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Fighting to End Obesity Everyone knows someone like Mary; she is a woman who many consider to be beautiful, smart, successful, and has a great personality. Each person she comes in contact with admires her and who she is as a person, but Mary has a problem; she cannot run and play with her children nor do most things that an average sized adult at her age would be able to do. The reason she cannot perform these tasks is because she is obese. Mary is three times heavier than what is believed to be typical standards for her age and height. She often has trouble breathing, swollen feet, as well as an extensive list of other medical conditions that affect her well-being; therefore, is constantly on medication to ensure that she stays alive. Upon reflection, one may actually relate in some way or another to this story either by knowing someone in her position or even connecting directly on a more personal level. People like Mary are now deemed to be, what the United States declares, an average statistic in Americans today. Evidently, obesity is becoming a growing problem which appears to be worsening each year. According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, roughly 1/3 of Americans are obese (Adult Obesity, 2011). In the United States alone the amount of adults who are statistically obese, whose BMI also known as body mass index, (the body weight in kilograms divided by the square of the body height in meters, is greater than 30%) has increased from no states to nine over the past 10 years (Obesity Data and Statistics, 2011). Statistics taken by the World Health Organization will show that at least 2.8 million adults die each year as a result of being overweight or obese. In 2008 a study was conducted on obesity and the results concluded that 1.5 billion adults, 20 and older, were overweight. Of these 1.5 billion overweight adults, over 200 million men and nearly 300 million women were obese (World Health Organization, 2011). This epidemic has been a growing problem since the mid 1950s but did not gain global attention until the year 2000. Looking back to the early 1980s heading into the 90s, obesity was not thought to be a relevent topic of discussion, let alone a major concern. According to the book Fat Politics: The Real Story behind America's Obesity Epidemic, it wasn’t until the newly appointed director of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, William Deitz, brought the matter to light that this epidemic got the recognition it should have received all those years ago. Dietz conducted research and created visuals to display the escalating numbers of those considered overweight or morbidly obese in each state. Starting his finding in 1985, and proceeding through each passing year; Dietz was able to illustrate how severe this crisis was actually becoming (Oliver, 2006). Obesity is known as chronic disease and usually occurs when the adipose tissue increases and massive amounts continue to grow and disperse in the body (Silverstone, 2005). This condition affects people of all race, age and economic standards, although some are in fact more prone to suffering with this illness than others. It has been shown via the National Health and Statistic Programs that African American men show the most prevalence to obesity. Women in low salary households also rank highly among these stats (Obesity Data and Statistics, 2011). The United States is also currently toiling with the rising number of children and teens who are rapidly falling prey to this disorder. Medical conditions such as hypothyroidism as well as food addiction are the main causes of obesity. Society can combat this disease by researching and developing experimental drugs in addition to, having more rehabilitation centers for those who are struggling with compulsive eating.
Problems
Hypothyroidism is a particular type of thyroid disease which can cause obesity due to the fact that the thyroid gland does not generate enough hormones which the body needs to produce energy. As referenced by The American Thyroid Association (2005), hypothyroidism is the most common thyroid disorder and to this present day has been deemed non-curable. Common causes of hypothyroidism include but are not limited to, radiation treatment from neck cancer, radiation to the brain, exposure or ingestion of lithium, and congenital defects or otherwise known as birth defects (National Library of Medicine, 2008). Symptoms to look out for with hypothyroidism include fatigue, discoloration of the skin, unbalanced body, and memory loss; along with other things. These symptoms are considered to be the most frequently reported amongst those who have been diagnosed with this disease (Hypothyroidism FAQs, 2003, p. 7). One of the main reasons