Premium Essay

Cancer Drugs

In: Business and Management

Submitted By leecrabtree
Words 1942
Pages 8
1

The Costs and challenges of the Production of Cancer Drugs
Hearing the words “you have cancer,” are only the beginning of a long and horrible experience made only more difficult for the afflicted by the complexity of getting a successful treatment to those that need it. The processes of getting effective treatments to patients are influenced by economic issues, the special medical needs of those served, and by the Federal Drug Administration making sure that the risks and costs of the treatment don’t outweigh the benefits.
The cost of cancer involves the cost of treatment, the cost of research, and the cost of FDA processes to get the treatments and drugs to the market. Even when the economy is good these are difficult things to meet. The costs of cancer treatment can be so devastating to both insured, and uninsured that cancer stricken patients sometimes decide not to take the treatments. Decisions must be made whether to pay the mortgage, or pay for treatments that may or may not cure the cancer.
A cure for cancer has not yet been found .This year, about 580,350 US residents are expected to die of cancer, that’s nearly 1,600 people a day. Cancer is the second most common cause of death in the United States, exceeded only by heart disease. Cancer accounts for nearly one out of every four deaths in the United States (American Cancer Society, Last Revised: 02/01/2013,http://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancerbasics/economic-impact-of-cancer) According to the American Cancer Society, The financial costs of cancer are high for both the person with

2 cancer, and for society as a whole. The National Institutes of Health estimated the 2008 overall annual costs of cancer total were 201.5 billion dollars. The direct medical costs which were the total of all health expenditures totaled to be 77.4 billion dollars. The Indirect mortality costs…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Expensive Cancer Drugs: a Comparison Between the United States and the United Kingdom

...Research Assignment Article: Expensive Cancer Drugs: A Comparison between the United States and the United Kingdom. The article that I will do an overview on is entitled: Expensive Cancer Drugs: A Comparison between the United States and the United Kingdom. The article compared the United Kingdom’s and the United States experience with cancer drugs and how expensive they can be due to medical technologies. This article also discusses the differences between the two countries access to new cancer drugs and their cancer outcomes. Most think that the wealthy can buy their way to new medical technologies and treatments but is this true? This article breaks down how it is possible for the wealthy and the low income population can to receive cancer drugs in both the United Kingdom and in the United States. The United Kingdom’s National Health Service (NHS) is funded by a general taxation system with a budget that is set every 3 years by government. This service is offered to the citizens of the United Kingdom can receive healthcare regardless of financial status. NHS is the main care provider for the majority of the population. When it comes to the least restrictive pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement the United Kingdom has it. The surprising thing abut the NHS I found was almost all cancer drugs become free at the point of service using taxpayers money allocated to them by the government for the resident’s needs. Not all drugs are offered free. The Health and Clinical......

Words: 802 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Cancer

...Diagnosed With Cancer? Here Are 11 Effective, Natural Strategies To Kill Your Cancer The information you need to beat cancer is here - available to you for free. You won't have to download a report or buy any book. In fact, some readers have said that this report is better than the ebooks, and they had bought every one. Here you will find information your doctor can't tell you or doesn't know - including information on one product where 51 out of 65 stage 4 cancer patients became cancer free while using it. Other readers say that this report gave them the most understandable information they found about cancer. You'll learn about the underlying causes of cancer, and what to do to counteract those causes. Effective actions to take to defeat cancer. This information applies to all types of cancer. Lung, prostate, breast, colon, ovarian, cervical, liver, pancreatic, bone, bladder, stomach, testicular, thyroid, kidney, throat, brain, mouth, uterine, esophageal, rectal and more. The fundamental causes of these cancers are the same, so the same strategies work for all of them. Thousands before you have used these strategies to beat their cancer and now live happy normal lives. They are available here at no cost to you. "In 2003 my husband was told he had a pancost tumor on his upper left lung. He began 6 weeks of chemotherapy and radiation therapy. On April 1st, 2004 he went thru a 10 hour surgery to remove the upper left lobe, parts of his ribs and the tips of the T3, T4...

