Free Essay

Carbon Nanotubes

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By abmanas12
Words 735
Pages 3




This paper talks about Carbon Nanotubes. It explores their Mechanical, Electrical and

Thermal properties. Carbon Nanotubes are basically allotropes of Carbon and have

nanostructure , which in turn is cylindrical in shape. These have proved to be a very

valuable invention and are increasingly finding usage in manufacturing of high quality

products owing to their properties like immense strength and unique electrical properties.

They are among the stiffest and strongest fibers known till date.



Recent researches have time and again revealed that Nanotubes are and can be ultimate

High strength Fibers. They have extraordinarily high tensile strength and elastic modulus

which is one of the prime reason for the stiffness and strength that they possess. They

have generally been found to be flexible and stretchable and continue behaving so under

normal conditions.

Though, under excessive tensile strain, tubes undergo plastic deformation, which means

permanent deformation. Also, weak shear interactions between adjacent shells and tubes

lead in reduction in the effective strength of carbon nanotubes , specially, Multi-walled

nanotubes. Under pressure, nanotubes are weaker and tend to undergo buckling primarily

due to their hollow structures.

All said, future prospect of nanotubes looks bright as it is hoped to assist scientists in

manufacturing products, which are strong and have strength to undergo intense pressure.

Nanotube’s mechanical properties might fuel production of items, which eventually turn

out as boon for mankind.

Eventually, we reach at a conclusion that Carbon Nanotubes are strong and flexible fibers

which present great hope for future.



Electrical properties of carbon nanotubes have always amazed and interested the

scientist’s fraternity. Several high level researches have been done to accurately gauge

and identify the correct electrical properties of nanotubes. It is believed and somewhat

has been established that Carbon nanotubes are different as far as electrical properties

like Conductivity, resistivity, carrier mobility are concerned.

Structure of nanotubes strongly effects their electrical properties. Their Conductivity is a

function of their chirality, the degree of twists and their diameters. Tests have found out

that single walled carbon fibers are the most conductive carbon fibers known so far.

Results suggest that Carbon nanotubes have high carrier mobility’s values and hence can

be an excellent material for number of semiconductor applications, especially in High-

Speed transistors where mobility is very important.

A very interesting property of carbon nanotubes is that their electrical resistivity changes

very quickly when other molecules attach them to the carbon atoms. This property

combined with the inherent property of low electrical resistance of carbon nanotubes

might do wonders and may result in major breakthroughs in scientific arena.

It has recently been revealed that single-walled can route electrical signals at speed up to

10 GHz .

These properties of carbon nanotubes are being exploited to develop next generation

electrical solutions for high-speed communication , which are energy efficient too.


Carbon nanotubes are considered extremely fine thermal conductors. They exhibit a

property called ‘Ballistic Conduction’, which finds its origin in the extremely powerful

conducting capabilities of carbon nanotubes. Tests have revealed their thermal conductivity

around 9-10 times more than the thermal conductivity of copper, a metal indeed known

for its good thermal conductivity.

This record-setting anisotropic thermal conductivity of carbon nanotubes is enabling

applications where heat needs to move from one place to another. This , quite evidently,

also supports the long held view that carbon nanotubes are very good conductors of

heat. Theoretical work predicts that carbon nanotubes have room-temperature thermal

conductivity larger than graphite and diamond.

The Thermal conductivity for carbon nanotubes is found to increase and then decrease

with the tube elongation from an axially compressed state to a stretched state. It has

been proved that radial phonon modes, especially the high-frequency modes play a

dominant role in heat conduction mechanism of carbon nanotubes.

Owing to these thermal properties , carbon nanotubes are used in variety of fuel cell

components. They have proved to be outstanding material for super capacitor electrodes (

primarily due to their thermal properties).








Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Carbon Footprint

...Carbon footprint. What is your carbon footprint? That’s a question I was not prepared for. I had no clue what a carbon footprint was or how to even answer that question. I was worried I would never understand what was being asked of me. Luckily my sociology teacher provided a website that would give me better understanding of what my carbon footprint was and how to break it down. The Nature Conservancy Carbon Calculator on had questions for me to answer that would determine how much carbon I was responsible for. According to the carbon calculator my estimated greenhouse gas emission is 39 tons of carbon dioxide a year whereas the average person releases 27 tons in a year ( Out of the estimated tons of carbon I release in a year, 83.3 % has to do with home energy. I have a detached, single family home with 2 bedrooms, and that makes my estimated impact jump to 27 tons of carbon dioxide a year ( When I was heating and cooling my home I didn’t think twice when adjusting my thermostat. If I was hot I would turn the air down, when cold the heat went up. By doing that I was causing an estimated impact of 2.5 tons of CO2 per year. ( There are other things in which I produce different amounts of CO2, driving my big Ford F150 roughly 30 miles in a week puts out an estimated 1.4 tons of CO2 per year ( I eat red meat most days but I don’t eat it with every meal. My red meat consumption has an estimated impact of 4.1 tons of......

Words: 865 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Carbon Nanotubes Many cancer victims succumb to cancer not because of the primary tumor, but the systematic effects of metastases on other regions away from the affected site. Therefore many treatment and research aim to prevent the metastatic process at the early period. There are currently many therapies in clinical use, and many advanced technologies that help to achieve better result and nanotechnology is the potential candidate to fight against cancer. Nano-materials such as Carbon-nanotubes (CNTs)1, quantum dot, and dendrimers all have unique properties that can be taken advantage of for diagnosis and treatment of cancer. CNTs have the potential to deliver many types of drug directly to targeted cells and tissues at a much higher efficiency compared to the conventional methods. With the help of many recent discoveries in nanotechnology based materials, determining the toxicity of nanoparticles is also a very important task. Thus, in this review, the experiment aims to explore the biomedical application of carbon-nanotubes with the particular emphasis on the use as oncologic therapeutic agent. Introduction United States holds number 7 in the top ten highest overall cancer rates at 300 per 100,000 of the population. The most common types of cancer among the admitted patients are lung, colon and breast cancer. Base on the mortality rate in 2008, lung and colon cancer are responsible for the majority of the deceased victims. At this point, the main and most widely used treatment for......

Words: 1186 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Carbon Footprint

...The term ‘carbon footprint’ has become tremendously popular over the last few years and is now in widespread use across the media. With climate change high up on the political and corporate agenda, carbon footprint calculations are in strong demand. Numerous approaches have been proposed to provide estimates, ranging from basic online calculators to sophisticated life-cycle analysis or input-output-based methods and tools. Despite its ubiquitous use however, there is an apparent lack of academic definitions of what exactly a ‘carbon footprint’ is meant to be. The scientific literature is surprisingly void of clarifications, despite the fact that countless studies in energy and ecological economics that could have claimed to measure a ‘carbon footprint’ have been published over decades. This report explores the apparent discrepancy between public and academic use of the term ‘carbon footprint’ and suggests a scientific definition based on commonly accepted accounting principles and modelling approaches. It addresses methodological question such as system boundaries, completeness, comprehensiveness, units and robustness of the indicator. >>> Processes causing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions benefit humans by providing consumer goods and services. This benefit, and hence the responsibility for emissions, varies by purpose or consumption category and is unevenly distributed across and within countries. We quantify greenhouse gas emissions associated with the final consumption...

