Free Essay

Cardinal Wolsey

In: Historical Events

Submitted By nathanbenee
Words 498
Pages 2
Henry was often considered to have relied on Wolsey to for fill his wishes often not completing things himself as he had someone else to do them for him. I agree to a substantial extent that Henry surrendered power in government to Cardinal Wolsey as throughout Henry’s reign Wolsey had to complete tasks of which henry set out to take credit for.
Henry was otherwise occupied by leisure activities and practically surrendered his power to Wolsey. This is evident in the fourth source as Scaresbrick states that Cavendish (Wolsey’s servant) shows that Wolsey was handed the cares of the state as Henry was always otherwise occupied with activities such as jousting and dancing. The king can be considered to be self-indulgent. Wolsey can also be shown to have been given governmental power as in if an issue raised within parliament or the English economy he would be called upon and be blamed for the mistake or ordered to amend it. This source can be considered less valid as it was written in 1968 and could be influenced by historical opinion. This is because the time in which the source was written is long after the period in which the source is essentially documented from. This source suggests that power was surrendered to Wolsey as Henry showed a sense of incapability as he always was otherwise occupied.
The king considered the ultimate source of power but would need assistance in certain areas. This is highlighted within source five as Wolsey is dominant figure within parliament but lacks certain abilities such as daily contact with the king in which henry had with friends. This shows that he did not have all the power as he lacked a relationship with the king and his friends that would give him a sense of authority. Although Wolsey did have the power to control the distribution of patronage. This source was written in 1994 and can be considered less valid. The source suggests that power was surrendered to a certain extent but Wolsey did not have complete control due to his relationship with the king in his personal life.
Source six is written by Henry himself and is addressed to Wolsey asking him to watch over certain people. This shows that Henry had utter trust in Wolsey to complete the task. The fact that Henry asks this of Wolsey shows that the cardinal had governmental power as the king wouldn’t do it himself. The source ends with anyone whom you are suspicious. Implicating the faith in which Henry has with Wolsey he allows Woolsey to make his own judgement on the matters at hand within the time period that effect the monarchy. This source was written in 1520 meaning that this source can be considered valid as it was written by Henry. Source six suggests that power was surrendered to Woolsey as he was asked to watch over people within the monarchy in addition to anyone whom he deemed as a threat.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Do You Agree with the View That in the Years 1515-1525 Henry Viii Wholly Surrendered Power in Government to Cardinal Wolsey?

...VIII wholly surrendered power in government to Cardinal Wolsey? To a certain extent within 
Source 4 (by J.J. Scarisbrick 1968) supports the idea that possibly Henry VIII actually did surrender power over to Wolsey. The evidence within the source that suggests this possibly for being the truth is ‘a self-indulgent King had wholly surrendered the cares of the state into the Cardinals hands’. To further support this case, it is clear that Wolsey was extremely powerful, he had vast amounts of bishoprics (Archbishop of Canterbury, Tournai, Durham just to name a few) and was the head of things such as the Star Chamber where Wolsey got himself heavily involved with. This is shown when you compared the number of cases Wolsey took on (120) compared to that of Henry VII who dealt with only 12. Also Wolsey had control of all of the state finances and could make large changes to things such as the taxation system he was able to introduce a new form of tax known as the ‘Subsidy’ which was more popular since it meant the poor payed far less tax than previously than with the old 15’s and 10’s taxation method. This new taxation method allowed Wolsey to pay for king’s foreign affairs. As well as this ‘subsidy’, since Wolsey had such significant power he was able to also raise considerable amounts of capital through other means, such as through ‘benevolences’ and enforced loans from the nobility, which raised £200,000 in 1522. This shows that Wolsey was especially powerful as......

Words: 902 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Do You Agree with the View That in Domestic Policy, Wolsey Was Successful as the Kings Chief Minister?

