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REVIEW FOR FINAL EXAM 2014 – ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOR

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COMMUNICATION

1. Which of the following is not a key part of the communication process? a. encoding b. agreeing c. channel d. feedback 2. Encoding can be defined as which of the following? a. anything that blocks, distorts, or changes in any way the message the sender intended to communicate b. a check on the success of the communication c. converting a thought, idea, or fact into a message composed of symbols, pictures, or words d. the encoded information 3. Translating the message back into something that can be understood by the receiver can be defined as which of the following within the communication process? a. encoding b. decoding c. channel d. feedback 4. If a manager tells an employee to join a telephone conference and the employee says, “I’ll be right there,” this is an example of which type of communication? a. one-way communication b. down-stream communication c. up-stream communication d. two-way communication 5. If a manager with a finance background sees a problem as finance-based, while a manager with a production background sees it as production-based, what type of communication barrier has occurred? a. misperception b. filtering c. selective perception d. information overload 6. When a message is not decoded by the receiver in the way the sender intended it, we define this type of communication barrier as __________________. a. filtering b. misperception c. selective perception d. information overload 7. Interruptions, the sound of engines or machinery, dim computer screens, small font, or a receiver’s headache are examples of which type of communication noise? a. jargon b. semantics c. physical barriers d. none of these

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8. The _______________ medium is the “richest” medium because it has the capacity for immediate feedback, carries multiple cues, and uses natural language. a. videoconferencing b. face-to-face c. telephone d. e-mail 9.____________ occurs when someone in an organization communicates with others at the same organizational level. a. Downward communication b. Upward communication c. Diagonal communication d. Horizontal communication 10. a. b. c. d. ____________ is when the amount of information available exceeds a person’s ability to process it. Misperception Filtering Information overload Selective perception

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MAKING DECISION

11. a. b. c. d.

__________ decisions are routine, address specific problems, and result in relatively structured solutions. Programmed Nonprogrammed Strategic Operational

12. ____________ decisions are novel and require creativity. a. Programmed b. Nonprogrammed c. Strategic d. Operational 13. Which of the following is most likely to be a nonprogrammed decision? a. how to handle an overtime request b. how to discipline a subordinate c. when to introduce a new product d. none of these 14. __________ decisions address the long-term direction and focus on the organization. a. Operational b. Strategic c. Top-down d. Decentralized 15. a. b. c. d. 16. a. b. c. d. _________ decisions are directive and are made solely by managers who then pass them down to lower-level employees for implementation. Top-down Decentralized Programmed Operational ___________ gives subordinates influence in the decision being made; ___________ gives subordinates the ability and authority to make the decision themselves. Involvement, empowerment Rmpowerment, involvement Utility, logic Logic, utility

17. a. b. c. d.

The information needed to make a programmed decision is ________ available, and the problem is ___________ structured. readily, highly not readily, not readily, not not readily, highly

18. Nonprogrammed decisions require managers to use ____________ rather than ___________. a. experience, creativity b. creativity, experience c. individuals, groups d. groups, individuals

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19. What is the first step in the rational decision making process? a. identifying alternatives b. defining the problem or opportunity c. setting goals d. identifying evaluation criteria 20. Satisficing refers to making a _________ rather than _________ decision. a. rational, intuitive b. satisfactory, optimal c. correct, incorrect d. short-term, long-term 21. a. b. c. d. What term refers to knowing something instinctively based on expertise and experience solving similar problems? bounded rationality impulsivity intuition catharsis

22. Intuition is most helpful when __________ decisions are needed. a. fast b. slow c. quantitative d. interpersonal 23. a. b. c. d. 24. a. b. c. d. 25. Which leadership style is characterized by centralizing authority, making decisions alone, and expecting followers or subordinates simply to follow instructions? autocratic democratic laissez-faire consultative A leader who shares decision making with others and encourages subordinates to be involved in setting goals is using which style? autocratic democratic laissez-faire impulsive What mode of thinking occurs when people are deeply involved in a cohesive in-group and members’ strivings for unanimity override their motivation to realistically appraise alternative courses of action? group polarization risky shift groupthink brainstorming

a. b. c. d.

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POWER – INFLUENCE – POLITICS 26. What type of power is due to the position of authority held? a. legitimate b. referent c. expert d. informational 27. What type of power is due to control over punishments? a. persuasive b. reward c. coercive d. legitimate 28. What type of power is due to control because of knowledge, skills, or expertise? a. informational b. expert c. reward d. persuasive 29. What type of power occurs because subordinates respect, admire, and like the leader? a. referent b. legitimate c. informational d. expert 30. Which of the following is an intangible reward? a. praise b. a pay raise c. a larger office d. a certificate 31. Which of the following is a tangible reward? a. praise b. respect c. kindness d. a pay raise 32. a. b. c. d. 33. a. b. c. d. What term refers to sharing power with employees and giving them the authority to make and implement at least some decisions? abuse of power coercion empowerment persuasion The more desirable and important the resources controlled by a group, the greater the group’s _____________. resource power personal power legitimate power abuse of power

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34. a. b. c. d. 35. a. b. c. d. 36. a. b. c. d.

