional. This partly explains why the correctness rate of questions among male respondents is generally higher than that of female respondents.
Apart from the influence from National Service, males and females’ attitudes towards emergencies may be different. Generally, males pay more attention to emergencies than females. One possible reason is that males often take part in some competitive sports which always require much more physical contact. In contrast, females often take part in some mild sports in which they are less prone to get injured. For example, many boys do sports like soccer, rugby or basketball, whereas most girls would take part in badminton, jogging and so on. To reduce the pain and injury should someone be injured, males may pay more attention to the relevant knowledge in emergency handling.

4.2 Comparison among Four Nationalities
According to figure 10, it is easy to find that Singaporeans and Malaysians have a better knowledge of coping with emergencies compared with Chinese and Indians. Correctness rates of answers provided by Singaporeans and Malaysians significantly exceed 50%, while Chinese and Malaysians fall below 50%. After analyzing the results and obtaining some relevant information on the Internet, we finally come up with some reasons which are due to the different situations in the four countries.
In Singapore, National service requires all male Singaporean citizens and second-generation permanent residents who have reached the age of 18 to enrol in the military. It is noteworthy that the service in the army teaches teenagers lessons of first aid and emergencies, for which reason students are well equipped to handle emergencies. Furthermore, as Prof Ho Peng Kee(2011) said, a growing number of Singaporean are participating in programs in which they can learn skills such as first aid. This indicates that many Singaporean citizens have realized the significance of the ability to respond to emergencies. On March 11 2011, Hua Yi Secondary School taught its students to be ready for crises and emergencies by holding a program called Ready Bag. Having learnt how to use the Ready Bag, Students explained to residents the notion of the Ready Bag. Student Bryan Foo said, “By, distributing the Ready Bag to the residents, we are helping them to be prepared so that they are aware of what they should do in an emergency.” Clearly, students definitely have learnt how to cope with emergencies. In short, as student Amran Sukri(2011) said, the significance of preparing well for emergencies can never be over-emphasized and both the government and Singaporeans value it. This is probably why Singaporeans have a better knowledge of how to deal with emergencies than Chinese and Indians.
In Malaysia, both the government and its citizens pay high attention to the importance of response to emergencies. In 2008, a School Emergency Preparedness and Response program was conducted aiming at equipping the teachers and schoolchildren with emergency preparedness mechanism. This leads Malaysians to have adequate knowledge of coping with emergencies.
The situations in China and India are quite similar. According to a survey on citizens’ awareness of crises, conducted in China by a professional survey company in August 2005, 40% of the respondents did not know where emergency shelter are and surprisingly 70% never think about how to do in an emergency. The primary cause of this issue is that the government does not pay enough attention to it. The government did not take concrete measures to promote the citizens` crises consciousness. In 2008, a one-month internet survey shows that 5046 citizens who come from Shanghai, Beijing, Chongqing and other provinces and cities generally lack adequate knowledge of dealing with emergencies. In our opinion, this is the reason why the NUS students from China did badly in how to handle emergencies.

4.3 Comparison Between Five Faculties
According to figure 11 to figure 14, it is quite obvious that the school of medicine performed much better than the other four faculties, with an accuracy rate of 100%. After discussion, we came up with 2 reasons to explain this.
One reason is that school of medicine has specialized courses for emergencies for undergraduates. In our survey, some respondents stated in their questionnaires that they had already taken professional courses for sudden illness and the handling of accidental injuries as part of their core curriculum. From this, we can speculate that the knowledge in emergencies acquired by undergraduates from school of Medicine is much more systematic and comprehensive than that of students from other faculties.
Second, students from the school of medicine may have more chances to put their knowledge into actually dealing with emergencies into practice, not only because of their easy access to relevant facilities but also the requirements from the syllabus which requires them to master these skills. In comparison, the faculty of Arts and Social Science, faculty of Science and faculty of Engineering do not provide courses for emergency handling. Maybe it is because these courses have no relevance to the future career of the graduates from the other three faculties. Therefore, undergraduates in those three faculties have relatively less knowledge about how to deal with sudden illnesses, accidental injuries and the right way to give first aids.

