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South Africa

© 2011 The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank 1818 H Street NW Washington, DC 20433 Telephone 202-473-1000 Internet www.worldbank.org

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Additional copies of Doing Business 2011: Making a Difference for Entrepreneurs, Doing Business 2010: Reforming through Difficult Times, Doing Business 2009, Doing Business 2008, Doing Business 2007: How to Reform, Doing Business in 2006: Creating Jobs, Doing Business in 2005: Removing Obstacles to Growth and Doing Business in 2004:Understanding Regulations may be purchased at www.doingbusiness.org. ISBN: 978-0-8213-7960-8 E-ISBN: 978-0-8213-8630-9 DOI: 10.1596/978-0-8213-7960-8 ISSN: 1729-2638 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication data has been applied for. Printed in the United States

Current features News on the Doing Business project http://www.doingbusiness.org Rankings How economies rank-from 1 to 183 http://www.doingbusiness.org/rankings/ Contents
Introduction and Aggregate Rankings 5 - Year Measure of Cumulative Change Starting a Business Dealing with Construction Permits Registering Property

Business reformers Short summaries of DB2011 business reforms, lists of reformers since DB2004 and a ranking simulation tool http://www.doingbusiness.org/reforms/ Historical data Customized data sets since DB2004 http://www.doingbusiness.org/custom-query/ Methodology and research The methodologies and research papers underlying Doing Business http://www.doingbusiness.org/Methodology/ Download reports Access to Doing Business reports as well as subnational and regional reports, reform case studies and customized country and regional profiles http://www.doingbusiness.org/reports/ Subnational and regional projects Differences in business regulations at the subnational and regional level http://www.doingbusiness.org/subnational-reports/ Getting Credit Protecting Investors Paying Taxes Trading Across Borders Enforcing Contracts Closing a Business Doing Business 2011 Business Reforms

Law library Online collection of business laws and regulations relating to business and gender issues http://www.doingbusiness.org/law-library/ http://wbl.worldbank.org/
Contributors More than 8,200 specialists in 183 economies who participate in

Doing Business http://www.doingbusiness.org/contributors/Doing-Business/ Business Planet Interactive map on the ease of doing business

http://rru.worldbank.org/businessplanet

Doing Business 2011: Making a Difference for Entrepreneurs is the eighth in a series of annual reports investigating regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulations and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 183 economies, from Afghanistan to Zimbabwe, over time. A set of regulations affecting 9 stages of a business ’s life are measured: starting a business, dealing with construction permits, registering property, getting credit, protecting investors, paying taxes, trading across borders, enforcing contracts and closing a business. Data in Doing Business 2011 are current as of June 1, 2010*. The indicators are used to analyze economic outcomes and identify what reforms have worked, where, and why. The Doing Business methodology has limitations. Other areas important to business such as an economy ’s proximity to large markets, the quality of its infrastructure services (other than those related to trading across borders), the security of property from theft and looting, the transparency of government procurement, macroeconomic conditions or the underlying strength of institutions, are not studied directly by Doing Business. To make the data comparable across economies, the indicators refer to a specific type of business, generally a local limited liability company operating in the largest business city. Because standard assumptions are used in the data collection, comparisons and benchmarks are valid across economies. The data not only highlight the extent of obstacles to doing business; they also help identify the source of those obstacles, supporting policymakers in designing reform. The data set covers 183 economies: 46 in Sub-Saharan Africa, 32 in Latin America and the Caribbean, 25 in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, 24 in East Asia and Pacific, 18 in the Middle East and North Africa and 8 in South Asia, as well as 30 OECD high-income economies. The following pages present the summary Doing Business indicators for South Africa. The data used for this economy profile come from the Doing Business database and are summarized in graphs. These graphs allow a comparison of the economies in each region not only with one another but also with the “good practice” economy for each indicator. The good-practice economies are identified by their position in each indicator as well as their overall ranking and by their capacity to provide good examples of business regulation to other countries. These good-practice economies do not necessarily rank number 1 in the topic or indicator, but they are in the top 10. More information is available in the full report. Doing Business 2011: Making a Difference for Entrepreneurs presents the indicators, analyzes their relationship with economic outcomes and recommends reforms. The data, along with information on ordering the report, are available on the Doing Business website (www.doingbusiness.org).

* Except for the Paying Taxes indicator, which covers the period January to December of 2009. Note: Doing Business 2010 data and rankings have been recalculated to reflect changes to the methodology.

1

Economy Rankings - Ease of Doing Business
South Africa is ranked 34 out of 183 economies. Singapore is the top ranked economy in the Ease of Doing Business.

