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Cartesian Dualism Theory

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4.1. The first Philosopher who tried to answer this problem and solve them was Rene Descartes. Based from Principia Philosophiae (2.002). He proposed the Cartesian Dualism theory. He said that human Consciousness lies within an immaterial and material domain.

4.1.1. res cogitans (the realm of thought). Descartes is famously known for his words “I think therefore I am”.

4.1.2. res extensa (the realm of extension). This is known as the domain of physical or material things. 4.2. Although the proposal of Descartes has been widely accepted by many philosophers. There are some who do not agree and they are known as the monist. They believe that a variety of existing things can be explained in terms of a single reality or substance.

4.2.1. Physicallism
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Many Philosophers believe that experience is the very essence of Consciousness. That it is something that happens from the inside and not visible to anyone. But if this is true then how can an individual define that other individuals to be conscious but rocks and trees are not. Philosophy called this problem the “Problem of other Minds”.

5.1. Based from Robert Kirk. Some Philosophers believe in a Philosophical zombie. These are living things or creature that is physically indistinguishable from other human beings but can feel and act like human beings but lack Consciousness. The thought of how can someone identify other living things conscious and others just not are further studied by scientists and philosophers alike using artificial intelligence.

5.2. According to Alec Hyslop, we perceive other people to be conscious just like us because they resemble us in appearance and behavior: we reason that if they look like us and act like us, they must be like us in other ways, including having experiences of the sort that we do.

5.3. On the other hand based from Stevan Harnad’s book "Why and how we are not zombies". Philosophers who do not believe in the possibility of zombies generally believe that consciousness is reflected through behavior and the ability of other individuals to speak about their past

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