4.4 Comparison among Three Types of Emergencies on Campus
In order to make it easier and clearer to analyze statistics, we categorized all the emergencies into three types, sudden illnesses, accidents and natural disasters. In the sudden illness category, Asthma and heart failure are two typical emergencies; choking, sprains and scalds stand for three common accidents on campus; lightning and fire belong to the natural disaster category.
The statistics in figure 9 shows that both females and males perform the worst when dealing with asthma. However, they fared much better with accidents and natural disasters; In figure 10 and figure 11, the data obviously indicates that whatever the respondent’s nationality and major are, respondents’ rate of correctness towards asthma is generally quite low. All the results above to some extent demonstrate that students have more problems in dealing with all the three types of emergencies. In order to prove this assumption, we searched for relevant information and finally summarized two reasons.
First, students’ readiness for emergencies depends on whether emergencies are relevant to students’ life. As indicated in figure 1, sudden illnesses like asthma is not very common on campus, compared with accidents like sprains, fainting and natural disasters, like fire. And this may cause students to ignore the importance of learning knowledge on sudden illness. Therefore, they could not correctly answer the question on asthma. In contrast, students are more expert in dealing with lightning for the reason that Singapore is always rainy with heavy lightning.
Second, the quantity and quality trainings of students’ knowledge of dealing with emergencies. In our interview with Doctor Patrick Tan, he told us that courses on emergencies are not compulsory in NUS. And our befriender Tan Minxuan Michelle said although there exist some courses like CPR and AED programme which teaches relevant skills, students seldom participate in them because of lack of time ( Figure 18). When we are conducting the interview, many students claimed that they have received courses on CPR and fire. However, according to figure 13, an overwhelmingly 91.51% of students are not confident in using AED, and 58.49% of them cannot use fire extinguishers. That is to say, a lack of courses and a low effectiveness of the courses led to the students’ poor knowledge on how to deal with emergencies.

5. Conclusions
Our project was designed to investigate NUS students’ readiness for emergencies on campus. First, the findings show that the students’ level of preparedness for campus emergencies depends on three different aspects, which are gender, faculty and nationality. Moreover, students’ abilities to cope with campus emergencies vary according to the types of emergencies. For some situations, they have a clear idea of how to respond, whereas for others, they only have a sketchy idea. In addition, overall, the general level of students’ readiness for campus emergencies is acceptable but still needs to be improved.
In terms of the first factor, gender, it would appear that male students tend to be better prepared to handle emergencies on campus. It is highly likely that this can be attributed to the fact that Singaporean male students have undergone two years of National Service. And male students have more experiences encountering campus emergencies than female students because they participate in sports events more frequently. Also, students from different faculties have different levels of abilities to cope with campus emergencies. The results show clearly that students in the School of Medicine are better equipped with the relevant knowledge needed to handle emergencies than those in other faculties including the Faculty of Science, Faculty of Engineering and Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. The main reason is that for students majoring in medicine or pharmacy, their curriculum is more directly relevant to emergency situations; thus, they have more opportunities to practice what they have learned. Another factor that causes the different results is nationality. Singaporean males are required to undergo National Service, whilst in Malaysia, both the government and citizens appear to pay more attention to how to respond in emergencies. In contrast, China and India seem to be less concerned about this kind of problems.
From our project, we can draw an approximate conclusion that the general level of students’ readiness for campus emergencies is acceptable but there is much room for improvement. Most students do know something about what to do when emergencies happen. However, what they know is not that accurate. Our hope is that they will eventually come to know how to respond appropriately during all campus emergencies. Whilst many students may feel that making time to attend this kind of courses will be difficult given their tight schedule, being equipped to deal appropriately with campus emergencies is very necessary for every university student.

6. Recommendations It is always good to be prepared for any emergencies. However, emergencies cannot be predicted. So, being clear about how to deal with an emergency is very important. Based on the results reflected from the data, we have come up with some suggestions on how to help students grasp an adequate knowledge of emergencies.
Firstly, NUS students should increase their awareness of potential emergencies that could occur on campus. Walking around campus, they should pay attention to where the emergency equipment is, so that they can find it as soon as possible should emergencies happen. When watching TV, students can pay more attention to relevant programs, such as “Emergency!” (A TV series). Secondly, it would be good for students with no prior training in first-aid to take some courses in first aid, like Healthcare Management and Education, Clinical Care and programmes like CPR+AED Familiarisation Programme. Students can also attend courses run off-campus by relevant organizations. For example, the Singapore Red Cross Training Centre regularly conducts courses on first aid to all the residents.
As for campus security, they should ensure that the emergency machines are placed in conspicuous places so that students may easily access them when needed. Many students do not know how to use an AED, so basic instructions on how to use the AED should be provided regularly. Besides, to improve students’ overall preparedness, emergency drills should be conducted regularly on campus.
As for school curriculum planners, they have provided many useful curriculums, short courses and electronic resources, for example NUR3107 (Healthcare Management and Education), GMS6403 (Clinical Care*/Emergency*), Medical and Humanitarian Emergencies (given by Prof Lim Meng Kin) http://www.med.nus.edu.sg/meu/file/Simulation%20in%20Education%20Final%20ZA.pdf. However, they should promote these courses more so that more students may consider enrolling for them. In addition, they can also try to provide some online teaching to supplement the classroom modules. While hospitals plays a crucial role in providing medical assistance during an emergency, how individuals respond initially to an emergency will go a long way towards minimizing injury. Thus, the officials in NUS should hold more activities on dealing with emergencies and the Singapore government should also strongly encourage its people to learn how to deal with emergencies.