South Africa - Compared to global good practice economy as well as selected economies:

South Africa's ranking in Doing Business 2011
Rank Ease of Doing Business Starting a Business Dealing with Construction Permits Registering Property Getting Credit Protecting Investors Paying Taxes Trading Across Borders Enforcing Contracts Closing a Business Doing Business 2011

34 75 52 91 2 10 24 149 85 74 2

Summary of Indicators - South Africa

Starting a Business

Procedures (number) Time (days) Cost (% of income per capita) Paid-in Min. Capital (% of income per capita)

6 22 6.0 0.0 17 174 23.1 6 24 8.8 9 6 0.0 54.9 8 8 8 8.0 9 200 24.3 2.5 3.7 30.5 8 30 1531 9 35 1807 3

Dealing with Construction Permits

Procedures (number) Time (days) Cost (% of income per capita)

Registering Property

Procedures (number) Time (days) Cost (% of property value)

Getting Credit

Strength of legal rights index (0-10) Depth of credit information index (0-6) Public registry coverage (% of adults) Private bureau coverage (% of adults)

Protecting Investors

Extent of disclosure index (0-10) Extent of director liability index (0-10) Ease of shareholder suits index (0-10) Strength of investor protection index (0-10)

Paying Taxes

Payments (number per year) Time (hours per year) Profit tax (%) Labor tax and contributions (%) Other taxes (%) Total tax rate (% profit)

Trading Across Borders

Documents to export (number) Time to export (days) Cost to export (US$ per container) Documents to import (number) Time to import (days) Cost to import (US$ per container)

Enforcing Contracts

Procedures (number) Time (days) Cost (% of claim)

30 600 33.2 34.4 2.0 18

Closing a Business

Recovery rate (cents on the dollar) Time (years) Cost (% of estate)

The 5-year measure of cumulative change illustrates how the business regulatory environment has changed in 174 economies* from Doing Business 2006 to Doing Business 2011. Instead of highlighting which economies currently have the most business friendly environment, this new approach shows the extent to which an economy’s regulatory environment for business has changed compared with 5 years ago. This snapshot reflects all cumulative changes in an economy’s business regulation as measured by the Doing Business indicators -such as a reduction in the time to start a business thanks to a one-stop shop or an increase in the strength of investor protection index thanks to new stock exchange rules that tighten disclosure requirements for related-party transactions. This figure shows the distribution of cumulative change across the 9 indicators and time between Doing Business 2006 and Doing Business 2011.

DB change score
0.20

Doing business has become easier

0.16

0.12

0.08

0.04

Doing business has become more difficult or more costly

0.00

-0.04

Nigeria

Mauritius

Botswana

Kenya

South Africa

Namibia

Note: This year's DB change score ranges from -0.1 to 0.54. More details on how the DB change score is constructed can be found in the methodology section of the website. * Bahrain, The Bahamas, Brunei, Cyprus, Kosovo, Liberia, Luxembourg, Montenegro and Qatar do not feature in the new metric because they were included in the Doing Business report in years subsequent to the Doing Business 2005 report and hence, 5 years of data are not yet available.

6

1. Benchmarking Starting a Business Regulations
South Africa is ranked 75 overall for Starting a Business. Ranking of South Africa in Starting a Business - Compared to good practice and selected economies:

7

The following table shows Starting a Business data for South Africa compared to good practice and comparator economies:
Good Practice Economies
Procedures (number) Time (days) Cost (% of income per capita) Paid-in Min. Capital (% of income per capita)

Denmark New Zealand

0.0 1 1 0.0

Selected Economy
South Africa 6 22 6.0 0.0

Comparator Economies
Botswana Kenya Mauritius Namibia Nigeria

10 11 5 10 8

61 33 6 66 31

2.2 38.3 3.8 18.5 78.9

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

8

2. Historical data: Starting a Business in South Africa
Starting a Business data Doing Business 2008 Doing Business 2009 Doing Business 2010 Doing Business 2011

Rank Procedures (number) Time (days) Cost (% of income per capita) Paid-in Min. Capital (% of income per capita)

.. 8 31 7.1 0.0

.. 6 22 6.0 0.0

66 6 22 5.9 0.0

75 6 22 6.0 0.0

3. Starting a Business sub indicators in South Africa over the past 4 years

9

4. Overview of the steps to Starting a Business in South Africa
It requires 6 procedures, takes 22 days, and costs 5.96 % GNI per capita to start a business in South Africa.

No:

Procedure

Time to complete (days)

Cost to complete
ZAR 50

1

Reserve a company name with the Registrar of Companies and pay fees Lodges formation documentation with CIPRO in Pretoria, Gauteng Province, South Africa for registration

3

2

6

ZAR 350 (administrative fee) + 0.5% of authorized capital + ZAR 60 (certificate to commence business) no charge

3 4

Open a bank account Register with the office of the local receiver of revenue (SARS) for income tax, VAT, and employee withholding tax (PAYE and SITE).

1 12

no charge

5 * Register with the Department of Labor for Unemployment Insurance. 6 * Register with the Comissioner according to the Compensation for Occupational Injuries and Diseases Act. * Takes place simultaneously with another procedure.