Which influence tactic involves requesting someone’s advice to solve a problem or mutually setting goals to increase a follower’s commitment to the leader’s decision? consultation personal appeals inspirational appeals legitimating tactics Which influence tactic involves offering to exchange something of value now or in the future for someone’s cooperation? coalition tactics exchange pressure rational persuasion Which influence tactic involves enhancing one’s formal authority to make a certain request by referring to rules, precedents, of official documents? inspirational appeals personal appeals legitimating tactics pressure

37. Which influence tactic uses logic and facts to persuade someone? a. pressure b. inspirational tactics c. rational persuasion d. coalition tactics 38. a. b. c. d. 39. a. b. c. d. What term refers to social influence attempts directed at those who can provide rewards that will help promote or protect the self-interests of the actor? organizational politics abuse of power upward influence pressure What political tactic involves befriending powerful others or starting small subgroups to promote specific aims? building coalitions using outside experts controlling the agenda game playing

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MANAGING CONFLICT AND NEGOTIATING 40. a. b. c. d. 41. a. b. c. d. What term is defined as a disagreement through which two or more parties perceive a threat to their interests, needs, or concerns? conflict dysfunction escalation failure Which cause of conflict involves perceived or actual incompatibilities in beliefs about what is good or bad, right or wrong, or fair or unfair? resource constraints differing process goals poor communication differing values

42. Which cause of conflict involves disagreements over what is to be accomplished? a. differing task goals b. differing process goals c. task interdependence d. change

43. Effective project teams tend to have _______ levels of process conflict. a. high but decreasing b. low but increasing c. consistently high d. consistently low 44. a. b. c. d. 45. a. b. c. d. What term refers to conflict due to incompatible needs or competition over perceived or actual resource constraints? conflicts of interest process conflict task conflict structural conflict In which stage of conflict escalation does one side get frustrated by debate and take action without consulting the opponent? action over words limited attempts to overthrow hardening images and coalitions

46. What conflict management style reflects a desire to give both parties what they want? a. collaborating b. compromising c. competing d. avoiding 47. a. b. c. d. What conflict management style is characterized by each side sacrificing something in order to end the conflict? collaborating compromising competing accommodating

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48. a. b. c. d. 49. a. b. c. d.

Which conflict management style involves pursuing one’s own interest at the expense of the other party? collaborating compromising competing accommodating Which of the following is the cooperative conflict management style characterized by a low concern for one’s own interests? collaborating compromising competing accommodating

50. Which conflict management style involves ignoring the conflict or denying that it exists? a. compromising b. competing c. accomplishing d. avoiding 51. When trying to resolve conflict, you should focus on _________ rather than ________. a. interests, positions b. positions, interests c. ideas, people d. people, ideas

52. What emotions are most likely to fuel relationship conflict? a. sadness and depression b. anger and frustration c. excitement and surprise d. happiness and joy 53. Some employees feel that an organization should be focused on profits while others believe it should focus on doing the maximum good for the maximum number of people. What type of conflict is occurring here? values conflict structural conflict informational conflict personality conflict Often, people are unaware that they are in conflict until they recognize that they are __________ about something. very emotional forgetting excited happy What conflict management style is appropriate to use when the issue is more important to the other party than it is to you? accommodating competing compromising collaborating

a. b. c. d. 54. a. b. c. d. 55. a. b. c. d.

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56. Saying “I’ll go along with whatever is best for you reflects a/an ________ style. a. avoiding b. accommodating c. compromising d. competing 57. a. b. c. d. 58. a. b. c. d. Which of the following is NOT one of the four key areas of skill development suggested by professionals in conflict resolution training? listening questioning mediating avoiding What term refers to the process in which 2 or more parties make offers, counteroffers, and concessions in order to reach an agreement? negotiation distribution integration aggression

59. Which of the following is NOT one of the four fundamental principles of integrative negotiation? a. separate the people from the problem b. focus on positions, not interests c. invent options for mutual gain d. insist on objective fairness criteria 60. Which of the following is one of the four fundamental principles for integrative negotiation? a. focus on positions, not interests b. invent options for personal gain c. insist on subjective fairness criteria d. separate the people from the problem 61. Which of the following should you do while negotiating? a. constantly make eye contact b. ignore members of the group c. use a cold, harsh voice d. maintain confident posture 62. a. b. c. d. In ____________, an impartial third party facilitates a discussion using persuasion and logic, suggesting alternatives, and establishing each side’s priorities. conciliation mediation arbitration dictation

