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Carbon Footprinting & Solar Power Technology

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A REPORT ON
CARBON FOOTPRINTING &
SOLAR POWER TECHNOLOGY

BIRLA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE
PILANI

A REPORT ON
CARBON FOOTPRINTING &
SOLAR POWER TECHNOLOGY

Prepared By:
Saurabh Khandelwal (2008B3A3687P) Utkarsh Goklani (2008B3A1685P)

Prepared For:
Dr. Ajit Pratap SIngh

Report submitted in partial fulfilment of requirements of
BITS C323
Study Oriented Project
NOVEMBER 2011

Acknowledgement

We would like to express our sincere gratitude to all those who gave us the possibility to work on this topic. We would like to thank Dr. Ajit Pratap Singh Sir for helping us choose this topic and guiding us throughout the report. His constant encouragement and infinite support were the key ingredients of our report. We are deeply indebted to Dean ESD Prof. Rajiv Gupta and the faculty members for providing us with the information required in the project. Finally, we would like to thank our college BITS PILANI for providing an opportunity to do this informative report.

Abstract

Carbon Credits are a tradable permit scheme under United Nations Framework Convention for Climate Change (UNFCCC) which give the owner the right to emit one metric tonne of carbon-di-oxide equivalent. They provide an efficient mechanism to reduce the green house gas emissions by monetizing the reduction in emissions. Rural India has a tremendous potential to earn carbon credits by setting up household based energy substitution or fuel switching projects like biogas plants, solar cookers and solar cells, smokeless chulhas etc. In this study, we propose setting up of a 5MW solar power plant so as to offset the carbon emissions produced by the villages under consideration and BITS. The basis of this model is the research study conducted in villages of Jhunjhunu district of Rajasthan, India spanning a population of around 35,000 people.

2. Introduction

Global warming is an imminent catastrophe with irreversible consequences. The Kyoto Protocol was formed in 1997 by the UNFCCC to combat global warming which has essentially set the guidelines for carbon emissions control as shown in Figure 1. The mechanism was formalized in the Kyoto Protocol, an international agreement between more than 170 countries, and the market mechanisms were agreed through the subsequent Marrakesh Accords.

Figure 1: Mechanisms under Kyoto Protocol

Figure 2: Working Criteria
Amongst the developing nations, India is considered as one of the largest beneficiary of the carbon trade through the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM).

Therefore this project deals with study of carbon credits and its implications in BITS and adjoining areas.

3. Background

Global warming is caused due to the emission of greenhouse gases which get trapped in the atmosphere. The major green house gases are the following: carbon-di-oxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydroflourocarbons, perflourocarbons and sulphur hexafluoride as given in Table 1.

Greenhouse Gas | Global Warming Potential | Carbon-di-oxide | 1 | Methane | 21 | Nitrous Oxide | 310 | Hydroflourocarbons | 140-11,700 | Perflourocarbons | 7000-9200 | Sulphur Hexaflouride | 23,900 |

Table 1: Global Warming Potential of different green house gases

The outcomes of a CDM project must be aligned with the criteria for sustainable development of the host country. Clearance for sustainability is granted by the National CDM Authority and spearheaded by the Union ministry of environment and forests. The basic tenets of sustainable development are economic, environmental and technological well being.

4. Methodology of Execution
The Methodology of Execution consisted of the following stages:
4.1. Survey-1
The first stage of the research study included survey and study of current carbon emissions produced by BITS Pilani.
Parameters considered: * Average electricity bill of different hostels. * No. of students in different hostels. * No. of faculty members and their family members * No. of non-faculty members and their family members * Average electricity bill of faculty and non-faculty member’s homes. * LPG cylinder usage of faculty and non-faculty members’ houses and hostel messes. * Average electricity consumption of institute buildings. * Transport usage by faculty and non-faculty members.