4

no charge

10

no charge

10

5. Details on Starting a Business in South Africa
This table summarizes the procedures and costs associated with setting up a business in South Africa. STANDARDIZED COMPANY Legal Form: Private Limited Liability Company Paid-in Minimum Capital: 0.0 (% of income per capita) City: Johannesburg

Procedure

1

Reserve a company name with the Registrar of Companies and pay fees

Time to complete(days): Cost to complete: Comment:

3 ZAR 50 The company name can be reserved electronically via the Internet. Otherwise, the promoter must go to the CIPRO and pay the prescribed fee. The official at the CIPRO offices will submit the application electronically on the person’s (company or individual) behalf. Once CIPRO has approved the propose company name, the reservation is valid for 2 months extended by a period of 1 month, within which the company can be incorporated. The name reservation application is processed only if the agent has a credit balance on his or her account. CIPRO officials assign a tracking number to the electronic name reservation and process it in that order. The filing takes 5 minutes; the approval/rejection process takes about 3–5 days depending on the availability of the Web site and the number of applications received and any backlog. In-person filing of a name reservation application at the CIPRO offices may take longer. A name reservation can be extended for another month by filing a name reservation extension form (Form CM6) and paying ZAR 20. When an applicant lodges documents with CIPRO the applicant would be required by CIPRO to open an agent account for the purpose of debiting the amount of any fees payable in connection with that lodgment and future lodgments. On lodgment of the reservation of name application 11

(Form CM5) CIPRO will immediately debit the agent account with an amount of ZAR 50.

Procedure

2

Lodges formation documentation with CIPRO in Pretoria, Gauteng Province, South Africa for registration

Time to complete(days): Cost to complete: Comment:

6 ZAR 350 (administrative fee) + 0.5% of authorized capital + ZAR 60 (certificate to commence business) A certificate to commence business is required by law (s172 of the Companies Act) before a company can legally trade or raise finance. The form CM46 – certificate to commence business is submitted together with the formation documentation. The Registrar will incorporate the company once all the following documents are submitted simultaneously: - A copy of Cipro’s letter advising that the name has been approved and reserved. - One signed set of the certificate of incorporation, Memorandum and Articles of Association together with the necessary signatories pages. The memorandum of association must reflect the lodgement fees payable which are calculated based on the authorized share capital of the company as a flat rate of R350 plus R5 for every R1,000 or part thereof or, in the event of the company having shares of no par value, R5 for each 1,000 shares or part thereof. The minimum fee payable on a formation of a company is R415. -Form CM22 (notice of registered office and postal address) in duplicate. -Form CM29 (register of director and information pertaining to a company secretary). -Form CM31 (consent to the appointment of the auditor) in duplicate. Every South African company must appoint a South African auditor. -Forms CM27 A (consent to the appointment of the company secretary). -Form CM46 (the certificate to commence business) -Form CM47 (statement by each Director indicating there is adequate capital in the Company for the purpose of the company's business) The Registrar will attend to the recording of the registration by allocating a registration number to the company and will release the Memorandum and Articles of Association, certificate of incorporation and certificate to commence business, one form CM22 and CM31. In addition to the CM forms listed above a CM47 which is a statement by each Director indicating there is adequate capital in the Company for the purpose of the company's business, also needs to be completed by the directors of the Company and lodged with CIPRO.

Procedure

3

Open a bank account

Time to complete(days): Cost to complete: Comment:

1 no charge In order to open a bank account, the applicant needs to have a proof of who the directors are, and the original company documents.this procedure might take longer if required documentation are not in order.

Procedure

4

Register with the office of the local receiver of revenue (SARS) for income tax, VAT, and employee withholding tax (PAYE and SITE).

Time to complete(days): Cost to complete: Comment:

12 no charge Business with annual taxable income of more than ZAR 1,000,000 needs to register for VAT.The application for the registration of VAT is done on a VAT101 form. Cipro and the South African Revenue Service are linked electronically. Once a company is incorporated the relevant South African Revenue Service office is advised and an income tax number is allocated to such entity. The company also has to register as an employer by means of "EMP 101e" form that caters for the necessary registration of all the witholding taxes applicable to the taxpayer including PAYE (Pay as You Earn. ie: employee tax) or SITE (inclusive of employee tax), UIF (Unemployment Insurance Fund) . SITE always is payable on the "first" R60 000, whereafter PAYE is payable on the excesss (e.g. amount after R60 000. The Employer is compelled to register as employer in terms of paragraph 15 of the 4th schedule to the Income Tax Act. If an employee earns less than 12

ZAR60 000 SITE is payable and if the employee earns more than ZAR 1,00,000 PAYE is payable. No separate registration required for SITE. Any employer who is liable to register with SARS for the payment of employees' tax is also required to register with SARS for purposes of paying unemployment insurance fund contributions. An employer does not have a discretion whether to register with SARS or the Unemployment Insurance Commissioner (Department of Labour), as the liability of the employer to register and pay employees' tax and SDL will determine with whom an employer must be registered for UIF purposes. With regards to VAT applications, SARS assesses the viability of the business as part of the registration process. The company must appoint a public officer in terms of section 101 of the Income Tax Act and must advise the relevant SARS office of the full name, residential and postal address of such person. This person must be a resident of South Africa. SARS also carries out a physical inspection of the business premises and performs an interview with the public officer (or the tax practitioner authorised to carry out the registration process) before the VAT registration application is processed SARS introduced new verification procedures for VAT registration with effect from 13 November 2008 in an attempt to combat fraud. These requirements include 1) applications must be submitted in person or by a duly authorised and registered tax practitioner, 2) applications must be accompanied by proof of identity, bank particulars and documentation substantiating the physical business address.