References
Amran, S. (March, 2011). Readiness and Preparedness against crises in a bag. Retrieved April 28, 2011, from http://www.singaporeunited.sg/cep/index.php/cluster/Our-News/Readiness-and-Preparedness-against-Crises-in-a-Bag/(cluster)/MHA Bao, D. Z. (2010, November 15). Fire damages oldest building at Tsinghua. China Daily. Chinese generally lack crises consciousness (February, 2008). Retrieved April 30, 2011, from: http://gb.chinareviewnews.com/doc/1005/6/1/9/100561919.html?coluid= 7&kindid=0&docid=100561919&mdate=0203003340
Fanta, C. H. (March 2009). Asthma. New England Journal of Medicine 360 (10): 1002–14. doi:10.1056/NEJMra0804579. PMID 19264689
Henderson, D., Rosenfeld, E., & Serna, D. (2011, April, 13). Michele Dufault '11 dies in Sterling Chemistry Laboratory accident. Yale Daily News. Retrieved April 30, 2011, from:http://www.yaledailynews.com/news/2011/apr/13/student-dies-accident-sterling-chemistry-laborator/
Lazarus S. C. (August 2010). Clinical practice: Emergency treatment of asthma. New England Journal of Medicine 363 (8): 755–64.
Malaysia: School Emergency Preparedness and Response Programme (Innovation). Retrieved April 30, 2011, from http://origin-www.unicef.org/evaluation/index_57428.html
Reilly, M. J. & Markenson, D. (2011). Health Care Emergency Management: Principles and Practice.Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
University student killed by lightning in freak incident. (2006). from myLot Web Site: http://www.mylot.com/w/discussions/647356.aspx

Appendix Questionnaire NUS Students’ Readiness for Emergencies on Campus
Dear respondent We are a group of SM3 students conducting a survey on NUS students’ readiness for emergencies on campus. We would appreciate your taking a few minutes to complete our questionnaire. Please tick the answer according to your immediate response. |
Gender: Male/Female Major: _______________________
Ever served in the army? Yes/No Nationality: __________________ 1. When was the last time you received training on first aid? A. Secondary school B. Junior college/Polytechnic C. Army D. University E. Never 2. Which of these emergencies do you think is common on campus?
☐ Malfunction ☐Fire ☐Lab accidents ☐Heart failure
☐Asthma ☐ Fainting ☐Fracture ☐Sprains
☐Head injuries ☐Hand cut ☐Skin burnt ☐Assault

3. You are attending a tutorial when your classmate suddenly has a severe asthma attack. You should: A. Let him drink several glasses of water to feel better and call ambulance 995. B. Lean him forward to feel better and call ambulance 995. C. Let him lie down on the floor and do artificial respiration (CPR). D. Pat him gently on the back to make him feel a little comfortable and call 995.

4. Supposing that your arm is scalded by boiling water. You should: A. Apply butter to the scald immediately. B. Apply toothpaste sparingly to the scald immediately. C. Apply Vaseline and wrap with a cloth bandage. D. Cool the scald with running water for 10 minutes.

5. You accidentally sprain your ankle when doing sports. What would you do? A. Keep walking. Ankle will become better. B. Ask a friend to get you some ice to apply to your sprained ankle C. Find warm water as soon as possible and apply warm wet compresses to your sprained ankle. D. Massage your feet gently and slowly to reduce the pain on your ankle.

6. You are having a meal with your friend when he suddenly chokes over some food. What would you do? A. Give him some water to drink so that the food can slide down. B. Pat your friend’s back until he coughs out the food. C. Put your finger into his mouth to stimulate his throat so that your friend can throw up the food. D. Clench your fist in his abdomen thrust upwards to make him throw up the food.
7. Do you pay attention to the position of fire extinguishers? Yes/No Do you pay attention to the position of fire exits? Yes/No Do you know how to use fire extinguishers? Yes/No Do you know how to use AED (automated external defibrillation)? Yes/No
8. You are training in the park when there is heavy thunder and lightning. Which of the following actions do you think is right? (You can choose more than one) A. Quickly shelter under a big tree. B. Squatting on the ground to avoid being struck. C. Put up an umbrella and carry on training. D. Run to the nearest shelter as quickly as possible. E. Quickly hide yourself in a car.

9. How much do you know about how to deal with the following emergencies? Emergencies | Not at all | A little | So-so | Good | Very good | CPR | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | Scalds | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | Sprains | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | Choking | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |

10. What do you think is the reason why students lack the knowledge of dealing with emergencies?

_____________________________________________________________________________. 11. If NUS provides courses on emergency and first aid, would you attend these courses? A. Yes
B. No
Please specify the reason_________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________.

Thanks for your participation!

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