4.2. Survey-2
Surveys were conducted in villages spanning the district of Jhunjhunu, Rajasthan, India. The basic aim of the survey was to calculate the carbon emissions produced by the daily activities of the village inhabitants.
Parameters considered: * Electricity Consumption * Emissions from cattle dung * LPG cylinders consumption

4.3 Selection of 5MW Solar Power Plant
Solar energy is an unlimited energy resource, set to become increasingly important in the longer term, for providing electricity and heat energy on a large scale. It is an energy resource that could be used in large, centralized power generation plants; smaller distributed heat and power plants; or scaled down, at the individual consumer level. Solar energy technology is technically proven and draws on an inexhaustible primary energy resource. Carbon emissions and greenhouse gas impacts are very low.

Figure 3: Methodology flowchart

5. Results and Discussions
Survey and Analyses

5.1. BITS PILANI (Calculations)

ELECTRICITY USAGE RECODED IN DIFFERENT PARTS OF CAMPUS:

Table 2.1: Electricity consumption in the campus (Source: Engineering Services Division, BITS Pilani)

Table 2.2: Electricity consumption in the campus
(Source: Engineering Services Division, BITS Pilani)

ELECTRICITY USAGE OF DIFFERNT WATER PUMPS RECODED:

Table 2.3: Electricity consumption of the water pumps in the campus
(Source: Engineering Services Division, BITS Pilani)

NO. OF STUDENTS IN DIFFEREST HOSTELS:

| | Table 2.4: Population of students(Source: Students’ Welfare Division, BITS Pilani) | |

AVG ELECTRICTY BILL FOR DIFFERENT HOSTELS: | | KRISHNA | 219.5 | VK | 220.7 | ASHOK | 304 | GANDHI | 201 | SHANKAR | 174 | BUDDHA | 220.4 | RAM | 247 | RP | 265.3 | BG | 250.7 | MALVIYA | 270.67 | MALVIYA EXT | 280.40 | VYAS | 218.83 | MEERA | 285.50 |
Table 2.5.1: Electricity consumption for different hostels (monetary terms)(Source: Students’ Welfare Division, BITS Pilani)AVG UNITS OF ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION IN HOSTELS IN A MONTH: | | | | Table 2.5.2: Electricity consumption for different hostels (units)(Source: Students’ Welfare Division, BITS Pilani) | |