Procedure

5

Register with the Department of Labor for Unemployment Insurance.

Time to complete(days): Cost to complete: Comment:

4 no charge To register for unemployment insurance, the company submits U18 & U19 application forms at once. Once the application is approved, the Department of Labour issues a reference number.

Procedure

6

Register with the Comissioner according to the Compensation for Occupational Injuries and Diseases Act.

Time to complete(days): Cost to complete: Comment:

10 no charge Registration forms can be obtained from the Department of Labour’s Web site (www.labour.gov.za). Businesses do not have to wait for the approval of registration to start operations. The relevant form is a W.As.2, and written notification will be sent once the completed application has been examined.

13

14

1. Benchmarking Dealing with Construction Permits Regulations
South Africa is ranked 52 overall for Dealing with Construction Permits. Ranking of South Africa in Dealing with Construction Permits - Compared to good practice and selected economies:

15

The following table shows Dealing with Construction Permits data for South Africa compared to good practice and comparator economies:
Good Practice Economies
Procedures (number) Time (days) Cost (% of income per capita)

Denmark Qatar Singapore

6 0.8 25

Selected Economy
South Africa 17 174 23.1

Comparator Economies
Botswana Kenya Mauritius Namibia Nigeria

24 11 18 12 18

167 120 107 139 350

264.5 167.8 32.3 113.0 597.5

16

2. Historical data: Dealing with Construction Permits in South Africa
Dealing with Construction Permits data Doing Business 2008 Doing Business 2009 Doing Business 2010 Doing Business 2011

Rank Procedures (number) Time (days) Cost (% of income per capita)

.. 17 174 30.4

.. 17 174 27.5

52 17 174 24.5

52 17 174 23.1

3. Dealing with Construction Permits sub indicators in South Africa over the past 4 years

17

4. Overview of the steps to Building a Warehouse in South Africa
It requires 17 procedures, takes 174 days, and costs 23.09 % GNI per capita to build a warehouse in South Africa.

No:

Procedure

Time to complete (days)

Cost to complete
ZAR 6,000

1

Submit site development/building plans to municipality for approval

90 days

2 * Submit copy of building plans to TELKOM to apply for telephone connection 3 * Submit occupational health and safety plan 4 * Pay road repair deposit 5 Submit notification of completion of excavation/ foundation work Receive inspection of excavation and foundations work Submit notification of completion of sewage/ plumbing work Receive inspection of sewage and plumbing Submit certificate of compliance (plumbing, sewage)

20 days

ZAR 600

7 days 30 days 1 day

no charge

ZAR 1,500

no charge

6 7 8 9

1 day 1 day 1 day 1 day

no charge

no charge

no charge

no charge

18

10 11 12 13

Submit notification of completion of electrical work Receive inspection of electricity installations Submit certificate of compliance (electricity installation) Apply for electrical connection with local provider

1 day 1 day 1 day 74 days 30 days 1 day 1 day 1 day

no charge

no charge

no charge

no charge

14 * Apply for water and sewerage connection 15 * Obtain telephone connection 16 17 Receive final inspection by municipal authorities Obtain occupational certificate

ZAR 1,350

ZAR 1,650

no charge

no charge

* Takes place simultaneously with another procedure.

19

5. Details on Building a Warehouse in South Africa

The table below summarizes the procedures, time, and costs to build a warehouse in South Africa. BUILDING A WAREHOUSE Estimated warehouse value:ZAR 2,602,000 City: Johannesburg

Procedure

1

Submit site development/building plans to municipality for approval

Time to complete: Cost to complete: Agency: Comment:

90 days ZAR 6,000 Municipality Three copies of all plans are circulated internally among several departments within the municipality (usually zoning, water, structural, land survey, drainage/sewage, fire, and health departments). Site development plans may be approved first, which allows the company to start preliminary work on site. Building plans are usually approved by the time the site is ready for construction. The approved plans are returned to the company with all forms required in the future attached: notification of excavation, concrete work (if applicable), plumbing/sewage, and electrical work. The cost is determined by the municipality based on a sliding scale. The company has the option to call beforehand and request an estimate in about 1–2 days. By law, the time limit for plan approval is 30 days, but the municipality commonly extends the time, so the procedure can take up to 3 months to complete.

Procedure

2

Submit copy of building plans to TELKOM to apply for telephone connection

Time to complete:

20 days 20

Cost to complete: Agency: Comment:

ZAR 600 Telkom SA Limited TELKOM reviews the plans and marks its requirements and where the connection is to be made. The application states when the service is required. This procedure can be done simultaneously with the previous one.