...Do you agree with the view that in domestic policy, Wolsey was successful as the kings chief minister? Yes, in my opinion I believe that Wolsey was successful as the king’s chief minister. He did have his ups and downs for example promoting civil law over common law but then not actually making any long lasting changes to the judicial system. His new system the subsidy raised £325,000 from 1513-1529 compared to £90,000 raised from fifteenths and tenths which is definitely a success. However he was responsible for the amicable grant which caused rebellions in 1925. Source 9 agrees that Wolsey was a success whereas Source 7 completely disagrees and source 8 says that he had his up and downs but mostly suggests failure. Source 7 is an extract from Geoffrey Elton’s introduction to A.F. Pollards Wolsey, published in 1965. It suggests that actually Wolsey was not successful as the king’s chief minister. It tells us that Wolsey was ‘amateurish and uncreative’ in government and that even with the church he was only ‘moderately successful’. It suggest that Wolsey tried to do the impossible, he wanted to ‘rule as king when he was not king’ which again indicates that he was not successful as the kings chief minister as he was trying to take over the kings role. I agree to a certain extent because Wolsey was only trying to secure his own position rather than making any real reforms but I don’t believe that he was ‘amateurish and uncreative’ in government because if he was I don’t think......

Words: 960 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay


...Year 12 Henry VIII Revision Guide 1 How to answer questions on the Tudors Section A Essays: How far do the sources agree that? Introduction:    Explain what you can learn from each source Briefly cross reference the sources Provide an argument in response to the question Main paragraphs:     State a similarity or difference between the sources – make sure you focus on ‘How Far’ Select relevant information from the sources to support this point Place this in context using your brief own knowledge Use provenance to explain this similarity/difference Conclusion:  Sum up how far the sources agree based on content and provenance Section B Essays: Do you agree with the view that? Introduction:   State your line of argument – how far do you agree with the view? State the main similarities and differences between the sources Main paragraphs:  State a reason for yes/no. Make sure you phrase this in a way that links to your line of argument and answers the question. Remember that each source will suggest a different reason for yes/no. Support this reason with evidence from the sources and your own knowledge Cross-reference between the sources Weigh up the evidence of the sources. Consider provenance for primary sources and judge secondary sources based on the evidence included and the weight given to certain evidence Link back to your line of argument     Conclusion:  Explain how your argument has been proven with reference to the sources and your own......

Words: 34668 - Pages: 139

Free Essay

Wolsey's Fall

...Henry VIII reign to 1529, Cardinal Wolsey was a influential figure and Henry's key advisor. However by 1529 Wolsey had been charged with praemunire and was due to be executed in November 1530. The most important reason for this was because of Wolsey's failure to obtain a divorce between Catherine of Aragon and Henry VIII. The main reason behind Wolsey's fall was his failure to obtain a divorce between Catherine of Argon and Henry VIII. Henry's desire to end his marriage began in 1527 in which Wolsey promised would be a quick and easy problem to resolve due to his influence with the pope. However after two years of waiting Henry became desperate for a divorce. Wolsey made three attempts to obtain divorce: the first was to try and get the current pope to admit that the previous pope was in the wrong, the second attempt was on technical grounds that there was an error in dispensation, and the third was to get the case heard in England in which Wolsey would play a big role in the verdict. However by the failure of the third attempt Henry accused Wolsey of upholding papal law without the Kings permission and charged him with praemunire on the 9th October 1529. By the 29th November Wolsey was due to be executed, but died on the journey to London. This was the most important reasons for Wolsey's fall as in the space of one year Wolsey had lost all influence and power and also Henry's trust. Resulting in him being sentenced to death. Another reason for Wolsey fall was because......

Words: 697 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Use Sources T, U and V and Your Own Knowledge. Do You Accept the View in Source V That Wolsey’s Domestic Policies Were Disappointing?

...accept the view in Source V that Wolsey’s domestic policies were disappointing? Thomas Wolsey was Henry VIII’s chief minister from 1514 when Henry VIII was making his rise into power up until 1529 when Wolsey had his fall from grace. Many people have argued that Wolsey made many radical changes to the country and how it was run. This essay will argue whether Wolsey’s domestic policies were disappointing or not. One of the main categorical policies that brought up a lot of criticism for Wolsey was the way that he dealt with finances, which ultimately brought a huge amount of disappointment to Wolsey’s reign. During his reign as Chancellor Wolsey failed to ensure that the revenue that was brought in was the same as what the King was spending which did damage the country’s finances. Wolsey also brought in many different taxation policies (which included the Amicable Grant) this sparked outrage within both the laity and the clergy, it also caused many riots in Suffolk. In Source T it says that he ‘aroused against himself the hatred of the whole country’ and this was being spoken about when it came to his arrogance. In contrary to this, it can be argued that Wolsey’s financial policies were not all a disappointment as it says in source U ‘He favours the people exceedingly, and especially the poor’ Wolsey started to levy taxes so people paid taxes in accordance to what they earned. This helped Wolsey financially with the people as he made taxes affordable to everyone, but it......