Useful Information required in calculationsNO. OF FACULTY STAFF=340NO. OF NON-FACULTY STAFF=240Some Information and inferences from the survey forms: 1. Avg. no. of family members of faculty and non-faculty staff=4 2. Avg. no. of LPG cylinder usage of faculty staffs per month=0.9*580=522 3. Avg. no. of LPG cylinder usage of all hostel messes=6.5*30*8=1560 4. Total CO2 emissions due to different transport usage=24.6595(25 FACULTY MEMBERS) 5. Hence average CO2 emissions due to different transport usage=1.3 Kg 6. Total staff and their family members in bits=580*4=2320Emission factors considered: 1. Electricity emission factor (kg of co2 equivalents emitted per unit of power generated) = 1.0 2. Transportation emission factors (kg of co2 equivalents emitted per passenger per km) 1. car = 0.22 2. motorcycle = 0.07 3. train = 0.1 4. bus = 0.026 5. airplane = 0.8 3. LPG conversion factor or kg. Of CO2 emitted=1.51 per litre usage of LPG gas. (in one cylinder of LPG used has 14.2 litres of gas)Numerical Analysis:Total electricity consumption per year= 3912056.4 kw-hr Total LPG cylinder usage=1560+522=2082 cylinders3912056.4 *1.0=3912056.4 kg of CO2 emitted because of electricity usage per year 20820*1.51*14.2=382525.28 kg of CO2 emitted because of LPG usage per year 1.3*30*12*580=271440 kg of CO2 emitted because of transport usage by staff per year Total of CO2 emission per year=4566.02168 tonnes of CO2 Total people in consideration in BITS=3015+2320=5335Per capita permissible emission under Kyoto protocol for India=0.93 tonnes per year= 0.775 tonnes per 9 months Total permissible emission for BITS=5335*0.775=4134.625 tonnes EXTRA EMISSIONS BY BITS= 4566.02168 – 4134.625=431.39668 tonnes5.2. VILLAGES (Calculations) 1. Avg. Monthly Electricity bill = Rs. 500 2. Avg. no. of units of electricity in a month ( assuming per unit of electricity costing Rs 3.5/unit): 143 3. Avg. No. of Cattle in a household = 1 buffalo, 2 cows * Emissions from cattle dung taken into consideration 4. Avg. No. of LPG cylinders used (per month) = 1 cylinder 5. Avg. No. of members in a household = 5 6. Avg. No. of people under consideration = 35000 7. Avg. No. of households = 7000Emission factors considered:Electricity conversion factor or kg. of CO2 emitted =1.0 per kw-hr usage of electricityLPG conversion factor or kg. Of CO2 emitted=1.51 per litre usage of LPG gas. (in one cylinder of LPG used has 14.2 litres of gas)Numerical Analysis:Emission from cattle dung=1 tonnes per year Total electricity consumption per year= 143*30*7000=30030000 kw-hrTotal LPG cylinder usage=7000*12=84000Total buffaloes and cows=3*7000=2100030030000*1= 30030000 kg of CO2 emitted because of electricity usage per year84000*1.51*14.2=1801128 kg of CO2 emitted because of LPG usage per year 21000*1=21000 tonnes of CO2 emitted because of cattle dungTotal of CO2 emission per year=52831.128 tonnes of CO2 Total people in consideration in BITS=35000Per capita permissible emission under Kyoto protocol for India=0.93 tonnes per year Total permissible emission of villages combined= 32550 tonnes of CO2EXTRA EMISSIONS BY VILLAGES= 52831.128-32550= 20281.128 tonnesEnergy consumption pattern in BITS Pilani ENERGY CONSUMPTION FOR ROOMS ( ONE HOSTEL)4 wings of double rooms – 9 rooms in each wingEach room has two tube lightsThus total tube lights = 7216 wings – of single rooms – 12 rooms in each wingEach room has one tube lightThus Total tube lights=192Total tube lights=264 On an avg. each tube light, left open even when not in use= 1 hrThus Rating of Tube light=60 wattsThus electricity being wasted =264*1*60= 15.84 units( kw-hr) of electricity dailyThus annually electricity being wasted= 15.84*240=3801.6 unitsKg. of CO2 emitted= 1.0 per unit of electricity consumedTherefore Annual emissions that can be saved= 3801.6 kg of CO2= 3.8016 tonnes of CO2ENERGY CONSUMPTION FOR CORRIDORS(ONE HOSTEL) Existing :16 wings * 2 bulbs * 25 watts=800 watts16 wings * 1 tube light * 40 watts= 640 watts4 wings * 4 tube light * 40 watts= 640 wattsTotal= 2080 wattsAverage Total daily consumption = 2080 * 10 hrs= 20.8 units of electricityAs Planned: 16 wings * 2 CFL * 11 watts = 352 watts16 wings * 1 CFL * 15 watts = 240 watts4 wings * 4 CFL * 15 watts= 240 wattsTotal = 832 wattsAverage Total daily consumption =832 * 10= 8.3 units of electricity Daily savings= 12.5 units * Rs 7= Rs 87.5 Annual savings = Rs 87.5 * 240= Rs 23,625One time CFL purchase cost32(15 watt) CFL * 170= Rs 544032(11 watt) CFL * 120= Rs 3840Total = Rs 9280Hence Annual savings= Rs 14,345Thus annually units of electricity saved = 14345/ 7= 2049.29 unitsKilogram of CO2 emitted= 1.15 per units usage of electricity Total emissions that can be saved= 2049.29 * 1 =2049.29 kg of CO2= 2.05 tonnes of CO2ENERGY CONSUMPTION FOR LAPTOPS AND DESKTOPS( ONE HOSTEL) CALCULATIONS: Total number of students = 301585% students have either Laptop or desktop ( 2680 students)5% students have desktop[ data collected by conducting survey in one of the hostel]Thus around 130 desktops and 2550 laptops Generally desktops rating 150-200 watts [ average is 175 watts]And Laptop rating is 15-25 watts[ average is 20 watts]130 *[ 175-20] watts that can be saved by using laptops instead of desktopTherefore 20.15 units is being wasted daily. Assuming conversion factor = 1.0 kg of CO2 for every unit use of electricityThus emission can be reduced daily = 20.15 * 1.0= 20.15 kg of CO2Annual emission controlled = 240 * 20.15 kg= 5.5614 tonnes of CO2SOLAR POWER PLANTOpportunity for solar energy in IndiaIndia has 200 clear sunny days in a year (theoretical solar power reception), just on its land area, is about 5EWh/year (5EWh/yr=5 Exa Watt Hour per year = 5000 trillion kWh/yr ~ 600 TW) enough for the entire country‘s demand. The daily average solar energy incident over India varies from 4 to 7 kWh/m2 with about 2300 - 3200 sunshine hours per year, depending upon location. These figures give us an indication of the amount of opportunities available in the field of PV and Solar based equipments. Solar power, being a renewable resource is also promoted by the government. Solar generation technology options4.1 GeneralThe solar energy electricity technologies considered for the project, solar PV and solar thermal are presented in this section. A brief description of the technologies and their commercial status follows.4.2 Solar photovoltaic (PV) optionsPV generation technology is commercially proven and large multi-megawatt generation plants have been operating since the 1990s. Costs associated with the technology are high, but the technology is well- known and reliable. The largest plants are based on fixed solar panels inclined at latitude angle. PV panels silently convert sunlight to electrical energy. They generate direct current (DC) that is converted to alternating current (AC) to be used by the electricity grid.PV systems are rated for capacity in watts (or kW or MW) with the designation 'peak' (e.g. kW (p), MW (p)). This refers to the practice of rating the PV cells at internationally recognized standard conditions that include temperature and wavelength of sunlight.4.2.1Fixed flat panel PVThe simplest configuration for a PV system is a fixed position flat panel module. Generally for 'all round' performance, the module is inclined at the site‘s latitude angle. A fixed flat panel system has no moving parts and offers the solution with the least ongoing cost of the PV options. Its output will however be less per module than the PV systems that track the Sun.4.2.2 Tracking flat panel PVA tracking array can move on one or two axes in order to expose the PV module surface to follow the Sun and capture the greatest amount of solar radiation possible. Compared to a fixed system, a tracking system will provide a greater electrical output per module. It will also have both a higher capital and operating/maintenance cost due to the more complex mounting system.4.2.3 Concentrating photovoltaic (CPV)In order to reduce the net cost of the expensive PV cells, mirrors or lenses can be used to focus energy onto a smaller area of PV material. Due to the high solar concentration, this system generates waste heat that must be dissipated. If a use for this relatively low grade heat can be found, such as water heating, the overall system efficiency would be increased.44.3 Solar thermal optionsSolar thermal energy systems use the Sun to supply heat, such as for solar water heating, and in higher temperature systems that produce sufficient energy to drive machines for power generation. The latter is the subject of this study. There are a number of solar thermal technologies that are considered for power generation. These are:

Lower temperature applications such as solar ponds and solar chimneys; and concentrating solar thermal power (CST).4.3.1 Lower temperature solar thermal systemsSolar pondsA solar pond is a reservoir of salty water that stores solar heat and uses this heat for power generation or other applications. Solar ponds up to 5 MW (e) have been developed and operated in Israel, but are not currently developed for large scale commercial power generation.Solar chimneyIn a solar chimney, an upward flow of air is induced by heating the air at the base of a tall chimney. The airflow up the chimney drives a turbine which generates electricity.4.3.2 Concentrating solar thermal (CST) power systemsCST systems concentrate and collect solar energy. The concentrated solar energy generates high temperature heat for use in an otherwise conventional thermal electricity generation plant.There are three main components of a CST generating plant: 1.

the solar concentrator which is a reflection or diffraction system that collects and concentrates the energy from the Sun; 2.

the solar energy receiver that absorbs the concentrated solar energy and converts it to us ea b le heat to run the generation plant, and 3.

electricity generating plant that uses the heat collected from the sun to produce electricity.Parabolic troughIn a parabolic trough system, the solar field consists of parallel rows of large reflective parabolic troughs that focus solar energy onto a central receiver tube where it is absorbed. The troughs rotate on one axis to follow the Sun throughout the day. A working fluid, usually oil, is circulated through the receiver and heated to temperatures of around 400ºC (typically). The absorbed heat is used to generate steam for use in a conventional steam turbine generator. Some other trough developments generate steam directly.Of the main solar thermal technologies, troughs have by far the most commercial experience and now appear to be favored by commercial developers.Power towerIn recent years, tower systems have been attracting significant research and development investment, and this type of solar thermal technology continues to develop. With a receiver located in a central tower where the solar radiation can be concentrated up to 600 times, these systems can achieve temperatures of around 1,000ºC, or about 2.5 times that of troughs. These higher temperatures have the potential to lead to significant improvements in energy conversion efficiency.The three main components of a power tower system are heliostats (reflectors), receiver(s) and the tower(s).Fresnel systemThe Fresnel solar collector is based on a development of this concept - where a number of discrete mirrors approximate a large parabolic trough collector, and are used with a large linear solar receiver. This linear receiver has important engineering advantages - it is fixed, it does not have the mechanical complexity of the moveable receivers used on solar troughs and dishes and it does not require flexible connections between the receiver and the piping systems that carry heated fluids or steam to the centralized boiler or engine.ECONOMIC ADVANTAGES INVOLVEDThe vast Rajasthan Desert is very similar to the Sahara desert in Africa, and has the potential to become the largest solar power plant in India. Due to high levels of available sunlight, CSP plants in Rajasthan could begin satisfying most of India’s energy needs in just a few years.Today’s solar plants supply the heat needed to generate electricity at a cost equivalent to $50 – $60 per barrel of oil. This cost is expected to be slashed by 50% to below $25 – $30 per barrel in the next 10 years. | Coal | B:91.50–91.72
Br:94.33
88 | B:2.62–2.85]
Br:3.46
3.01 | B:863–941
Br:1,175
955[3] | Oil | 73 | 3.40 | 893 | Natural gas | cc:68.20 oc:68.40 51 | cc:2.35 oc:3.05 | cc:575 oc:751 599 | Geothermal
Power | 3~ | | TL0–1
TH91–122 | Uranium
Nuclear power | | WL0.18
WH0.20 | WL60
WH65 | Hydroelectricity | | 0.046 | 15 | Conc. Solar Pwr | | | 40±15# | Photovoltaics | | 0.33 | 106 | Wind power | | 0.066 | 21 | Table 3: Emission factors of common fuelsThus, we can clearly see that concentrated solar power emits 20-25 times less CO2 than coal based electricity.STEPS TO REDUCE OUR CARBON FOOTPRINT RECYCLING ELECTRONICS : 1. Give cell phones back to their manufacturers or donate them to charity. 2. Keep old TVs out of landfills by taking them to a safe e-cycling facility. 3. Do Laundry In Cold Water: * 90% of the energy used in washing clothing is from heating the water. 4. If you wash 80% or 4 out of 5 loads on cold/cold, you'll cut 72 pounds of CO2 emission in one month. 5. If you wash 80% of your laundry on cold/cold for a year, you should save from $60-100 on your energy bills.ENERGY:Lighting is responsible for about 11 percent of a home's energy bills. By turning off lights you don't need, You begin saving right away, and will extend the lifetime of all those bulbs. 