Words: 4371 - Pages: 18

Free Essay

Cancer

...with cancer? As crazy as it sounds, most people assumes that the cancer patient has no way out to survive and may have couple months or one to two years of survival time. Yes! it’s true that patients die out of cancer because it’s a disease in which abnormal cells spreads out without any control and are able to invade other tissues. What if cancers have medication in which it shows patients can survive? As we all know, there are more than hundred types of cancer and for each type there are different drugs but do all of them gives the chance to survive? In today's date, we have so many prostate cancer drugs that gives extra months to survive and may even cure cancer completely. The drugs that are approved by the Food and Drug Administration are: Abiraterone Acetate, Cabazitaxel, Degarelix, Docetaxel, Jevtana, Leuprolide Acetate, Lupron, Lupron Depot, Lupron Depot-3 and 4 months, Lupron Depot-Ped, Prednisone, Provenge, Sipuleuce, Taxotere, Viadur and Zytiga. Denosumab a new prostate cancer drug which has been approved by FDA delayed the spread of the cancer cells to the bone. The drug is used to treat osteoporosis and fractures with bone metastases from solid tumors. Researchers considered denosumab as a trial to see if it can delay the risk of the cancer cells reaching to the bones. To conduct the results, there was a research done that included more than 1,400 participants from thirty different countries. As a result, male cancer patients that tried the drug......

Words: 872 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Cancer

...Multimodal Treatment for Cancer and It’s Nursing Implication Cure: Complete eradication of malignant cells Control: prolonged survival and containment of cancer cell growth Palliate: relief of symptoms associated with the disease Surgery 2. Chemotherapy 3. Radiation therapy Surgery A. Diagnostic Biopsy: to obtain a tissue sample for analysis of cells suspected to be malignant Actual tumor Lymph Nodes 3 Most Common types of Biopsy Excisional: most frequently used for easily accessible tumors of the skin, breast, upper and lower gastrointestinal tract, and upper respiratory tract. : removal of the entire tumor and the surrounding marginal tissues as well Incisional: when the tumor mass is to large to be removed. : a wedge of a tissue from the tumor is removed for analysis Needle Methods: performed to sample suspicious masses that are easily accessible, such as some growth in the breasts, thyroid, lung, liver and kidney : fast, relatively less expensive and easy to perform and usually require local anesthesia. B. Surgery as a Primary Treatment: Local Excisions (Debulking) Wide or Radical Excision (en block dissection) removal of the primary tumor, lymph nodes, adjacent involved structures, and surrounding tissues that may be at high risk for tumor spread C. Prophylactic Surgery: involves removing nonvital tissues or organs that......

Words: 859 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Cancer

...Breast Cancer Survivors Complain of Drug Side Effects The disease called cancer occurs when the abnormally dividing cells of a malignant neoplasm disrupt body tissues, both physically and metabolically. A malignant neoplasm gets progressively worse, and is dangerous to health. Malignant cells typically display cells of all neoplasm's, malignant cells grow and divide. The cytoplasm and plasma membrane of malignant cells are altered (Biology Today and Tomorrow Without Physiology pg.140). This article relates to biology in ways such as medicine and it gives you some of the side effects of the treatment. The treatment is given to prevent recurrence among postmenopausal women in recovery from hormone-receptor positive breast cancer. This article caught my attention because I'm interested in knowing more about cancer. Cancer is a very serious disease that some people live years with after founding out and go into remission and some lose their lives shortly after finding out. There are some people that have cancer and are able to cope with it and then there are some who has a more constant battle.( Researchers) stated that more than 18 percent of women will have at least one side effect from the medicine. Some of the things that their complaining about on a regular basis are aches, swelling, pain, shuffle and significant joint pain. Hot flashes, night sweats, osteoporosis, and weight gain are also some of the side effects. Women that are in their 50s sometimes feel like they are...