Words: 1246 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

How Significant Was Wolsey in the Running of the Government in 1514-1529?

...Wolsey was a great servant to Henry VIII in government from 1514-1529, becoming one of the highest powers in the country. As he was given the title of Lord Chancellor, it meant his power was at probably its greatest point. Henry was said to be a very lazy monarch, and therefore Wolsey would have a significant amount of duties to run the monarchy. Wolsey changed areas of government such as the justice system and revised areas such as finances and parliament structure. His relationship with the King was significant, as he would be the higher power and would need to negotiate with the King and yet still get the correct decision. Wolsey managed his relationship with henry well, he tried to get the right outcome for the country but never forced it upon Henry, not damaging their relationship and keeping Wolsey in power. Wolsey had a poor approach with justice; in court he gained a poor reputation for taking bribes and his relationship with England’s nobility was poor to say the least. The financial approach was a tough period in finance; with a King that wanted to spend and go to war, and Wolsey had no choice but to bow to his majesty’s request. Wolsey was to follow on the financial policy of an extremely successful monarch with finances, in Henry VII. Wolsey’s balance sheet was a mixture of successes and failures; his aim was to manage the finances so that King’s policies were still affordable. He found a good source of income to raise funds for the French war. This was the......

Words: 1361 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Papacy vs. Philippine Presidency

...witnessed by the world was a sacred occurrence in Vatican participated by Cardinals from different parts of the world who composed the College of Cardinals. Pope Francis will be leading the entire Catholic Church in the world with about 1.2 billion Catholic believers as of 2010 Census of the 2012 Annuario Pontificio (Pontifical Yearbook). The Catholic Church is headed by a Pope while a democratic Government is headed by a President. The structure of church government in choosing their leader is called Papacy which is the system of central government of the Roman Catholic Church of which the pope is the supreme head being accorded special respect; while the layman’s government known as presidency, the administration or the executive, the collective administrative and governmental entity that exists around an office of president of a state or nation. The manner of choosing a pope begins with a papal conclave known as the meeting of the College of Cardinals convened to elect a new Bishop of Rome. The conclave has been the procedure for choosing the pope for more than half of the time the church has been in existence, and is the oldest ongoing method for choosing the leader of an institution. These Cardinals are from different parts of the world. On the other hand, the manner of choosing a pope and a president is significantly different. The Pope was selected by the cardinals for the papacy while the president is chosen by the people at large in a......

Words: 648 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Populorum Progressio

...Populorum Progressio, written in 1967, Pope Paul VI mainly focuses on the idea of the development and progress of people, which has become a deep concern to the Church. With the increase of hunger, poverty, endemic disease, and ignorance of the people, Paul requires that all men should explore this serious problem. Populorum Progrssio is divided into two main parts: man’s complete development and the common development of mankind. Paul focused on a variety of Catholic teachings which relate to the moral areas. One of the areas that Paul focuses on is solidarity. Solidarity is one of the principles of social justice we have discussed in class, which is defined as that we are one family and to look at all people as neighbors, not as enemies. Paul encourages the rich to stand in solidarity with those who are impoverished. Solidarity involves acknowledging the sufferings of our neighbors and doing whatever there is to minimize their difficulties. Paul suggests that nations should incorporate effective economic structures that will address the needs of the impoverished. This principle of morality of solidarity is still applied in our daily lives right now. Even though the idea of solidarity should be applied in our world today, we are faced with a huge gap between the rich and the poor. In fact, it might be correct to say that the gap between the rich and the poor has gotten greater since the time of Paul. With the corporate globalization and economic structure, it is almost......