Words: 2231 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Nanotubos de Carbon

...tecnología podría cambiar drásticamente el futuro. __ Palabras Clave -- Configuración, Nanotubos, Características, Aplicaciones, Futuro. __ Abstract -- A carbon nanotube is a very small set of atoms of this element in a cylindrical shape. In this paper we review the structure and main characteristics of these elements, their discovery and the current and future applications of this elements, also makes mention of the various current problems and how this technology will be able to change drastically the future. . Keywords -- Configuration, Nanotubes, Features, Applications, Future. 1. Introducción La nanotecnología promete ser la revolución tecnológica de los años venideros por ello es de vital importancia el notar como se han mejorado las distintas características de los materiales con el uso de la nanociencia y las nanotecnologías, el objetivo de este trabajo es hacer una revisión de la estructura, principales características y aplicaciones de los nanotubos de carbono, este documento pretende ser una guía informativa para todo aquel que esté interesado en el desarrollo de esta reciente tecnología. [9, 8] [pic] Figura 1: Algunos alótropos del carbono: a) Diamante, b) Grafito, c) Nanotubo de carbono 2. Nanotubos de Carbono 1. Definición Los nanotubos de carbono (del inglés Carbon Nanotube o CNT) son alótropos de este mismo elemento con una nano estructura cilíndrica, la alotropía es la propiedad que poseen algunos elementos químicos de......

Words: 3248 - Pages: 13

Free Essay

Carbon Nanotube

...TERM PAPER OF CHEMISTRY TOPIC: CARBON NANOTUBE Submitted to Submit by: Mr. Balwant Singh Bhist Mr.Shailja Kant yadav Deptt. Of CHEMISTRY Roll. No. : - A02 Sec: - RC5911 REG NO.:-10905256 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I take this opportunity to present my vote of thanks to all those guidepost who really acted as lightening pillars to enlighten our way throughout this project that has led to successful and satisfactory completion of this study. I would express my sincere gratitude to my parents for trusting and investing in me and my future and providing for all my needs and requirements. I also express my deep sense of gratitude to my teacher, Mr. Balwant Singh Bhist – Department of Chemistry, Lovely Professional University for her constant guidance and kind support throughout this project. I am heartily thankful to my friends Anil Choudhary, Pratik Anand, Suresh Hembrom for helping me with their thoughtful......

Words: 3070 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Carbon Accounting

...Administration (EMBA) course requirement, we are assigned the topic “Carbon Accounting” by our course teacher for accomplishing our report. 1.2 Objectives of the report ➢ To attain the skill of report writing. ➢ To achieve deep knowledge about Carbon Accounting. ➢ To fulfill the partial requirement of our course of Accounting for Managers. 1.3 Methodology of the report This study was a descriptive research where we have been analyzed mainly secondary data to understand the Carbon Accounting and its application. All the data has gathered for report writing during term. Information collected to furnish this report is mainly from secondary in nature such as related books, journals, periodicals and Websites etc. 1.4 Limitations of the report We have tried our level best to find out the opportunity of work for overcoming the limitation but due to shortage of time, official compulsion and lack of availability of required data it was not possible to collect huge information about the topic. Other limitation is our report is mostly text based. 1.5 What is Carbon Accounting? Carbon accounting refers generally to processes undertaken to "measure" amounts of carbon dioxide equivalents emitted by an entity. It is used by nation states, corporations and individuals. It is the process of measuring, monitoring, benchmarking and reporting an organization Greenhouse Gas Emissions in a defined reporting period. Carbon Accounting is not is a greener form of financial......

Words: 5831 - Pages: 24

Premium Essay

Carbon Footprinting

...CARBON FOOTPRINTS OF STUDENTS OF SCMS-UG, PUNE Name : Amogh Koranmath Class : TY -C PRN No: 11020621035 INTRODUCTION What is Carbon Footprint A carbon footprint is defined as the total amount of greenhouse gases produced to directly and indirectly support human activities, usually expressed in equivalent tons of carbon dioxide (CO2). In other words: When you drive a car, the engine burns fuel which creates a certain amount of CO2, depending on its fuel consumption and the driving distance. (CO2 is the chemical symbol for carbon dioxide). When you heat your house with oil, gas or coal, then you also generate CO2. Even if you heat your house with electricity, the generation of the electrical power may also have emitted a certain amount of CO2. When you buy food and goods, the production of the food and goods also emitted some quantities of CO2. Your carbon footprint is the sum of all emissions of CO2 (carbon dioxide), which were induced by your activities in a given time frame. Usually a carbon footprint is calculated for the time period of a year. A carbon footprint has historically been defined by Championne as "the total sets of greenhouse gas emissions caused by an organization, event, product or person. Greenhouse gases can be emitted through transport, land clearance, and the production and consumption of food, fuels, manufactured goods, materials, wood, roads, buildings, and services. For simplicity of reporting, it is often expressed in......