Words: 435 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Finding Different Drugs to Cure Cancer

...ASSIGNMENT 3.1: FINDING DIFFERENT DRUGS TO CURE CANCER by Wanda G. Sellers August 21, 2013 English 115 Instructor: Professor Audrey L. Vaughan Cancer is a very devastating disease. It attacks every organ in the human body. Many people in the United States and in foreign countries have cancer. Cancer affects many people’s lives and many more people are being diagnosed with cancer each day. Everyday scientists and researchers are trying to come up with new medicines to cure cancer. In this paper, I will discuss the process of developing new drugs to treat cancer, and the costs of developing these drugs. According to the oncologists at the website Cancer.net, more doctors and scientists are always looking for better ways to treat people with cancer. To do this, they are constantly developing and studying new drugs as well as looking for new ways to use the existing drugs. When scientists are developing new drugs for cancer patients, there are many researchers involved. They must find the right chemicals before testing them to see how effective they are in helping people. Sometimes this process takes from 5 to 12 years. Sometimes it takes longer than that. After the new drugs are developed, more time has to be allowed for the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to approve the drugs before cancer patients can take them according to Cancer.net. They do this by......

Words: 718 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Cancer

...Cancer nowadays is very widespread. With all of the available information on cancer, it is still one of the leading causes of death in the USA. Since the 21st century, over 12 million new cancer cases were diagnosed worldwide each year. Within this diagnosis, many realized that cancer is a major cause of sickness and death worldwide. However, according to research “it has been known since antiquity, significant improvements in cancer treatment have been made since the middle of the 20th century, mainly through a combination of timely and accurate diagnosis, selective surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapeutic drugs. Such advances actually have brought about a decrease in cancer deaths (at least in developed countries), and grounds for further optimism are seen in laboratory investigations into elucidating the causes and mechanisms of the disease.”(Costa, 2014) Medically, cancer is known as a malignant neoplasm. It is when cells divide and grow uncontrollably forming malignant tumors that invade nearby parts of the body. According to a cancer survivor, cancer can also spread through the lymphatic system or bloodstream and develop in more distant parts of the body. However, not all tumors are cancerous. Benign tumors although abnormal, they do not grow uncontrollably, invade neighboring tissues, and do not spread throughout the body. According to research, there are many different kinds of cancers. Cancer can almost develop in any organ or tissue, such as......

Words: 1321 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Cancer

...Cancer, the body is made up of trillions of living cells. Normal cells grow, divide into cells and die. Cancer begins when cells in a part of the body start to grow out of control. There are many kinds of cancer, but they all start because of the abnormal growth of cells. Different types of cancer can behave very differently. They grow at different rates and respond to different treatments. That is why people with cancer need treatment that is made to be their own. The cancer I am going to focus on is testicular cancer. Testicular cancer can start in one or both of the testicles. It is often found in young men but can occur in any age. The testicles are made up of many different kinds of cells. Each cell can develop into one or more types of testicular cancer. Studies show about 8,430 new cases of testicular cancer, and out of those 8,430 are only 380 deaths cause by the cancer. The chance of having testicular cancer is about 1 and 270. It is mostly found in middle aged men but about 7% of the cases occur in children and teens. Testicular cancer is one of the most curable forms of cancer. The risk of dying is about 1 in 5,000. There is no actual cause to testicular cancer, but the American Cancer Society has founded some risk factors. Those would include family history, HIV infection, being at the age 20-34, race/ethnicity, and body size. None of these factors can be changed, and most men that end up with testicular cancer have no known risks. With that being said there......

Words: 682 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Cancer

...Definition of Cancer The Webster’s Dictionary defines cancer as an : uncontrolled, growing mass of cells that is capable of invading neighboring tissues and spreading via body fluids, especially the blood stream, to other parts of the body, also called a malignant tumor. Cancers Effect on Our Bodies Cancer is a disease that is caused by uncontrolled cell division leading to abnormal tissue growth. It is believed that cancer can arise from both genetic (e.g. DNA mutation and hereditarianism like breast or ovarian cancer) and environmental factors (e.g. working with and breathing in chemicals, benzene, asbestos, and not limiting one’s exposure to the sun, or eating a healthy diet, etc.), which can lead to abnormal growth of our bodies different cells. Cell multiplication otherwise known as proliferation, is a normal physical process that occurs in our bodies. These cells can be in charge of our immune systems response, replacing cells that have died or have been shed as a part of their lifecycle (e.g. such as our skin or mucous membranes in our digestive tract) and are responsible for allowing us to grow and age properly. Normally, the balance between proliferation and cell death otherwise known as apoptosis is a tightly regulated system that has been put in place to ensure the integrity of our body’s organs and tissues. The uncontrolled and often rapid proliferation of cells can lead to two different types of cancer, which are known as benign and malignant tumors. ......

