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首都文化创意产业国际核心竞争力问题研究
【摘要】文化创意产业(Cultural and Creative Industries)在国民经济发展中具有战略意义。本项目在前人研究的基础上,对首都文化创意产业国际核心竞争力进行研究界定。通过设计首都文化创意产业的国际核心竞争力评价指标体系,并与纽约、伦敦进行对比,发现该产业存在的问题,分析产生问题的原因,并提出切实可行的意见,以达到提高首都文化创意产业核心竞争力的目的。
【关键词】首都文化创意产业 国际核心竞争力 评价体系 问题 建议
引言
文化创意产业(Cultural and Creative Industries),是一种在经济全球化背景下产生的以创造力为核心的新兴产业,强调一种主体文化或文化因素依靠个人(团队)通过技术、创意和产业化的方式开发、营销知识产权的行业,北京市将提高首都文化创意竞争力纳入十二五发展规划。 首都文化创意产业自发展之初至今,始终处于高速发展的增长阶段,这也是其核心竞争力所在。但是在国际范围内,与其他文化创意产业发达国家相比,首都文化创业产业存在发展起点低,发展过程中存在“泡沫化”现象,创新能力不足,无法及时满足市场需求等问题。我们在总结前人对于首都文化创意产业国际核心竞争力问题研究的基础上,采用理论分析和实证研究结合的方法,对首都文化创意产业国际核心竞争力进行深入研究。
首都文化创意产业国际核心竞争力及其指标
1997年5月,英国政府为调整产业结构和解决就业问题,首相布莱尔提议并推动成立了创意产业特别工作小组,提出把创意产业作为振兴英国经济的重要手段,1998年英国政府出台了《英国创意产业路径文件》,明确提出了“创意产业”的概念。之后,将文化创意产业界定为:源自个人创意、技巧及才华,通过知识产权的开发和运用,具有创造财富和就业潜力的行业。2006 年12 月,北京市统计局、国家统计局北京调查总队联合制定发布《北京市文化创意产业分类标准》,将文化创意产业定义为“是以创作、创造、创新为根本手段,以文化内容和创意成果为核心价值,以知识产权实现或消费为交易特征,为社会公众提供文化体验的具有内在联系的行业集群”。 核心竞争力是一种相对于竞争对手的优势竞争能力;是一种竞争对手在短期内几乎无法模仿的独具能力;是一种处于核心地位的能力;是一种长期积淀而形成的,并长期起作用的能力。文化创意产业的核心竞争力是指一国在特定经营环境中所形成的具有整体性的、对文化创意产业的发展具有核心和支配地位的、具有自我完善能力的、其他产业难以模仿的优势竞争能力。在国际化的推动下,核心竞争力在国际范围内形成了国际核心竞争力。国际核心竞争力是指产业在国际化竞争中所体现的核心竞争力,也就是在全球化推动下,一个国家的某一产业若需要在国际上站稳脚跟所必须的竞争能力。国际核心竞争力横向上包括某国家的某产品与国际上其他国家相同种类产品的竞争,纵向上包括某国家的某产品在国际市场上的销售情况。 文化创意产业国际核心竞争力是文化创意产业在国际竞争中对其发展具有核心和指导作用的优势竞争能力,也就是可以使其具有竞争优势的能力。因此,可以将国际文化创意产业核心竞争力理解为: 一个国家或区域文化创意产业在其发展过程中,通过长期学习、创造、积累与整合而形成的一种独特的、不易为竞争对手所模仿或取代的,在文化创意产业资源以及产业体系、战略、政策、制度和创新机制等方面的国际性的综合优势。 对于文化创意产业国际核心竞争力这一复杂的系统,简单的把它分解为各个指标逐个分析显然是不够的,但不构建指标体系又不能进行细致的研究,因此建立一个科学的、系统化的、逻辑清晰合理、结构完整严谨的指标体系非常重要。本文借鉴了国内外其它产业的产业竞争力评价指标体系,依据衡量产业国际竞争力的指标体系中较为成熟的裴长洪提出的显示性指标与分析性指标体系、厉无畏提出的产业竞争力分层指标体系、邓聚龙的灰色关联度评价体系研究的结论,考虑到文化创意产业国际核心竞争力评价指标选取的全面性、简要性、可比性、可操作性、产业特性基本原则,结合首都所处的政治经济环境以及文化环境,综合首都的区位特点和优势条件等要素,最终设计出适合首都本地的文化创意产业的竞争力评价指标体系。具体由用来说明首都文化创意产业竞争力的结果实现要素的显示性指标,和反映首都文化创意产业的竞争潜力的非显示性指标构成。 [pic]