Words: 831 - Pages: 4

Free Essay


...Back in Tudor period, Wolsey had built a reputation and raised his skill into becoming an ‘Alter Rex’, alongside with Henry VIII on the throne. However, there was lots of argument and discussion towards Wolsey being an Alter Rex, as some people began disliking whilst others were more accepting to his authority. Sources 1 and 2 generally agree about Wolsey being disliked and disapproved by the public and by his King, all the same it was all due to his ‘ambitious’ personality, which led to his very self-obsessed and self-centred self that had made great frustration and annoyed others. On the other hand, mostly Source 3 and a bit of Source 2 disagrees with the view of Wolsey being disliked for his ‘Alter Rex’ actions, compared to his ambitious and ‘full of him’ act. The general disagreement reason is that Wolsey’s role for the King was of being an ‘Alter Rex’, meaning that it was his duty and job to act such matters. But also, without certain actions from his controlled power, there wouldn’t be a greater and more well-being for the English Empire (turning the Cathedral Church). Source 1 most strongly agrees on the idea that Wolsey took the Alter Rex act all to himself, pleasing himself with the power and purposes it has giving him. Although, the Source was written by ‘Polydore Virgil’, who is known for his ‘Anglica Historia’ book, he had a very strong judgment and criticism side to him. That being said, the ‘Anglica Historia’ was remembered for its combination of narrative......

Words: 1299 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Wolsey Ruled Both the King and the Entire Kingdom

...Access the claim made by the Venetian ambassador in 1519 that Wolsey ruled both the king and the entire kingdom. When the Venetian ambassador wrote about Henry Vlll in 1519, he said that the young king was very fond of “hunting”, “tennis” and riding. His description of the king suggests that the king seems much to busy playing sport and having fun to rule over the country, so that job is left up the Wolsey, so he would have had the most power in the country, even more than the king. One of the ways Wolsey rose to power was through gaining the trust of the young inexperienced king. Because of this trust Wolsey knew that his position was secure as long as he continued to serve the king well, because the king needed his. Some historians even saw Wolsey as a Alter Rex or second king, this just shows how much power they believed Wolsey had over the king. From this you can infer that many thought that Wolsey had great power in the court, and even hold more power than the king himself. This can be visualised as Wolsey being the master and Henry puppet. This fits with view that the Venetian ambassador had. Although some historians are starting to question this view. These historians argue that the king and Wolsey just has a political partnership as king and Cardinal, and no more. The king gave Wolsey more power in the early years of this reign when it seems that he was more interested in hunting and sport that running a country, but the king just like today’s monarch had......

Words: 812 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Did Henry Viii Wholly Surrender His Power to Wolsey

...surrendered power in government to Cardinal Wolsey. To analyse the extent of the truth of this statement we must consider the Sources; a history book from J.J Scarasbrick reviewing the relationship of the King and Wolsey another history book by John Lotherington also reviewing Wolsey and the King’s relationship and a letter written by Henry VIII himself which perfectly demonstrates their relationship. Source 4 agrees with the statement stating that the king ‘had wholly surrendered the cases of state to the Cardinal’s hand’ directly agreeing with the statement and showing that Henry gave all power to Wolsey so as ‘to cast off the cares’ this is supported by Source 6 where Henry dismissively tells Wolsey to ‘keep a careful watch on… others of whom you are suspicious’ this clearly illustrates that Henry VIII would offload matters of state into Wolsey’s hands and allow him to respond as he wished showing a clear passing of the reins of power. However when analysing these sources it is important to consider the nature origin and purpose of the source. Source 4 is quoting a servant of Wolsey George Cavendish who was not privy to Wolsey’s political power or action but was merely a personal companion and thus would wish to create a grand image for his employer and exaggerate his strength this significantly limits the reliability of the source. Yet Source 6 is directly from Henry VIII and thus flawlessly demonstrates the king’s opinion regarding the power of Wolsey and is the most......

Words: 827 - Pages: 4

Free Essay


...Do you agree with the view that in the years 1515-25 Henry VII wholly surrendered power in government to Cardinal Wolsey? Explain your answer, using Sources 4, and 6 and your own knowledge. There are many different perceptions of the relationship between Henry VII and Cardinal Wolsey, most notably that of the Alter Rex who reserves a traditionalistic view of their liaison. However, it is evident from the three sources that it is not entirely accurate that Henry surrendered all his power to the Cardinal even though it may have ‘seemed’ (S4) that way. It can be argued that despite Wolsey holding significant power, Henry was still king making him the most powerful individual in England. Thought Henry was ‘happy to bestow patronage upon him as long as he was doing his masters work (S6). Therefore, evidence from the sources suggest that it was not the case that Henry wholly surrendered his power to Cardinal Wolsey. It is clear that Wolsey did have a huge responsibility within Tudor government. He played a substantial role in organising the logistics of the King’s foreign policy and his ambitions to conquer France form a financial perspective whilst h occupied the role as Lord Chancellor. Wolsey also played a significant part in Tudor law. His role as Chancellor bought Wolsey a great deal of wealth and meant he ‘held a dominant position in government and controlled the distribution of patronage’ (S5). This led to many people viewing him as an Alter Rex figure. This matter was...