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ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE AND DESIGN 63. Which of the following is/are influenced by an organization’s structure? a. how the organization operates b. how employees communicate c. how employees are expected to behave d. all of these 64. Effective organizational structures do which of the following? a. improve the working efficiency of the organization b. motivate employees rather than frustrate them c. facilitate working relationships among employees d. all of these 65. a. b. c. d. What term refers to the process of selecting and managing aspects of organizational structure and culture to enable the organization to achieve its goals? organizational design organizational structure organizational chart division of labor

66. What term refers to the formal system of task, power, and reporting relationships? a. organizational design b. organizational structure c. organizational chart d. span of control 67. Effective managers use organizational structure to _____________ employees. a. coordinate b. control c. motivate d. all of these 68. What term refers to the extent to which employees specialize or generalize? a. division of labor b. span of control c. hierarchy d. centralization 69. What term refers to the number of people reporting directly to an individual? a. division of labor b. span of control c. hierarchy d. centralization 70. What term refers to the degree to which some employees have formal authority over others? a. division of labor b. span of control c. hierarchy d. centralization 71. What term refers to the degree to which power and decision making authority are concentrated at higher levels of the organization rather than distributed? a. division of labor b. span of control c. hierarchy d. centralization
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72. ___________ establishes the tallness or flatness of an organizational chart. a. Division of labor b. Span of control c. Hierarchy d. Centralization 73. a. b. c. d. 74. a. b. c. d. By definition, ______________ organizations concentrate power and decision making authority at higher levels of the organization centralized decentralized formalized pressurized In ______________ organizations, the authority for making decisions affecting an organization is distributed. centralized decentralized formalized pressurized

75. Which type of organization is least mechanistic? a. rigid bureaucracy b. matrix organization c. bureaucracy with cross-departmental meetings d. project- or team- based organization 76. a. b. c. d. 77. a. b. c. d. What term refers to structures with formal division of labor, hierarchy, and standardization of work procedures? pre-bureaucratic structures bureaucratic structures functional structures divisional structures For multinational organizations, which structure is most appropriate when local differences are large and the benefits of global integration are small? global product division structure global area division structure global transnational division structure regional headquarters structure

78. What structure creates horizontal or vertical teams that can define part or all of the organization? a. matrix structure b. team-based structure c. lattice structure d. divisional structure 79. a. b. c. d. What term refers to a collection of autonomous units or firms that act as a single larger entity, using social mechanisms for coordination and control? network organization virtual organization division work team

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ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE AND CHANGE 80. Organizational structure is to skeleton as organizational culture is to _____________. a. personality b. eyes c. muscles d. skin 81. a. b. c. d. What term refers to a system of shared values, norms, and assumptions that guide members’ attitudes and behaviors? organizational change organizational structure organizational culture organizational goals

82. What is the foundation of culture? a. money b. trust c. friendship d. leadership 83. a. b. c. d. What term refers to values and norms that employees exhibit based on their observations of what actually goes on in the organization? enacted values and norms assumptions espoused values and norms code of conduct

84. If a business strategy and corporate culture are pulling in two different directions, which will win? a. the culture b. the strategy c. it depends on what the strategy is d. it depends on what the culture is like 85. Which of the following is NOT true about strong cultures? a. They clarify appropriate behavior. b. They are widely shared. c. They are internally inconsistent. d. The can enhance organizational performance. 86. A company’s culture should _____________ its business strategy. a. oppose b. reinforce c. not affect d. undermine 87. Organizations must change in response to which of the following? a. changing customer preferences b. changing labor markets c. changing economic environments d. all of these 88. What term refers linear, continuous change conducted to fix problems or change procedures? a. incremental change b. transformative change c. regulated change d. deregulated change
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89. a. b. c. d.

What term refers to radical change that tends to be both multidimensional and multilevel, involving discontinuous shifts in thinking or perceiving things? incremental change transformative change regulated change deregulated change

90. Which of the following is an internal driver of change? a. globalization b. talent shortages c. increased competition d. changes in consumer demands 91. Identify the correct order for Lewin’s phases of the change process. a. diagnosis, unfreezing, movement, refreezing b. unfreezing, diagnosis, refreezing, movement c. unfreezing, refreezing, movement, diagnosis d. diagnosis, unfreezing, refreezing, movement. 92. a. b. c. d. ______________ prepares people and organizations for change by creating a disequilibrium between driving and restraining change forces. Diagnosis Unfreezing Movement Refreezing

93. What is the most common order of employee reactions to change? a. resistance, denial, commitment, exploration b. denial, resistance, exploration, commitment c. exploration, resistance, commitment, denial d. resistance, exploration, denial, commitment. 94. What is occurring when employees attempt to postpone the change implementation by withholding participation and trying to convince decision makers that the proposed change is inappropriate? denial resistance exploration commitment What term refers to regular, stable patterns of events that become routines and take time to change? habits resources rules policies

a. b. c. d. 95. a. b. c. d.