Procedure

3

Submit occupational health and safety plan

Time to complete: Cost to complete: Agency: Comment:

7 days no charge Municipality

Procedure

4

Pay road repair deposit

Time to complete: Cost to complete: Comment:

30 days ZAR 1,500 BuildCo must pay a deposit in case any damage is done to public roads during construction.

Procedure

5

Submit notification of completion of excavation/ foundation work

Time to complete: Cost to complete: Agency: Comment:

1 day no charge Municipal Building Inspectorate A notification form is attached to the approved plans.

Procedure

6

Receive inspection of excavation and foundations work

Time to complete: Cost to complete: Agency: Comment:

1 day no charge Municipal Building Inspectorate

Procedure

7

Submit notification of completion of sewage/ plumbing work

Time to complete: Cost to complete:

1 day no charge 21

Agency: Comment:

Municipal Building Inspectorate

Procedure

8

Receive inspection of sewage and plumbing

Time to complete: Cost to complete: Agency: Comment:

1 day no charge Municipal Building Inspectorate This inspection takes place before closing up.

Procedure

9

Submit certificate of compliance (plumbing, sewage)

Time to complete: Cost to complete: Agency: Comment:

1 day no charge Municipality The company is required to submit an official certificate, issued by a registered plumber, confirming that the plumbing work has been completed according to the applicable legislation and standards. Self-certification is done by a certified professional.

Procedure

10

Submit notification of completion of electrical work

Time to complete: Cost to complete: Agency: Comment:

1 day no charge Municipal Building Inspectorate A notification form is attached to the approved plans.

Procedure

11

Receive inspection of electricity installations

Time to complete: Cost to complete: Agency: Comment:

1 day no charge Eskom

Procedure

12

Submit certificate of compliance (electricity installation)

Time to complete: Cost to complete:

1 day no charge 22

Agency: Comment:

Municipality The company is required to submit an official certificate, issued by a registered electrician, confirming that the electrical work has been completed according to the applicable legislation and standards.
13 Apply for electrical connection with local provider

Procedure

Time to complete: Cost to complete: Agency: Comment:

74 days no charge Municipality In Johannesburg, the municipality is both the electrical and the water service provider. The service is not supposed to be granted until the certificate of compliance has been submitted.

Procedure

14

Apply for water and sewerage connection

Time to complete: Cost to complete: Agency: Comment:

30 days ZAR 1,350 Municipality The service should not be provided until the certificate of compliance has been submitted. This procedure can be done simultaneously with the previous one.

Procedure

15

Obtain telephone connection

Time to complete: Cost to complete: Agency: Comment:

1 day ZAR 1,650 Telkom SA Limited This procedure can be done simultaneously with previous ones.

Procedure

16

Receive final inspection by municipal authorities

Time to complete: Cost to complete: Agency: Comment:

1 day no charge Municipality The inspection is a prerequisite to obtaining the occupational certificate.

Procedure

17

Obtain occupational certificate

Time to complete: Cost to complete:

1 day no charge 23

Agency: Comment:

Municipality This certificate is issued after the final inspection by the municipal authorities has been carried out and certifies that the building complies with the national and municipal building regulations.

24

25

1. Benchmarking Registering Property Regulations
South Africa is ranked 91 overall for Registering Property. Ranking of South Africa in Registering Property - Compared to good practice and selected economies:

26

The following table shows Registering Property data for South Africa compared to good practice and comparator economies:
Good Practice Economies
Procedures (number) Time (days) Cost (% of property value)

New Zealand Norway Saudi Arabia

2 1 0.0

Selected Economy
South Africa 6 24 8.8

Comparator Economies
Botswana Kenya Mauritius Namibia Nigeria

5 8 4 9 13

16 64 26 23 82

5.0 4.2 10.6 9.6 20.9

27

2. Historical data: Registering Property in South Africa
Registering Property data Doing Business 2008 Doing Business 2009 Doing Business 2010 Doing Business 2011

Rank Procedures (number) Time (days) Cost (% of property value)

.. 6 24 8.8

.. 6 24 8.8

87 6 24 8.7

91 6 24 8.8

3. Registering Property sub indicators in South Africa over the past 4 years

28

4. Overview of the steps to Registering Property in South Africa
It requires 6 procedures, takes 24 days, and costs 8.82 % of property value to register the property in South Africa.

No:

Procedure

Time to complete (days)

Cost to complete
Transfer fee: ZAR 19,000 for a property of this value Included in Procedure 1 8% of property value (transfer duty) Included in Procedure 1 Included in Procedure 1 ZAR 800 (registration fee)

1

A conveyancer prepares the transfer deed

1 day

2 * Obtain a rates clearance certificate from the local authority

7-30 days (simultaneous with procedures 3 and 4) 5-7 days (simultaneous with procedures 2 and 4) 10 days (simultaneous with procedures 2 and 3) 1 day

3 * Obtain a transfer duty receipt from the South African Revenue Services 4 * The conveyancer prepares and collects all the required documentation 5 Parties sign all the documentation at the conveyancer’s office The conveyancer lodges the deed at the Deeds Registry

6

6-14 days

* Takes place simultaneously with another procedure.