1. Turn Off Your Computer at Night (Turn off your monitor if you aren't going to use it for more than 20 minutes, and the whole system if you're not going to use it for more than two hours) 2. Use a Laptop Instead of a Desktop (Laptop computers draw only 15 to 25 watts during regular use, as compared to the 150 watts used by a conventional desktop computer and monitor) SAVING FUEL:Drive slower: Driving just 15 km/hr slower can reduce fuel consumption by 20 percent. Reduce air drag: According to estimation you can save 80 to 100 litres of fuel per year if you take off a roof rack just half the time. Don’t idle: For modern cars, it’s better to turn off your car if you’re parked for more than 10 seconds. Your car will last longer, and help the environment. Idling emits 20 times more pollution than a car driving at 50 km/hr. LONG-TERM SAVING TIPS 1. Look for the ENERGY STAR and Energy Guide labels. ENERGY STAR clothes washers clean clothes using 50% less energy than standard washers. 2. When shopping for a new clothes dryer, look for one with a moisture sensor that automatically Shuts off the machine when your clothes are dry. 3. ENERGY STAR does not label clothes dryers because most of them use similar amounts of energy, which means there is little difference in energy use between models.SAVING ENERGY AT HOME: 4. Pack a litter less lunch whenever possible, avoid plastic bags, aluminium foil, plastic wrap, 5. and pre-packaged foods. 6. Give your old stuff away, but also buy items second-hand. 7. Keep your windows extra clean to maximize all the light you can. 8. Install CFLs. 9. Unplug unused Chargers. 10. Clean the refrigerator coil once a year(not just saves energy but also increases the 11. efficiency of refrigerator). 12. Keep the refrigerator door closed as often as possible.Use Low-VOC(volatile organic compounds) paint: when they enter the air, they react with other elements to produce ozone, which causes air pollution and a host of health issues and they are also linked to cancer. TECHNOLOGY 1. Tell credit cards not to send more offers. 2. Ask companies to stop sending catalogues. 3. Send an e-Card Instead of a Paper Card 4. If you insist on sending paper cards, buy from local artists and reduce your carbon footprint. 5. Check out what the gadget experts say before buying:
Take a look at expert sources to help you make comparisons among gadgets before purchasing. This will help you find the most energy efficient and eco-friendly items available to you. 1. Buy used gadgets.
Buying a pre-owned electronic accomplishes two excellent goals. First, you help to extend the Lifetime of the gadget, lowering its carbon footprint, and secondly, you save money. SAMPLE SURVEY FORM (BITS) 1. Name : 2. How many people live in your home: IF APPLICABLE: 1. Vehicles of usage and Km. of daily usage: 1. CAR 2. SCOOTER 3. SCOOTY 4. MOTORCYCLE 5. PUBLIC BUS 1. How many km. In a month you use Rail transport? 2. How many km. In month you use air transport? Specify your destination, generally? 3. What is your LPG Cylinder usage(Give no. Of cylinders)? 4. What is your avg. Monthly electric bill? 5. Do you recycle the following items at Home (Yes or No in column B)? 1. Newspaper 2. Aluminium and steel cans 3. Plastic 4. Glass 1. How many Tube Lights you are using at your home in a day and hours of usage? 2. How many AC, FANS, and COOLERS in summers you are using in a day? 3. How many Hours in winters you are using geysers and electrical heaters? 4. Are you planning to buy a new vehicle? Would you compromise on the looks for more mileage? 5. Will you avoid using Electrical Heater during winters for half an hour? 6. Will you replace your tube lights with CFL’s? 7. Will you replace your old refrigerator with an ENERGY STAR model? 8. Will you replace old gas or oil furnace or boiler with an ENERGY STAR model? 9. Will you avoid using air conditioner for half an hour a day? 10. Are you willing to recycle the materials you don’t currently recycle? 11. Are you willing to recycle magazines?CONCLUSIONSThe most important question that comes into the minds of all is: what is the advantage of investing such a huge amount in green technology and eco-friendly lifestyle? The answer lies in the current state of the world and our country. Of the total power produced in India, the major source is coal followed by oil & gas which are followed by renewable sources. Coal is the cheapest form of energy but has a great impact on the environment due to the pollution created by it. Renewable sources used for power generation are only about 12 % in India. Thus, the importance of the oldest energy source on earth – solar power cannot be overlooked. India is a tropical country and has many sunny days. According to estimates, 35 MW of power could be generated from 1 sq km.As students of BITS, Pilani and torch bearers of our country, it’s our prime duty to think of long term and carry out long term initiatives that is not only beneficial for us but also for our surroundings and the people dependent on us. We strongly believe that long term planning of adopting such basic so called green initiative will not only bring about a change in the economy of PILANI as a whole but will also be an example before other educational institutes.REFERENCESInformation regarding 1. Faculty and Non-faculty members – Survey form 2. Institute – ESD 3. Hostels – SWD 4. Messes – Mess Managers 5. Conversion factors – www.cleanindia.org (website which introduced carbon trading in India). 6. www.kyotoprotocol.com 7. www.sayno2co2.com | |

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