Words: 1635 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Anti-Cancer Drug Cost Regulations- Cocontainment for the Pharmaceutical Companies

...Anti-Cancer Drug Cost Regulations- Cost-Containment for the Pharmaceutical Companies Brenda Roberson University of Maryland University College Abstract Drug development is a long, inefficient, and expensive process and takes 10 to 15 years for development at a cost of about $1.3 billion (Nelson, 2014). When speaking of research and development (R&D) for new drugs; a large number of drugs that go through research do not make it to the FDA or the marketplace. Critics of pharmaceutical companies point out that only a small portion of the pharmaceutical companies’ expenditures account for research and development (R&D). The majority of the money’s spent in marketing and administration. There is also controversy over the $1.3 billion figure as an actual cost. Reported by Nelson (2014) Dr. Kantarjian of M.D. Anderson disputes the $1.3 billion figure for development; he believes this figure to be inflated to cover ancillary expenses, salaries, bonuses, stock market returns, and other indirect costs not related to R&D. The cost of cancer drug therapy is becoming impossible to justify or rationalize for both patient and society. New cancer drugs being approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) are typically costing upwards of $100,000 per year and many times used in combination with other agents (Bunnell, 2012, p. 932) increasing the cost even more. These high priced anti-cancer drugs achieve only marginal benefit for the patient. Benefits achievements of...

Words: 2794 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Cancer

...Lung Cancer In general, cancer kills on average 7.9 million people worldwide every year, which is 13% of all deaths. Cancer is not just one disease but rather a group of diseases, all of which causes cells in the human body to change and grow out of control. Cancers are classified either according to the kind of fluid or tissue from which it originates. One of these types of cancer is Lung Cancer, more people die from lung cancer than any other cancer. With the advances of medicine and technology, options are available to people with lung cancer to help them live a longer life, thus giving suffers more time to spend with their loved ones. Lung Cancer is the most common cancer in the United States. Most cases are directly linked to tobacco use. Around 220,000 people are diagnosed with lung cancer every year. It starts in the lungs but can quickly spread to surrounding areas. Lung cancer occurs when the cells in the lung grow at an uncontrollable rate. It will form in the tissue of the lung, most often in the cells that line the air passages and damage the tissue that surrounds it and then interferes with normal functioning of the lung. It can then quickly spread to the lymph system. Lymph nodes are small organs that link lymph vessels and contain lymph which is a clear fluid that helps fight infection and travels through the body in vessels that are like veins. The cells can also quickly spread to other parts of the body through the blood. Even though the cancer may spread......

Words: 1152 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Cancer

...NEW TREATMENTS FOR CANCER A new revolution for cancer therapy has been created which is called “molecularly targeted therapy”. Since most drugs kill healthy cells along with cancer cells and cause serious side effects, this therapy will only kill the cancer cells of a specific cancer type. They are designed at the molecular level of the cell and are also able to identify specific molecules that are unique to specific cancers. One of the most eligible drug is called glivec, (also known as STI571) actively effecting a form of leukemia called chronic myeloid leukemia that causes excess overproduction of white blood cells. Moreover, in a case study it is reported that a gastroiestional stromal tumor was treated with STI571 and resulted in a significant reduction of the tumor. As this therapy promises the health of the patient, it also has some negative impacts and some limitations. Since this drug is specific to a small amount of molecules, it is not relevant to a large amount of tumors, meaning it is very limited in its application. Furthermore, the patients may experience diarrhea and liver problems such as hepatitis and elevated liver enzymes. All in all, molecularly targeted therapies hold the promise of harming fewer cells, reducing side effects and assuring a healthier life. Another new advancement in cancer treatments is called “immunotherapy”. This therapy is developed to enhance the immune system to fight cancer, reducing all severe side effects. The t- cells protect...