29

5. Details on Registering Property in South Africa
This topic examines the steps, time, and cost involved in registering property in South Africa.

STANDARDIZED PROPERTY
Property Value: ZAR 2,403,131.16 City: Johannesburg

Procedure

1

A conveyancer prepares the transfer deed

Time to complete: Cost to complete: Comment:

1 day Transfer fee: ZAR 19,000 for a property of this value A conveyancer prepares the deed of sale and drafts the transfer deed. He obtains the power of attorney, appointing him to appear before the Registrar. The service of an attorney / conveyancer is mandatory for the registration of the land. A conveyancer is an attorney who is permitted in terms of the Attorneys Act to perform specialized duties with regard to the conveyance of immovable property. The Deeds Registries Act empowers only conveyancers to prepare deeds of transfer and in doing so, assumes responsibility for certain facts set out in the deed and documents. Conveyancing fees are set by the Law Society for different property values, and are available at the Transfer Costs table in http://www.ghostdigest.co.za/code/C_20.html (Transfer fees)

Procedure

2

Obtain a rates clearance certificate from the local authority

Time to complete: Cost to complete:

7-30 days (simultaneous with procedures 3 and 4) Included in Procedure 1

30

Agency: Comment:

Municipality The transferring conveyancer obtains a rates (taxes) clearance certificate from the local authority, on behalf of the seller only if in Johannesburg. Section 118 of the Local Municipality Act states that any act of transferring property must be accompanied by a rates clearance from the local authority. However, the local authority will only check the last 24 months--this is sufficient for the transfer to legally take place. If any taxes are owed from previous years, the seller is not exonerated--the taxes will still have to paid by either the seller or the new owner as per agreement.
3 Obtain a transfer duty receipt from the South African Revenue Services

Procedure

Time to complete: Cost to complete: Agency: Comment:

5-7 days (simultaneous with procedures 2 and 4) 8% of property value (transfer duty) South African Revenue Services The transferring conveyancer obtains a transfer duty receipt/exemption certificate from the South African Revenue Services. As of March 2006, the transfer duty payable for legal entities is 8% of purchase price. The transfer duty scale for transactions concluded after 1 March 2006 is as follows for natural persons: R0 to R 500,000 – exempt R501,000 to R1,000,000 – 5% R1,000,001 and above – 8% As of September 2005, new transfer duty forms have been introduced, making it necessary to supply information to the Receiver of Revenue, including date of original purchase by the seller, and income tax numbers or VAT for both seller and purchaser. If either party owes tax, a query will be raised by the Receiver of Revenue, which could potentially delay the transfer of title.

Procedure

4

The conveyancer prepares and collects all the required documentation

Time to complete: Cost to complete: Agency: Comment:

10 days (simultaneous with procedures 2 and 3) Included in Procedure 1 Registrar of Companies The conveyancer, before lodging the documentation with the deeds registry to transfer the property to the new company, must also conduct a company search at the Registrar of Companies to ascertain the directors of both companies. All conveyancers are linked by internet to this authority and can perform the check online. Usually conveyancers will also ask clients to present them with such documents anyway. In so doing, the conveyancer will: Peruse the memorandum and articles of association of the companies to confirm the powers to acquire and alienate immovable property Obtain the necessary resolutions. Ensure compliance with the Financial Intelligence Center Act by obtaining proof from the companies of the physical/business address and Tax/VAT registration number with the South African Revenue Services. The conveyancer will also request this information from the clients before proceeding, and the check is done automatically at the time of paying transfer duty (procedure 3)--if a company does not have or quotes an incorrect Tax/VAT number, it will not be possible to pay transfer duty and the process will halt. 31

Section 228 of the Companies Act 61 of 1973, as amended by The Corporate Laws Amendment Act 24 of 2006 states that the Directors of a company shall not have the power, save by a special resolution of its members, to dispose of the whole or greater part of the assets of the company. Should the property in question therefore constitute the whole or greater part of the assets of the company, a special resolution will have to be passed by the members of the company in accordance with the requirements for such a special resolution in terms of the Companies Act and such resolution will also have to be registered with the Registrar of Companies before the transfer can be registered in the Deeds Office. This could substantially delay the transfer process.