hypothyroidism is a major factor in causing obesity is because this disease reduces the metabolism rate in the human body. Consistent with the book Harvard Medical School Guide to Overcoming Thyroid Problems, by slowing down this process, the energy consumed through food is not being utilized and gradually converts into fat that has nowhere to go causing the substantial weight gain (Garber & White, 2005, p. 26). One who currently suffers from obesity will typically have other types of medical problems such as diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure and high cholesterol along with thyroid disease which can worsen the effects of this condition. Often times, there are those who are currently living with hypothyroidism that are experiencing other forms of thyroid diseases such as Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and Graves’ disease. There have been instances where some individuals have been oblivious to the fact that they have these ailments, as indicated in Complete Thyroid Book (Ain & Rosenthal, 2005, p. 220). For some people, it may take time before the symptoms appear as life-threating. Untreated hypothyroidism combined with infections, illness, exposure to cold, or certain medications can lead to Myxedema coma; the most brutal form of hypothyroidism. This type of coma, despite being extremely unusual, may develop when the thyroid hormone levels become severely low (National Library of Medicine, 2008). Another major factor affecting obesity today is food addiction, otherwise known as over eating or compulsive eating. This kind of problem is more psychological rather than medical as with hypothyroidism. Kathy Leach, author of The Overweight Patient: A psychological approach to understanding and working with obesity (2006, p. 35) concluded that, those with food addictions tend to struggle more so than those who are dependent to other substances, since food is part of our everyday lives. Some over eaters tend to associate eating with several different emotions deriving pleasure from consumption. This phenomenon cultivates from their reliance on what one may refer to as “comfort food”. It gives them a sense of fulfillment, often times stemming from underlying issues such as childhood trauma as well as clinical depression, which perhaps they feel as they cannot achieve anywhere else. Others may label their feasting as “stress eating”. This mainly occurs when the individuals turn to food as soon as hectic or tense situations arise in their lives. They often believe that food is what gives them the sense of calmness or control over the circumstances which has them so frazzled. Those who become addicted to food in all likelihood have lost their sense of self-worth. Most deal with overwhelming anxieties in regards to their weight from an early age, often undergoing experiences where they are being discriminated against by others. This prejudice typically begins as young children in where they are being bullied or teased, and as they get older are often isolated or judged by others such as employers, colleagues, family, and more so from strangers. With this constant form of victimization occurring in their lives on a daily basis, these individuals often view their existence as a failure and at times feel as though food is the only thing that is prevalent. Most over eaters treat themselves to their meals in secrecy so others will not judge them. They act on these impulses by eating in their cars, offices or hiding the foods in locations where others may not find it to snack on later when they are alone. Struggling all day in attempts to not fantasize on food is agonizing for those who suffer from this addiction. As referred to in the book Understanding Addiction, just as obsessive compulsive disorder, in which one preoccupies themselves with an act or an object to relieve anguish, most compulsive eaters turn to food for relief (Henderson, 2001, p. 154). One may not instantly realize that a loved one may be suffering from food addiction right away, although he or she is not showing any immediate “signs” of an addict nor is morbidly obese does not mean they are not turning to food as a way out. Families often believe that by arguing about, denying or even enabling the situation is in fact helping the person who is sick; but in all actuality they are exacerbating the circumstances that already exist. What this does is give the person who is addicted a reason to act on their desires; to relieve their frustrations or guilt. Because loved ones apply overwhelming pressure to the addict to change, he or she does the opposite action in a retaliation of what is being asked of them to prove that they are the ones who remain in control of their lives as well as their addictions and don’t need to be told what to do, when or how to stop.