Words: 910 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Fabrication and Electrochemical Behavior of Vertically-Aligned Carbon Nanotube Electrodes Covalently Attached to P-Type Silicon Via a Thioester Linkage

...Fabrication and electrochemical behavior of vertically-aligned carbon nanotube electrodes covalently attached to p-type silicon via a thioester linkage Zihan Poh, Benjamin S. Flavel, Cameron J. Shearer, Joseph G. Shapter, Amanda V. Ellis ⁎ Flinders University, School of Chemistry, Physics and Earth Sciences, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA, 5001, Australia a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t Article history: Received 7 October 2008 Accepted 23 December 2008 Available online 6 January 2009 Keywords: Carbon nanotubes Thioester Surfaces Nanomaterials Sensors Silicon Vertically-aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) (VACNTs) are becoming increasingly recognized due to their fast electron transfer rates. However, the chemistry available for further functionalizing these electrodes is limited. Here we describe a new approach to the fabrication of VACNTs. SWCNTs were covalently attached to a p-type silicon (100) (Si) wafer surface using a thioester linkage in which the nanotubes were firstly acid treated and then, in the presence of a hydroxylated Si wafer surface, reacted with phosphorus pentasulfide (a mild electrophilic catalyst). The novel nanostructure was characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM) showing vertical alignment with FTIR spectroscopy indicating pendant thiocarboxylic acid groups for further reaction. In addition, electrochemical properties using cyclic voltammetry indicate that the electrodes have excellent electrochemical......

Words: 806 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

The Uses of the Nanotechnology Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene.

...The Uses of The Nanotechnology Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene. This report will be about the scientific research and development, Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene. I will be covering the advances it could create, as well as the hurdles it will be experiencing during its research of both. While Carbon Nanotubes are soon to be obsolete to Graphene, it presents a foundation for the development and inspiration of Graphene. First I will start with carbon nanotubes. The way carbon nanotubes are produced is through multiple growth methods. One of them is Arc Discharge, which is done by running a 100 amp current through the carbon soot of graphite electrodes. It produces 30% of the weight into both single and multi-walled nanotubes with lengths of up to 50 micrometers with structural defects. Another method is Chemical Vapor Deposition, which uses a substrate that contains metal particles, commonly nickel, cobalt, iron, or a combination. The substrate is heated to approximately 700°C, and then they bleed two gases into the reactor: a process gas like ammonia, nitrogen, or hydrogen, and a carbon-containing gas like acetylene, ethylene, ethanol or methane. Once that, and a couple other, more complex processes are performed, the carbon-containing gas is broken down, and the carbon is transported to the edges of the particle and the substrate, where it forms the nanotubes. The mechanism is still being studied, and others are also being performed as well as other methods of......