Procedure

5

Parties sign all the documentation at the conveyancer’s office

Time to complete: Cost to complete: Comment:

1 day Included in Procedure 1 The conveyancer will have all documentation signed by seller and purchaser and obtain guarantees for purchase price. The documents to be signed by the parties are as follows: 1. Seller 1.1 Power of attorney to pass 1.2 Transfer duty declarations 1.3 Affidavits (Solvency; FICA) 2. Purchaser 2.1 Transfer duty declarations 2.2 Affidavits (Solvency; FICA)

Procedure

6

The conveyancer lodges the deed at the Deeds Registry

Time to complete: Cost to complete: Agency: Comment:

6-14 days ZAR 800 (registration fee) Deeds Registry The conveyancer lodges the deed at the Deeds Registry. The Registrar compares the draft deed with data in the register. There are two examinations at different levels. The standards are monitored and the deed is prepared for registration and execution. The Registrar executes the deed, updates the register and archives a copy. The registration fee depends on the value of the property and is obtained from the Transfer Cost table in http://www.ghostdigest.co.za/code/C_20.html (D/O Levy column) The following schedule for deeds office fees applies (Government Gazette no 31458 dated 26 September 2008): Up to ZAR 150 000, the fee is ZAR 70 ZAR 150 000 to ZAR 300 000, the fee is ZAR 300 ZAR 300 000 to ZAR 500 000, the fee is ZAR 400 ZAR 500 000 to ZAR 1 000 000, the fee is ZAR 500 ZAR 1 000 000 to ZAR 2 000 000, the fee is ZAR 600 ZAR 2 000 000 to ZAR 3 000 000, the fee is ZAR 800 ZAR 3 000 000 to ZAR 5 000 000, the fee is ZAR 1000 ZAR 5 000 000 and above, the fee is ZAR 1 200

32

33

1. Benchmarking Getting Credit Regulations
South Africa is ranked 2 overall for Getting Credit. Ranking of South Africa in Getting Credit - Compared to good practice and selected economies:

34

The following table shows Getting Credit data for South Africa compared to good practice and comparator economies:

Good Practice Economies

Strength of legal rights index (0-10)

Depth of credit information index (0-6)

Public registry coverage (% of adults)

Private bureau coverage (% of adults)

New Zealand Portugal Singapore United Kingdom

100.0 67.1 10 6

Selected Economy
South Africa 9 6 0.0 54.9

Comparator Economies
Botswana Kenya Mauritius Namibia Nigeria

7 10 5 8 8

4 4 3 5 0

0.0 0.0 49.8 0.0 0.0

57.6 3.3 0.0 58.5 0.0

35

2. Historical data: Getting Credit in South Africa
Getting Credit data Doing Business 2008 Doing Business 2009 Doing Business 2010 Doing Business 2011

Rank Strength of legal rights index (0-10) Depth of credit information index (0-6) Private bureau coverage (% of adults) Public registry coverage (% of adults)

.. 9 6 52.1 0.0

.. 9 6 64.8 0.0

2 9 6 54.7 0.0

2 9 6 54.9 0.0

3. Getting Credit sub indicators in South Africa over the past 4 years

36

4. Details on Getting Credit in South Africa
The following table summarize legal rights of borrowers and lenders, and the availability and legal framework of credit registries in South Africa.

Getting Credit Indicators (2010)

Indicator

Private bureau coverage (% of adults)

Private credit bureau

Public credit registry

6

Are data on both firms and individuals distributed? Are both positive and negative data distributed? Does the registry distribute credit information from retailers, trade creditors or utility companies as well as financial institutions? Are more than 2 years of historical credit information distributed? Is data on all loans below 1% of income per capita distributed? Is it guaranteed by law that borrowers can inspect their data in the largest credit registry?
Coverage

Yes Yes Yes

No No No

1 1 1

Yes Yes Yes

No No No

1 1 1

54.9

0.0

Number of individuals Number of firms

219,000 16,184,500

0 0

37

Strength of legal rights index (0-10)

9

Can any business use movable assets as collateral while keeping possession of the assets; and any financial institution accept such assets as collateral ? Does the law allow businesses to grant a non possessory security right in a single category of movable assets, without requiring a specific description of collateral? Does the law allow businesses to grant a non possessory security right in substantially all of its assets, without requiring a specific description of collateral? May a security right extend to future or after-acquired assets, and may it extend automatically to the products, proceeds or replacements of the original assets ? Is a general description of debts and obligations permitted in collateral agreements, so that all types of obligations and debts can be secured by stating a maximum amount rather than a specific amount between the parties ? Is a collateral registry in operation, that is unified geographically and by asset type, as well as indexed by the grantor's name of a security right ? Do secured creditors have absolute priority to their collateral outside bankruptcy procedures?

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Do secured creditors have absolute priority to their collateral in bankruptcy procedures?

Yes

During reorganization, are secured creditors' claims exempt from an automatic stay on enforcement?

No

Does the law authorize parties to agree on out of court enforcement?

Yes

38

39

1. Benchmarking Protecting Investors Regulations
South Africa is ranked 10 overall for Protecting Investors. Ranking of South Africa in Protecting Investors - Compared to good practice and selected economies:

40

The following table shows Protecting Investors data for South Africa compared to good practice and comparator economies:
Good Practice Economies
Strength of investor protection index (0-10)

New Zealand

9.7

Selected Economy
South Africa 8.0

Comparator Economies
Botswana Kenya Mauritius Namibia Nigeria

6.0 5.0 7.7 5.3 5.7

41

2. Historical data: Protecting Investors in South Africa
Protecting Investors data Doing Business 2008 Doing Business 2009 Doing Business 2010 Doing Business 2011

Rank Strength of investor protection index (0-10)

.. 8.0

.. 8.0

10 8.0

10 8.0

3. The following graph illustrates the Protecting Investors index in South Africa compared to best practice and selected Economies:

9.7

8.0

7.7

6.0

5.7

5.3

us

an a

a

nd

ia

au r

al a

Bo ts

am

A

ig

Ze

M

h

N

Note: The higher the score, the greater the investor protection.