Solutions
One solution that we can use to combat hypothyroidism as well as obesity is utilizing experimental drugs. Some of the drugs that are on the pharmaceutical market today are Levothyroxine and Synthroid; these sodium based tablets were specifically designed for treating hypothyroidism. In reference with the National Library of Medicine (2008), these medicines are thyroid hormone replacements which allow the thyroid gland to function appropriately, thus providing enough hormones through the blood stream and allowing the body to perform as it should be. By taking these types of treatments one is allowing their metabolism to increase resulting in weight reduction. Although, these pills are not resolving obesity directly they do assist in minimizing the effects of weight gain associated with hypothyroidism. There are other remedies that are currently in clinical trials that will aid in curing obesity all together. As of yet, the conclusions to these trials have not been disclosed. Other medications that are still being evaluated are called Orlistat, Metformin, and Topiramate. According to University of Iowa (2011), who is presently conducting this trail, combining Orlistat (more commonly known as Alli) with one of these other medications in addition to exercise will show that patients will be able to drop a substantial amount of weight. Also currently being assessed are anoretic drugs, these medications help in supressing one’s appetite. Anoretic drugs such as Sibutramine were intentionally created to help those suffering from depression, but later showed significant weight loss in those who were prescribed the medication by acting as a temporary restraint on the urges of food, it also works on accelerating the metabolisim process that takes place mainly in the liver (Silverstone, 2005, p. 106). Most of those who suffer from obesity are turning to gastric surgeries. These procedures have known to be extremely dangerous; not to mention potentially fatal. If these techniques can be replaced with safer methods of weight loss such as the experimental drug methods mentioned above, more individuals can lose the pounds without having to resort to altering their bodies in any way. The other solution in ending this developing epidemic has to do with the pshycological aspect of obesity otherwise known as food addiction, or compulsive eating. As with many addictions, the leading resolution in aiding one off their abusive ways is rehabilitation centers. Most view these treatment facilities as their only means to a better life. If society can produce more centers and have them relating strictly towards compulsive eating, binge eating, and food addicition than the crisis concerning obesity will undoubtedly decrease. Offering a facility that includes therapy sessions, controlled eating schedules, and group meetings will allow one to devote their full attention in dominating their yearning to costantly consume food. These alternatives will provide encouragement by others who are experiencing the same circumstances in addition to, understanding and overcoming the core issues of where the obession with food originated from; thus giving them a sense of relif and openess to share their stories with others. As indicated in the book Understanding Addiction, the only way to conquer the craving is by constant treatment and the ablilty to control one’s urges; this is due to the fact that all forms of addicition have been deemed to be incurable (Henderson, 2001, p. 119). Most addicts are naïve to the reality of their disorder and require assistance from friends as well as family to stop, bringing light to the issues with food addiction in a positive manner will make it less stressful for someone with this disease to seek out the apporpriate treatment. Setting boundries and rules for the addict to follow will yield them no choice but to either abide by the guidelines set forth or deal with the consequences of losing the relationship with that family member or loved one. As difficult this action may be for the family, it is the only option in offering this person another possibility at living their life in a healthy and controlled state of mind. Having just support groups such as FA, short for food addicts in recovery anonymous, which provide meetings, literature materials and assistance by following the AA, Alcoholic Anonymos, twelve step program and apply the guidelines to food, is a great option but this but will not repair the circumstances these people face on a daily basis. These individuals need more structure in order to conquer this illness and having these options will surely provide them with that ability.
Call to Action If Americans do not take action in the ongoing battle against obesity they will slowly turn this growing disease into a normality in the United States. More and more Americans are believed to be obese and that number increases as each year passes. The health risks involved are far greater than one can ever imagine and ultimately result in death. According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, in 2010 obesity prevelance less than 20% was non exsitant in every one of the fifty United States . The costs of medical treatment for obesity in 2008 was estimated at $147 billion dollars (Obesity Data and Statistics, 2011). Not finding a solution to this rising predicament, Americans will find themselves in more debt due to medical costs and their health slowly deterorating right before their eyes. As stated by The World Health Organization (2011), obesity is the ranked fifth for leading deaths worldwide. Our culture can not allow this to continue, society must start spreading the knowledge about this emergening crisis by educating America’s youth as well as others to eat healthier and more balanced meals, provide classes in elementary, middle, and high schools dedicated solely on how one can keep their bodies healthy, making exercise a daily occurrence, continue to press our governments to provide and fund state based programs, help create a healthier social enviorment, pressure food corporations to reduce costs on organic foods and finally, teach them how to support those who need the assistance in ultimately gaining triumph over this crippling disease that is gripping our nation today.

References
Adult Obesity. (2011, July 19). Retrieved August 10, 2011, from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/adult.html
Ain, K., & Rosenthal, S. (2005). Complete Thyroid Book. Blacklick: McGraw-Hill Professional Publishing.