二、首都文化创意产业国际核心竞争力评价指标体系设计及对比
鉴于国内相关统计数据的局限性,以及统计口径的不断变化,本着可行性原则,本文将根据综合评价指标体系,选取北京、纽约和伦敦三大城市2000-2011年的相关统计数据,通过横向纵向实证分析来评定首都文化创意产业国际核心竞争力。 1. 三大城市文化创意产业生产总值 文化创意生产总值反映文化创意的总体发展水平,是用来衡量文化创意产业国际核心竞争力的重要指标。下面以北京、纽约和伦敦三大城市为例,选取2000-2011年间,各城市文化创意生产总值数据,进行比较分析。 表一: 三大城市文化创意产业生产总值 单位:亿美元 |2000 |2001 |2002 |2003 |2004 |2005 |2006 |2007 |2008 |2009 |2010 |2011 | |北京 |13.57 |20.03 |26.46 |27.93 |69.23 |83.43 |105.09 |135.99 |176.54 |218.14 |278.29 |367.95 | |纽约 |762.36 |901.58 |1034.30 |1129.93 |1209.27 |1305.39 |1398.35 |1484.03 |1394.61 |1461.33 |1495.87 |1523.96 | |伦敦 |417.00 |478.00 |567.00 |668.00 |731.00 |799.00 |849.00 |920.00 |901.00 |936.00 |955.00 |978.00 | |

图一: [pic] 数据来源:中华人民共和国国家统计局、《北京统计年鉴2012》、英国统计网站、伦敦政府网、纽约市官网、美国普查局 由图一可看出,三大城市的文化创意产业总产值都呈现上升的趋势。其中,北京市文化产业生产总值初始值较低,但是总体增长速度最快,发展潜力最佳,有赶超纽约和伦敦两市的势头;伦敦文化创意产业生产总值起点最高,生产总值最大,但是增长速度较慢,在08年之后,增长态势再次减缓;纽约的文化创意产业起点较高,但是同样存在发展较慢的趋势,在08年后发展趋势呈现较强的增长趋势。

2.文化创意产业从业人数占全市人数的比重 一个产业是否能够迅速发展起来,员工的工作贡献起着决定性的作用,这对于文化创意产业的发展也并不例外。首都文化创意产业发展速度的快慢,与文化创意产业从业人数占全市人数比例的高低密不可分。 表二: 文化创意产业从业人数占全市人数的比重 单位:% |2000 |2001 |2002 |2003 |2004 |2005 |2006 |2007 |2008 |2009 |2010 |2011 | |北京 |3.34 |3.99 |4.63 |4.87 |5.01 |5.29 |5.62 |5.91 |6.04 |6.18 |6.26 |6.98 | |纽约 |2.9 |3.07 |3.23 |3.21 |3.35 |3.47 |3.56 |3.7 |3.79 |3.82 |3.87 |3.94 | |伦敦 |2.81 |3.09 |3.42 |3.47 |3.49 |3.71 |3.76 |4.05 |4.09 |4.12 |4.48 |4.92 | | 图二:
[pic]
数据来源:《北京统计年鉴2012》、伦敦政府网、纽约市官网、美国普查局 由图二可看出,三个城市的文化创意产业从业人数占全市人数比重总体都呈现出上升的态势。北京市文化创意产业人数占全市人数在比例上占据优势,三个城市的起点相似,但是北京在前期具有较快的发展速度,随后趋势减缓,但仍然高于纽约和伦敦的发展速度。