Words: 437 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Cancer Drug Shortage

...injected drugs, which are the workhorses of hospitals but are difficult to make and produce little profit for drugmakers. The shortages are caused primarily by problems with sterility and other serious issues that have led to shutdowns of production lines and occasionally entire factories. In addition, consolidation among generic drug manufacturers, as well as manufacturers deciding to end production of marginally profitable drugs, has led to decreased capacity. That means when one manufacturer suddenly stops production, the small number of others making a drug can't quickly pick up slack. A MAJOR PRODUCTION FACILITY OF THE DRUG WAS SHUT DOWN IN NOVEMBER  there are no routine mechanisms in place requiring manufacturers to notify anyone formally that a drug may be entering into a shortage phase, why the drug is entering the shortage phase, and how long it will be in short supply. 2. The FDA said it will temporarily allow importation of a replacement drug for Doxil, a drug for ovarian and other cancers that hasn't been available for new patients for months.  The agency also approved another supplier for a preservative-free version of methotrexate, a crucial drug for children with a type of leukemia calledacute lymphoblastic leukemia and for high-dose treatment of bone cancer. The version with preservatives can be toxic or cause paralysis in children and other patients getting the drug high doses. THE DRUG SHORTAGE PREVENTION ACT Now the FDA is importing the drugs......

Words: 375 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Cancer

...the case with cancer. More and more people die everyday from cancer and it appears to ruin the lives of all those associated with it. What people need to understand though is yes cancer is a life altering chain of events but cancer is not the end of the world. Death is inevitable; there is no way around it. Perhaps cancer patients realize this more than anyone. “All creatures born upon this earth must, in the end, die. Some live long and peaceful lives. But others are caught up in struggles—must fight for their lives” (Silverstein 12-13). This is the case with cancer. Cancer patients will struggle and fight for their lives and not have the luxury of dying peacefully. The cause of cancer is still unknown to scientists but they have been able to come up with some possible explanations. Cancer affects newborn babies, boys, girls, women, men, animals and even plants. The possible causes of the cancers that affect each of these groups include chemicals in the body, viruses, ultraviolet rays, smoking, and it has been proven to be hereditary in some cases. Many people who develop cancer have had repeated or prolonged contact with one or more of these cancer causing agents (Silverstein 27). With the many different types of cancer it may, for some people, seem impossible for scientists to discover a cure. Skeweris 2 There are more than one hundred known types of cancer. Scientists are sure there are many more they just have not yet been diagnosed. The cancers that are most...

Words: 2003 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Cancer Drug for Alzheimers

...Cancer drug may have Alzheimer’s benefits By Laura Sanders, Science News Publisher: Science News Date Published: March 10, 2012 Alzheimer’s a disease that progressively attacks the brain’s nerve cells which results in many changes in behavior, memory and thinking skills. Scientists have been studying this disease for decades and have yet to come up with any drug that can cure or help cure this disease, until recently that is. Cramer of Western Reserve University School of Medicine in Cleveland took a drug called bexarotene and injected it into mice that have Alzheimer’s. Bexarotene has been around for over ten years and is used as a second treatment of T-cell lymphoma. Cramer and her colleagues studied mice whose brains were full of both types of A-beta plaques. A-beta called amylod-beta exists in small fragments that scramble the nerve cell communication and there are large sticky clumps called plaques. The team gave a dose of the bexarotene to the mice and watched over the next fourteen days to see what would happen. Within the first twenty-four hours the levels of A-beat plaque fell by 25 percent and within the 14 days after given the bexarotene the mice A-beta plaques fell by 75 percent. Bexarotene targets the protein that carries ApoE and tries to regulate it from causing Alzheimer’s. ApoE is a big cause of Alzheimer’s as it tries to carry A-beta from the brain. Cramer ran another test of the memory of the mice. Cramer noted that generally when you put...

Words: 664 - Pages: 3