American Thyroid Association. (2005). Hypothyroidism. Retrieved August 10, 2011, from American Thyroid Association: http://www.thyroid.org/patients/patient_brochures/hypothyroidism.html
Facts about County-Level Estimates of Diagnosed Diabetes and Obesity. (2011, May 20). Retrieved August 18, 2011, from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/factsheets/countylvlestimates.htm
Garber, J. R., & White, S. (2005). Harvard Medical School Guide to Overcoming Thyroid Problems. Blacklick, OH: McGraw-Hill Professional Publishing.
Henderson, E. C. (2001). Understanding Addiction. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi.
Hypothyroidism FAQs. (2003). Retrieved August 10, 2011, from American Thyroid Association: http://www.thyroid.org/patients/brochures/Hypothyroidism%20_web_booklet.pdf
Leach, K. (2006). The Overweight Patient: A psychological approach to understanding and working with Obesity. London, Great Britain: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
National Library of Medicine. (2008, September 01). Mediline Plus. Retrieved August 17, 2011, from Mediline Plus: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/meds/a682461.html
Obesity Data and Statistics. (2011, July 21). Retrieved August 18, 2011, from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/trends.html
Oliver, E. J. (2006). Fat Politics : The Real Story Behind America's Obesity Epidemic. Cary, NC: Oxford University Press.
Silverstone, T. (2005). Eating Disorders and Obesity: How Drugs Can Help. Amsterdam, NLD: IOS Press.
University of Iowa. (2011, May 09). Drug Therapy Induced Weight Loss to Improve Blood Vessel Function in Subjects With Obesity. Retrieved August 17, 2011, from Clinical Trials.gov: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01351753?recr=Open&cond=%22Obesity%22&rank=55
World Health Organization. (2011, March). Retrieved August 22, 2011, from Facts about overweight and obesity : http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs311/en/

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...Case Study 3 Randa Ring 01/25/2012 HRM/240 1. How did the problems at Deloitte & Touche occur in the first place? I feel that the problem began in the work environment. It looks as if there was limited opportunity for advancement. As well that the company was not able to handle issues that a raised from work and family. I think that it was a wonderful idea to have the company made up of women. I feel that it was a very positive thing because a lot of their issues where not geared towards men. 2. Did their changes fix the underlying problems? Explain. Yes I feel that the changes that they made did fix some of their underlying problems. With them keeping their women employees no matter what position that they were in at the time went up. For the first time the turnover rates for senior managers where lower for women than men. 3. What other advice would you give their managers? They really need to watch showing favoritism towards the women. They did to treat everyone as an equal. I also feel that they should make the changes geared towards the men and women’s issues that have to deal with family and work. 4. Elaborate on your responses to these questions by distinguishing between the role of human resources managers and line managers in implementing the changes described in this case study When it comes to Human resource managers, they will work with the managers in implementing changes. As well they will make a plan to show new and current...

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...CASE STUDY Chapter SIX CASE 6-1 Case Study on “Transfer Pricing Problems” Case SUMMARY Division A of Lambda Company manufactures product X, which is sold to Division B as a component of product Y. Product Y is sold to Division C, which uses it as a component of Product Z. Product Z is also sold to customers outside of the Company. The intracompany pricing rule is that product are transferred between divisions as standard cost plus 10 percent return on inventories and fixed assets. Case Questions Question a: with transfer price calculated in Problem 1, is Division C better advised to maintain its price at $28 or follow competition in each of the instances above? Answer: Under possible competitive price $27.00 If company maintain the price at $28, the profit=(28-23.6) ×9,000=39,600 If company follow the possible competitive price at $27, the profit= (27-23.6) ×10,000=34,000 Under possible competitive price $26.00 If company maintain the price at $28, the profit=(28-23.6) ×7,000=30,800 If company follow the possible competitive price at $26, the profit= (26-23.6) ×10,000=24,000 Under possible competitive price $25.00 If company maintain the price at $28, the profit=(28-23.6) ×5,000=22,000 If company follow the possible competitive price at $25, the profit= (25-23.6) ×10,000=14,000 Under possible......

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