文化创意产业生产总值占GDP总值的比重 文化创意产业生产总值占GDP总值的比重,反映了文化创意对于城市经济发展的重要作用。通过计算这个比重,可以看出每年在城市的居民生产总值中,文化创意产业总产值所占据的比例,比较各个城市中文化创意产业的发展状况。 表三:

文化创意产业生产总值占GDP总值的比重 单位:% |2000 |2001 |2002 |2003 |2004 |2005 |2006 |2007 |2008 |2009 |2010 |2011 | |北京 |3.55 |4.47 |5.08 |4.61 |9.49 |9.67 |10.14 |10.98 |11.81 |12.26 |12.39 |12.57 | |纽约 |6.89 |8.74 |10.92 |12.07 |14.53 |16.71 |17.83 |18.12 |18.81 |19.27 |19.96 |19.51 | |伦敦 |8.37 |9.32 |10.87 |12.63 |13.35 |13.78 |13.41 |13.53 |13.91 |14.24 |14.57 |15.4 | |图三: [pic] 数据来源:中华人民共和国国家统计局、《北京统计年鉴2012》、英国统计网站、伦敦政府网、纽约市官网、美国普查局 由图三可以看出,与纽约和伦敦相比,首都文化创意产业总产值占城市GDP的比重相对较低。在2000-2004年间,首都文化创意产业的该比重呈现出较快的增长速度,但是近些年来,增长速度又逐渐呈现出放缓的趋势,总体而言,与国际文化创意产业发达国家相比,仍存在较大的差距。 4.需求要素—文化创意产业进出口额 需求是拉动文化创意产业发展的重要因素之一,一个产业需求量的大小决定了这个产业占有的市场份额和竞争地位,本文从北京市文化创意产业的进出口总额及差额为例,来说明首都文化创意产业的需求状况。 表四: 首都文化创意产业进出口贸易情况 |2002 |2003 |2004 |2005 |2006 |2007 |2008 |2009 |2010 | |进出口总额 |值 |349.87 |416.95 |491.02 |593.13 |669.00 |786.21 |908.84 |818.01 |1053.46 | | |增长率 |-- |19.2 |17.8 |20.8 |12.8 |17.5 |15.6 |-10 |28.8 | |出口额 |值 |323.23 |385.50 |456.12 |555.10 |627.15 |729.99 |848.07 |757.40 |977.54 | | |增长率 |-- |19.3 |18.3 |21.7 |13.0 |16.4 |16.2 |-10.7 |29.1 | |进口额 |值 |26.63 |31.45 |34.91 |38.04 |41.85 |56.22 |60.78 |60.61 |75.92 | | |增长率 |-- |18.1 |11.0 |9.0 |10.0 |34.3 |8.1 |-0.3 |25.2 | |贸易差额 |值 |296.60 |354.04 |421.21 |517.06 |585.30 |673.77 |787.29 |696.79 |901.62 | | |增长率 |-- |19.4 |19.0 |22.8 |13.2 |15.1 |16.8 |-11.5 |29.4 | |单位:万美元 数据来源和说明:北京经济普查2000-2011年 首都文化创意产品对外贸易呈高速发展之势。