96. What term refers to any behavior that preserves the status quo in the face of pressure to change? a. resistance to change b. fear of the unknown c. tolerance for ambiguity d. resistance to structure

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97. a. b. c. d. 98. a. b. c. d.

What term refers to a smaller version of an organizational change intended to test the proposed change and improve it before rolling it out to the entire organization? trial run pilot project organizational experiment organizational study What term refers to an organization that facilitates the learning of all its members and continually transforms itself? a pilot project a learning organization a developmental business a transformative firm

99. What term refers to a planned effort to increase an organization’s long-term effectiveness? a. organization development b. organization vision c. organization learning d. organization structure

100. a. b. c. d.

Perceptions of the fairness of both change procedures and outcomes are related to more __________ employee reactions to the change. positive negative confused angry

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...Jobs was a character with a philosophy: a thought leader whose colleagues were believers. He understood that leading in the workplace is about more than making major business decisions. Strong leaders set the tone for their business and guide their company—and employees—to be the best they can be. It helps to have some principles in place that guide you—here are five of the best: 1. SELL YOUR MISSION STATEMENT TO YOUR TEAM AS YOU WOULD AN INVESTOR You know that elevator pitch you've got memorized—what your company is all about, what your overarching goals are, why you come into work each day? That's an important message for potential investors and partners, but it's especially important for the people working every day to achieve it. In a recent TED Talk, leadership expert Simon Sinek discussed the value of "why." "Every single person, every single organization on the planet knows what they do, 100%. . . But very, very few people or organizations know why they do what they do. And by "why" I don't mean "to make a profit." By "why," I mean: What's your purpose? What's your cause?" An inspired leader gives their employees' work meaning: managing their feelings of inspiration and value is as much a part of your job as overseeing their work. 2. A TEAM IS ONLY AS STRONG AS ITS PLAYERS Apathy is one of the workplace leader's greatest adversaries. Given the choice between a staff of worker bees and a staff of self-motivated, goal-oriented leaders, I'd choose the......

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...International Financial Management – Case Study #2 Nodal Logistics and Custo Brasil Deadline: Monday, 11/10/2014 How to get the case Nodal Logistics and Custo Brasil by Michael Moffett Source: Thunderbird School of Global Management 11 pages. Publication Date: Nov 15, 2008. Prod. #: TB0049-PDF-ENG The easiest way is to go directly to: http://hbr.org/store You will need to create an account and to use a credit or debit card to process payments. You can purchase the case in either digital (PDF) or hard copy, as you prefer. It should be about $9. Harvard Business Publishing offers a new way to buy cases – as part of a “coursepack.” I have not had a chance to try this out. But the case should be available at a 50% discount using the following link: https://cb.hbsp.harvard.edu/cbmp/access/31390448 Rules for case studies The way we will handle case studies is the following. You should hand in a written analysis, addressing the points discussed below. While I will moderate this discussion, the actual analysis should originate from you, the students. Hence, while you will not be asked to offer a formal presentation (simply, the size of the class makes it unfeasible, in my opinion), you should come to class prepared to discuss and defend your analysis. I will take your in-class contribution into account when grading your case analysis. You can work alone, if you so prefer, but I recommend finding one or two people to cooperate with. So, just to be......

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...Case Study Analysis Paper COMM/215 April 1, 2014 University of Phoenix Case Study Analysis Paper Introduction On this case we see Carl Robins a new campus recruiter for ABC, Inc. , he have been at this job for six months . In the case we read the lack of experience that he have as a recruiter and all the issues he encounter when situations steps on the way and the managerial skills of his supervisor. Carl needs to find a way that he can perform this work by the time it is needed. The frustration will have a crucial point on this case because of the experience he has on this. The organization of him and responsible manners take place and he needs to act before the company it is being harmed. All of these happens because of a decision of Monica Carrolls, Operations Supervisor to give him a job after only six months of work demonstrating the lack of managerial skills she has. Background According to the University of Phoenix Case Study for Student Analysis (2012), Carl Robins, the new campus recruiter for ABC, Inc., successfully recruited several new hires in spite of having been at his new job for only six months; this was his first recruitment effort, the first recruitment was to hire 15 new trainees to work for Monica Carrols, the operation's supervisor. He scheduled the orientation for the new hire to be on June 15, this to have them working by July. On May 15 Monica contacted him to talk about the training schedule, manuals, policy,......

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