Words: 877 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Carbon Lab

...DATA TABLES: CARBON CYCLE LESSON 1 Lesson 1: Step 1 | Gaseous Carbon | Ocean Water | Fossil Fuels | Biosphere Gaseous Carbon | To Year | Atmosphere | Ocean Surface | Deep Ocean | Oil and Gas | Coal | Soil | Terrestrial Plants | 2000 | 375ppm | 1000 | 38000 | 500 | 2000 | 2000 | 700 | 2050 | 446ppm | 1074 | 38189 | 168 | 1818 | 2037 | 752 | 2100 | 754ppm | 1197 | 38699 | 0 | 676 | 2098 | 833 | Lesson 1:Step 2 | Total Carbon Emissions | Gaseous Carbon | Ocean Water | Fossil Fuels | Biosphere Gaseous Carbon | To Year | Smokestack | Atmosphere | Ocean Surface | Deep Ocean | Oil and Gas | Coal | Soil | Terrestrial Plants | 2000 | 0 | 371ppm | 1000 | 38000 | 500 | 2000 | 2000 | 700 | 2010 | 75 | 382ppm | 1031 | 38019 | 452 | 1974 | 2004 | 714 | 2020 | 87 | 398ppm | 1039 | 38049 | 396 | 1943 | 2012 | 724 | 2030 | 101 | 418ppm | 1049 | 38087 | 331 | 1907 | 2020 | 733 | 2040 | 117 | 440ppm | 1061 | 38133 | 255 | 1866 | 2029 | 742 | 2050 | 136 | 466ppm | 1074 | 38189 | 168 | 1818 | 2037 | 752 | 2060 | 157 | 497ppm | 1089 | 38255 | 66 | 1762 | 2046 | 763 | 2070 | 204 | 542ppm | 1108 | 38334 | 0 | 1623 | 2056 | 775 | 2080 | 270 | 604ppm | 1136 | 38433 | 0 | 1353 | 2068 | 792 | 2090 | 313 | 674ppm | 1165 | 38554 | 0 | 1040 | 2082 | 811 | 2100 | 364 | 754ppm | 1197 | 38699 | 0 | 676 | 2098 | 833 | Responses to questions | 1.If only one half of the flora in the world existed in 2100 (perhaps due to deforestation), what do youpredict the......

Words: 579 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

The Carbon

...starting. Through chaos life would form in so many years no one could count them. It would take a billion men a trillion years to hope to know when the first particles came over. This occurrence brought the pure substance, the first substance, the Great Carbon Essence. The Pure Carbon Essence seeped into our universe and soon there was no more space, so the universe moved. Expansion started as with any known civilization. Soon the Great Carbon Essence had moved trillions of miles and were content, but it was not so forever. For nothing good can stay. Particles were getting bunched, many wanted more space to move free. The universe was to slow. Some Essence took initiative and brought about a change. This was the beginning of change. Some of the Pure Essence exchanged with each other their innards and changed. They slowly began becoming tainted. Soon elements off all kinds formed and the Great Carbon Essence did away with them. There was an attempt to banish them through the cracks in the universe, into the void. These attempts ceased when the tainted became too many and soon the Great Carbon Essence dictated that if change be coming it had better be for a greater good. The tainted essences came together with the Great Carbon Essence and formation began. Particles came together, fused with one another, bonded. Clouds of dust and new gases expanded throughout our universe, all the while pushing outward. The boundaries of our universe continued to expand and these clouds......

Words: 712 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay


...The ratio of water loss to carbon gain, or water-use efficiency. suggest a partial closure of stomata1—small pores on the leaf surface that regulate gas exchange—to maintain a nearconstant concentration ofCO2 inside the leaf even under continually increasing atmospheric CO2 levels. photosynthesis indicates that increasing atmospheric CO2 should lead to an increase in both photosynthetic uptake and water-use efficiency4—that is, the ‘CO2 fertilization effect’. These include: climate change; nitrogen deposition and accumulation; changes in leaf area, canopy height, surface roughness and the coupling of the canopy to the atmosphere; and long-term instrument drift. This analysis shows that the general trend and magnitude of the increase inWei is independent of recent changes in environmental factors. The lack of a consistent trend in climatic forcing across all sites (with the exception of vapour pressure deficit, D) further suggests that changes in climatic drivers are not responsible for the consistent increase in Wei. potential drivers of the observed changes in Wei, the only driver that is changing sufficiently and consistently through time at all sites is atmospheric CO2. The direct tradeoff between water loss and carbon uptake through the stomata—equations (1) and (2)—means that, as water-use efficiency increases, either evapotranspiration (Ee) decreases or gross photosynthetic carbon uptake increases, or both occur simultaneously. balance.......