由图四统计数据显示,2002-2010年间首都文化创意产品对外贸易额持续高速增长,从2002年的349.87万美元猛增至2010年的1053.46万美元,增长2倍之多,年均增长15.3%;其中,出口额从2002年的323.23万美元增至2010年的977.54万美元,年均增长高达15.4%,是首都文化创意产品对外贸易增长的主要动力源;进口额从2002年的26.63万美元增至2010年的75.92万美元,年均增长14.4%。2002年北京文化创意产品对外贸易差额为296.60万美元,到2010年增长至901.62万美元,增长了两倍多。从贸易差额上看,首都长期处于顺差状态,且呈逐渐放大之势。总需求小于总供给时,国际收支表现为顺差。所以,世界对首都文化创意产业的需求远远大于供给。 5. 政府因素—每年地方政府财政对文化创意产业财政支出 根据《北京市国民经济和社会发展第十一个五年规划纲要》相关内容,发展文化创意产业,是全面落实科学发展观、实现北京经济社会全面协调可持续发展的重要内容,是增强北京自主创新能力、建设创新型城市的有力举措,是推进北京产业结构升级和经济增长方式转变的必然选择,因此,北京市政府于2006年开始加大了政府在文化创意产业的财政支出。下图为2000-2011年北京市、纽约市和伦敦市政府对文化创意产业的财政支出情况。 表五: 每年地方政府财政对文化创意产业财政支出 单位:万美元
北京 |66.31 |75.08 |91.39 |102.16 |117.70 |140.76 |180.21 |278.87 |445.86 |528.75 |618.28 |772.64 | |纽约 |227.66 |248.9 |269.4 |285.4 |295.02 |309.23 |326.45 |343.31 |364.49 |383.64 |407.99 |423.71 | |伦敦 |144.56 |147.84 |155.31 |159.27 |156.89 |152.73 |155.21 |157.83 |174.96 |177.14 |172.53 |180.09 | | 图五: [pic] 数据来源:《北京统计年鉴2011》、英国统计网站、伦敦政府网站、纽约市官网 由图六可以看出2000-2011年北京市、纽约市和伦敦市政府对文化创意产业的财政支出均呈现出逐年增加的趋势,北京市自2006年开始的的增加速度尤其明显,这与2006年颁布的《北京市国民经济和社会发展第十一个五年规划纲要》密不可分,至2008年,北京市政府对文化创意产业的财政支出已经赶超美国纽约。 6. 高等教育劳动力占总劳动力比重 高等教育劳动力是文化和创意的来源与基础,文化创意产业是要培育对于人类多元文化的尊重和分享的伦理态度,因此高素质劳动力就业时对推动创新,优化产业结构有巨大影响。 表六: 高等教育劳动力占总劳动力比重 单位:%
北京 |12.3 |12.6 |12.9 |13.3 |13.8 |14.1 |18.9 |19.1 |19.2 |19.7 |20.6 |21.3 | |纽约 |34.8 |35.7 |58.9 |59.4 |59.8 |59.9 |60.4 |61.1 |62.3 |63.1 |63.6 |64 | |伦敦 |26 |26.7 |27.1 |28 |29.3 |29.8 |30.8 |31.8 |32.2 |33.7 |35.4 |36.7 | | 图六: [pic] 数据来源:北京经济普查2000-2011年,OECD官网纽约、伦敦2000-2011统计年鉴 根据折线图分析可以看出三个城市中,北京的高等教育劳动力占总劳动力的比重低于纽约和伦敦。纽约的高等教育劳动力占比最高,在2002年有一个较大的涨幅,由2001年的35.7%增长到58.9%;伦敦的增长较为平稳,11年间涨幅约为10%;北京保持增长趋势,并且由于中国在2002年实施高等院校的扩招政策,让更多的人有机会接受高等教育,使高等教育劳动力占在2006年时有了大幅增长。
三、首都文化创意产业国际核心竞争力存在的问题