Words: 1081 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Do You Agree with the View That Henry Viiis Foreign Policy in the Years 1514-25 Failed Because He Lacked the Resources to Fulfil His Aims?

...Do you agree with the view that Henry VIIIs foreign policy in the years 1514-25 failed because he lacked the resources to fulfill his aims? The failure of foreign policy in the years 1514-1525 can be attributed to many factors. Undoubtedly, the lack of resources was one of the main factors that contributed to the failure of Henry's foreign policy. However there are other factors that contributed to Henry being unable to fulfil his aims. Sources 4 and 6, both support the fact that the foreign policy did fail because of the lack of resources to fulfill the King’s aims. However all sources also suggest other possibilities to Henry's failed foreign policy. As soon as Henry took the throne in 1509, it was obvious that he was a king that wanted to fight a war, perhaps to show off his power. However, wars generally led to very expensive costs to the country. Henry's father, Henry VII, left the country in quite a stable state economically, but Henry devoted most of England's money into his campaigns to take over France. To some extent source 4 supports the idea that the foreign policy did fail due to the lack of resources, because it states that “the young warrior family accepted the fact that royal finances could not support a repetition of the campaign of 1513”. This quote implies that lack of resources seems to be the dominant reason for stopping Henry from invading France and therefore source 4 supports the statement to some extent. In the years 1514-25, it's clear that Henry...

Words: 1883 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Do You Agree with the View That the Main Reason for Wolsey’s Fall from Power Was His Failure to Secure the Annulment of the King’s Marriage to Catherine?

...particular the Boleyn faction, but it also subtly suggests Wolsey’s previous failures i.e. the amicable grant “fiasco” made him much more susceptible to criticism and helped sow doubt into Henrys mind. Source 4 supports the third source and also brings to attention the role played by another group of people- the aristocrats- who despised Wolsey and as Loades claims Wolsey was a “victim of factional intrigues organised by leading aristocrats”. However the final source totally disagrees with the theory that it was purely factions that resulted in Wolsey’s downfall and instead supports the statement given to an extent, but believes it was a combination of factors that resulted in his downfall, something which the evidence tends to support. There is no doubt that Wolsey’s inability to secure an annulment of Henrys marriage to Catherine infuriated Henry and Wolsey’s sacking was a direct response to this failure. By 1529 the pope was under the control of Charles V after the latter’s victory at the battle of Landriano, and as the nephew of Catherine it was unlikely he would allow the pope to issue a dispensation for the marriage to Anne. If Wolsey had been allowed to go about the annulment in his own way and not be forced down the route of claiming the marriage was invalid due to Leviticus stating “one cannot marry his deceased brothers wife for it is an unclean thing” as Henry had persisted,...

Words: 1266 - Pages: 6

Free Essay


...However, impressive reforms are also seen within the law and social and economic reform. Wolsey’s most important success in domestic affairs may well have been his handling of the royal finances as Lotherington states “Wolsey’s main concern was always foreign policy”. Royal finances served this main concern and to some degree Wolsey’s political survival depended more fully upon it. Royal Finances: most impressive? (x2 paras?) Credited with the invention of the parliamentary subsidy. Some credit must go to John Hales, he drafted it and was thus rewarded with a position on the bench of the exchequer. 1513-1523. Gets loans of 1522 and subsidy in 1523, but leads to fiscalism and the Amicable Grant debacle of 1525. The subsidy was a success. Wolsey has the help of John Hales, who was judge in the Court of the Exchequer. The subsidy was levied x4 times in 1513-1515 and 1523. In total it brought in > of 300,000 pounds. Success of clerical taxation also. 240,000 pounds or so. Synods 1519, 1523. For the first time under Henry the Crown was raising realistic sums through taxation. However, as Murphy points out … “its demands were increasingly resented by the propertied classes who had to pay these parliamentary taxes.” To a degree satisfies the problem of raising extra money to finance wars. The existing parliamentary taxes of fifteenths and tenths, were fixed and generated insufficient...

Words: 2198 - Pages: 9