Words: 287 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay


...Carbon Emissions Josie Williams Bethel University November 10, 2015 Instructor: Dr. Red Prudhon Abstract Our nation has taken a very important step in slowing the making and use of ozone-destroying chemicals. Some simple things the everyday Americans can do to prevent future damage to the ozone layer and better use or conservation of carbon emissions is to become more educated on how to better make use of the chemicals already present in the environment and not produce more harmful chemicals. There are some simple measures that can be taken by just influencing the ability of natural cures, like rain forest, to remove CO2 from the atmosphere. Carbon Emissions Carbon emissions is one of the main greenhouse gases, it is a colorless, odorless gas that is naturally emitted from the earth’s surface, and through human function, respiration, and plant function, photosynthesis. Carbon dioxide is release when we exhale and is used by plants as necessary part of photosynthesis, which produces glucose, carbohydrate that must be consumed by humans in order to have energy. Also from these natural processes, carbon dioxide is also emitted through the combustion or burning of fossil fuels such as coals, oils, and natural gas. This happens when vehicles are driven as well as when power plants and industrial plants are utilized. Combustion also called burning......

Words: 975 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Carbon Accounting

...What is carbon accounting? Carbon accounting is measuring, monitoring, benchmarking and reporting an organizations green house gas emission in a given accounting period. Carbon Accounting is not is a greener form of financial accounting. How do you perform Carbon Accounting? First the type and amount of emissions for which the business is responsible is identified and calculated for tCO²-e (tonnes of CO² or equivalent) using internationally recognised methods. The result is a detailed account or inventory of a Businesses Emissions for a defined period in time. This inventory is then used in reporting emissions internally and recommending possible solutions for reduction of the business exposure to the cost of emissions. We simplify what can be a complex and involved process. * We Collect and Measure your Carbon Footprint using internationally recognised data collection and emissions data calculation standards from the Greenhouse Gas Protocol (GHG), the latest version of the National Greenhouse Accounts (NGA) Factors released by the Department of Climate Change and other reputable Australian and International sources. The Carbon and Carbon Equivalent Emissions are then reported with relevant business indicators which can be easily understood. * We Monitor and Report Carbon Emissions across an entire enterprise or supply chain and report those emissions for compliance, analysis and business forecasting. * We recommend Mitigation Strategies to Reduce Carbon Emissions...

Words: 765 - Pages: 4

Free Essay


...Science Publishers, Inc. Chapter APPLICATIONS OF CARBON NANOTUBES IN NONTRADITIONAL MACHINING AND MICROSCOPY Y.H. Guu1, C.C. Mai2 and H. Hocheng3,* 1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, National United University Miaoli 360, Taiwan, R.O.C. 2 Department of Numerical Control Technology, Intelligent Machinery Technology Division Mechanical and Systems Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute Taichung Industrial Area, Taichung 407, Taiwan, R.O.C. 3 Department of Power Mechanical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University Hsinchu 300, Taiwan, R.O.C. Abstract Carbon nanotubes possess advantages over other materials due to their superior strengthto-weight ratios, tremendous stiffness, high conductivity, high flexibility, and low density. Many promising applications have been proposed for carbon nanotubes, including miniaturized electronic and mechanical devices. In this chapter, the applications on nontraditional machining and microscopy are introduced. Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is one of the most successful and widely accepted manufacturing processes for complicated shapes and tiny apertures with high accuracy including micro nozzle fabrication, drilling of composites and making of moulds and dies of hardened steels. This method is considered suitable for machining of materials with extremely high hardness, strength, wear resistance and thermal resistance. Carbon nanotube powder is mixed in the dielectric of......

Words: 1604 - Pages: 7