1.产业发展存在“泡沫化”现象 目前,首都文化创意产业发展势头十分迅猛,“文化创意产业园区”遍地开花,一股前所未有的产业投资热潮正在兴起。但是同时我们不能忽略的是文化体制改革还在酝酿之中,产业领域资源配置机制和政府职能转变尚未完成。据第五届文化创意产业集聚区发展论坛不完全统计,目前全国文化产业园区超过2500家,其中70%以上处于亏损状态,真正赢利的园区不超过10%。且文化产业园借集聚之名圈地的现象较为严重,呈现出“量大质不高”的“泡沫化”现象。 2、产业集群专业化程度高,国际竞争能力弱 文化创意产业的发展离不开产业集群的发展,根据哈盖特的区位分析理论,引用数值区位商来衡量文化创意产业的相对集中程度,下面引用2010年北京市、伦敦市和纽约市的相关数据整理分析计算可得: [pic] [pic] [pic] 区位商大于1.5时,意味着该产业在当地具有明显的 比较优势, 可见北京、伦敦和纽约文化创意产业发展水平均高于其国家的整体水平,专业化程度强,其中,北京市的区位商LQ最大,更能看出首都文化创意产业的领头军地位,但也反映出中国文化创意产业地区发展不平衡的现状,首都文化创意产业在整个国家的产业支持上不具有有利的国际核心竞争力。虽然首都文化创意产业集聚程度较好,但与纽约、伦敦等国际文化创意产业发达国家相比,依然存在着产业特色不突出、功能定位不准确、创意人才短缺及企业联系不紧密等问题,致使首都文化创意产业的国际核心竞争力不足。 3、产业出口贸易呈现顺差趋势,国际竞争能力较弱 从贸易差额上看,首都文化创意产品贸易处于长期顺差的状态,且呈逐渐放大之势。产业出口多以低附加值、低技术含量的初级文化创意产品为主。国际市场对此类出口商品呈刚性需求,从而对首都文化创意产业的出口商品形成依赖。国际金融危机的爆发和蔓延不仅没有削弱国际市场对此类产品的依赖,相反导致依赖程度越来越大,从而成为形成首都文化创意产业贸易顺差的一大重要原因。而从出口竞争力指数RCA来看,北京相较于文化创意产业发达城市纽约和伦敦,在国际市场竞争中不具备较强的出口优势。 4、产业融资困难 虽然北京市政府对文化创意产业的财政支出不断增加,但文化创意产业依然存在很大的投融资问题。这主要表现在以下几点:第一,文化创意企业很难有效利用银行贷款的融资方式;第二,企业通过资本市场和产权市场融资面临多重限制;第三,文化企业融资与股权私募基金的细则不完善,很多文化创意企业很难掌控资金来源,很可能造成非法集资,这也制约了文化创意产业的有效融资。 5、产业教育信息化程度难以适应发展需要 文化创意产业高校教育的信息化程度偏低,而高等教育信息化可使高中生参与早期入学申请,大学生在线注册进行课程学习,从而提升高等教育劳动力占比。劳动力接受高等教育,有助于提升劳动力的总体素质,对文化创意产业人才资本的积累起促进作用。北京创意教育观念落后于产业发展的需要,一定程度上忽视了推广高效无线校园网络建设对文化创意教育教学效率的提高作用。
导致首都文化创意产业国际核心竞争力问题产生的原因
1.产业发展前景盲目预期,资本投入超过产出 首都文化创意产业自发展之初,政府就投入大量财政资金进行扶持推进,并将其纳入十二五发展规划,公共财政对于文化产业的拨款规模甚至于超过与改革开放以来的总和。这些措施促使产业在短期内迅猛发展,成为朝阳产业。因此,大量业内和业外的、体制内和体制外的各路资本,在未对文化创意产业发展前景进行准确预期的情况下,纷纷盲目涌进文化创意产业的投资领域,文化产业也成为增长政府政绩的一剂膏药。盲目注重产业资本投入,忽视效益与产出,直接导致相关的文化产业出现泡沫化的虚假繁荣。 2.产业集群缺乏吸引高端人才的实力 创意产业集群是一般产业集群的特例,在一定程度上有别于一般产业集群。一般的创新产业集群主要依靠的是技术型人力资本,在地理位置上更多的倾向以科研机构为邻,而文化创意产业集群更多的是依赖于人才和社会资本,创意产业集群的飞速发展的关键是人才的集聚程度。与美国纽约和英国伦敦这样的国际化大都市相比,首都文化创意产业集群缺乏宽容的文化氛围、舒适的工作环境和健全的社会资本网络来吸引高端的创意人才。 3、产业市场规模小,出口国际竞争力低 三大目标城市RCA出口竞争力优势指数 |2000 |2001 |2002 |2003 |2004 |2005 |2006 |2007 |2008 |2009 |2010 |2011 | |北京 |0.2547 |0.2619 |0.2745 |0.3237 |0.2378 |0.7559 |0.5727 |1.4013 |1.6269 |1.7378 |1.8282 |1.9901 | |伦敦 |3.5843 |3.6473 |3.5748 |3.6845 |3.7843 |3.8574 |3.9847 |4.0238 |4.1839 |4.3583 |4.4839 |45,940 | |纽约 |3.3829 |3.5847 |3.6874 |3.7869 |3.8867 |3.8682 |3.3905 |4.0473 |4.2574 |4.3754 |4.6483 |4.8901 | |(RCA指数反映一国或一地区某产业或产品的出口在该国或该地区出口总额中所占的份额与世界开产业或产品的出口在世界出口总额中所占份额之比的RCA指数。RCA1,则处于比较优势,取值越大比较优势越大。) 数据来源和说明:北京统计年鉴2000-2011年北京地区和世界地区贸易额 从表中可以看出,首都文化创意产业出口竞争优势指数总体低于纽约和伦敦,2007年北京RCA指数才首次超过1,首次由比较劣势转变为具有比较优势。但美英两国分别拥有世界上第一大和第二大的文化创意产品市场,而我国文化创意产业规模仅为美国的5.46%,英国的26.35%。为保住本地市场消费需求,同时发现、创造并引导国际范围内的消费需求,首都创意产业出口产品必将参与国际竞争。首都文化创意产业国际贸易竞争指数虽然在波动中呈现不断上升的趋势,但在目标产品的国际需求争夺中仍不具有国际竞争力。 4、产业特殊性致使融资困难 目前金融机构对中小企业贷款需要固定资产抵押或信用担保,而文化创意企业较为有价值的资产往往是人才、技术等无形资产,没有足够的固定资产进行抵押;资本市场进入的门槛通常较高,多数文化创意企业难以达到上市要求,同时又没有跟市场对接的盈利模式,对成本很敏感,在这种情况下,靠股权融资的难度也比较大; 5、高等教育校园信息化不完善 美国英国等发达国家高校信息化起步较早,建立了完善的无线校园网络的技术革新、资、管理制度,使高等院校持续为文化创意产业输送创新人才。北京作为发展中国家,接受高校信息化概念较晚,虽然拥有后发优势,但至今仍然未能建立完善的无线校园网络,导致产业教育信息化程度难以适应发展需要。
五、提高首都文化创意产业国际核心竞争力的建议
1.规范产业发展环境,加强宏观调控和行政管理 国家相关法律法规的健全与完善极大地影响着文化产业的发展,因此尽快规范文化创意产业的发展环境,营造适宜文化创意产业的外部环境。同时,政府应该尽快优化文化产业的资源配置机制,以避免造成重复建设和资源浪费;同时加快转变政府职能,政府应将对文化创意产业传统的包揽式直接管理方式转变为以引导为准的间接管理方式,建立强有力的宏观调控体制,有效指导首都文化创意产业在外来若干年的规划,避免“泡沫化”现象的发生。 2、促进产业集群的发展,增强产业的国际核心竞争力 首先,应加大宽容的内容和程度,这里的包容不仅仅是对人才的包容,还有对世界各国文化的包容,也可以适当的引入一些国际组织,建立深厚的文化底蕴,夯实发展文化创意产业的基础;其次,促进品牌与定位,品牌效应在扩大园区的影响力,开拓市场和吸引人才方面去起着至关重要的作用;最主要的是,建立良好的社会、经济和政策环境,吸引既有战略眼光,能够开拓市场并善于管理的企业人才,这就需要在政策上加强产业集群的基础设施建设、建立便利的交通设施,创造舒适的工作与生活环境。 3、发现需求、创造需求、满足需求 在消费者方面,应注重消费者追求直观刺激的普遍心理,根据受众的主流情感,发现消费者在文化创意领域的需求,通过文化创意产品的推出和升级,持续满足顾客的消费需求。在经营方面,将“创意经济”理念与模式贯穿产业的整个发展战略,以便更好地树立首都的文化创意形象,引导着人们消费观念的改变,从而创造新需求,满足新需求。 4、建立完善的文化创意产业融资体系 首先,建立资本与文化创意项目对接的平台,使资本与文化产业实现有效对接。其次,降低国有文化企业依赖政府的程度,使国有文化部门在政企分开、企事分开、管办分离等方面的改革取得实质性进展,从而使资源和要素得到充分合理的流动和优化配置,进一步促进非公有资本进入文化创意产业产业;最后,完善文化产业扶持政策,通过国债投资、贴息贷款等给予支持,建立各类文化专项资金、产业基金,吸引更多社会资本。 5、完善教育信息化,培育创新型人才 首先,加强文化创意产业高校教育的信息化建设,可以通过无线网络教学实现信息通讯技术的应用,推动文化创意产业的信息化,网络化。城市的创意意识和创意文化需要人文环境的培养,伴随教育信息化程度的不断加深,我们有能力培养更多的新型创意人才,为文化创意产业的持续发展提供有力的后备军。

[结束语]根据本文的研究结果,文化创意产业的发展整体体现出基础薄弱,发展速度过快、后劲不足的特点,问题主要变现为产业发展存在“泡沫化”现象、产业集群专业化程度高,国际竞争能力弱、产业出口贸易呈现顺差趋势,国际竞争能力较弱、产业融资困难、产业教育信息化程度难以适应发展需要等,并对导致这些问题产生的原因进行分析提出了切实可行的建议,希望能为进一步提高首都文化创意产业国际核心竞争力做出贡献。

参考文献:
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[2]洪娟,刘甦,孙黛琳,付建文等.北京与伦敦文化创意产业发展比较研究[J].城市问题,2013(6):38-41.
[3] 王立丽,牛继舜.伦敦文化创意产业发展模式借鉴与启示[J].商业时代,2013(14):121-122。
[4]马义玲,马明燕.国内外主要城市现代服务业发展对比研究[J].华章, Magnificent Writing,2011(21):73-76.
[5]刘丽,张焕波.北京文化创意产业集群发展问题研究[J].中国农业大学学报,2006(3):47-52
[6] 王立丽,牛继舜.基于产业竞争优势理论的伦敦文化创意产业竞争优势研究[J]. 山东纺织经济,2012(10):14-16.
[7]余永定. 中国的双顺差: 根源与对策[J].中国金融,2006(19):25-27.
[8]戴翔. 中国“出口导向型”模式的可持续性辨析[J].现代经济探讨,2010( 8).
[9]白远.陶英媛.从文化创意产品的国际贸易看我国文化创意产品消费市场[J].贸易经济.2009(7):7-14
[10]王信东. 北京文化创意产业引导消费需求的功能分析[D].北京信息科技大学. 2013.02.03 .
[11]国务院关于推进文化创意和设计服务与相关产业融合发展的若干意[EB/OL]http://news.xinhuanet.com/politics/2014-03/14/c_119773597_2.htm
[12]张济荣张梦岩.文化创意产业发展对就业增长贡献分析—以北京市为例[J].现代传播, 2011年(5):144-146.
[13]田壮壮. “软环境”:扼住文化创意产业发展喉咙[EB/OL]. http://www.9yc.com/html/201005/21/200925341.htm [14] 当前文化创意产业发展问题及政策研究[EB/OL] http://www.docin.com/p-33886951.html -----------------------
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