N

So ut

ew

N

K

en ya

er ia

iti

ic

fr

w

ib

5.0

42

4. Details on Protecting Investors in South Africa
The table below provides a full breakdown of how the disclosure, director liability, and shareholder suits indexes are calculated in South Africa.

Protecting Investors Data (2010) Extent of disclosure index (0-10)

Indicator

8 3 2 0 2 1 8 2 1 2 1

What corporate body provides legally sufficient approval for the transaction? Whether immediate disclosure of the transaction to the public and/or shareholders is required? Whether disclosure of the transaction in published periodic filings (annual reports) is required? Whether disclosure of the conflict of interest by Mr. James to the board of directors is required? Whether an external body must review the terms of the transaction before it takes place?
Extent of director liability index (0-10)

Whether shareholders can hold Mr. James liable for the damage that the Buyer-Seller transaction causes to the company? Whether shareholders can hold the approving body (the CEO or board of directors) liable for the damage that the Buyer-Seller transaction causes to the company? Whether a court can void the transaction upon a successful claim by a shareholder plaintiff? Whether Mr. James pays damages for the harm caused to the company upon a successful claim by the shareholder plaintiff?

43

Whether Mr. James repays profits made from the transaction upon a successful claim by the shareholder plaintiff? Whether fines and imprisonment can be applied against Mr. James? Whether shareholders can sue directly or derivatively for the damage that the Buyer-Seller transaction causes to the company?
Ease of shareholder suits index (0-10)

1 0 1 8 3 2 0 1 1 1 8.0

Whether the plaintiff can obtain any documents from the defendant and witnesses during trial? Whether the plaintiff can directly question the defendant and witnesses during trial? Whether the plaintiff can request categories of documents from the defendant without identifying specific ones? Whether shareholders owning 10% or less of Buyer's shares can request an inspector to investigate the transaction? Whether the level of proof required for civil suits is lower than that of criminal cases? Whether shareholders owning 10% or less of Buyer's shares can inspect transaction documents before filing suit?
Strength of investor protection index (0-10)

44

45

1. Benchmarking Paying Taxes Regulations
South Africa is ranked 24 overall for Paying Taxes. Ranking of South Africa in Paying Taxes - Compared to good practice and selected economies:

46

The following table shows Paying Taxes data for South Africa compared to good practice and comparator economies:

Good Practice Economies

Payments (number per year)

Time (hours per year)

Total tax rate (% profit)

Maldives Timor-Leste

3

0 0.2

Selected Economy
South Africa 9 200 30.5

Comparator Economies
Botswana Kenya Mauritius Namibia Nigeria

19 41 7 37 35

152 393 161 375 938

19.5 49.7 24.1 9.6 32.2

47

2. Historical data: Paying Taxes in South Africa
Paying Taxes data Doing Business 2008 Doing Business 2009 Doing Business 2010 Doing Business 2011

Rank Total tax rate (% profit) Payments (number per year) Time (hours per year)

.. 37.1 11 350

.. 34.2 9 200

23 30.2 9 200

24 30.5 9 200

3. Paying Taxes sub indicators in South Africa over the past 4 years

48

4. Details on Paying Taxes in South Africa
The table below addresses the taxes and mandatory contributions that a medium-size company must pay or withhold in a given year in South Africa, as well as measures of administrative burden in paying taxes.

Tax or mandatory contribution

Payments (number)

Notes on Payments

Time (hours)

Statutory tax rate

Tax base

Totaltax rate (% profit)

Notes on TTR

Value added tax (VAT)

1

online filing online filing

50

14.0%

value added

Unemployment insurance contributions (UIC) Fuel tax

1

50

1.0%

gross salaries

0.50

1

22.0%

value of fuel consumption vehicle weight gross salaries

0.80

Vehicles tax

1

specific tariff

0.90

Occupational injuries insurance contribution Skills development level contribution Property tax

1

online filing online filing online filing

1.6%

0.90

1

1.0%

gross salaries

1.10

1

0.1%

property value distributed profits capital gains

2.00

Secondary tax on companies (dividend tax) Capital gains tax

1

10.0%

2.70

0

paid jointly

14.5%

5.10

49

Corporate income tax

1

online filing
9

100

28.0%

taxable profit

21.70

Totals

200

30.5

50

51

1. Benchmarking Trading Across Borders Regulations
South Africa is ranked 149 overall for Trading Across Borders. Ranking of South Africa in Trading Across Borders - Compared to good practice and selected economies:

52

The following table shows Trading Across Borders data for South Africa compared to good practice and comparator economies:
Good Practice Economies
Documents to export (number) Time to export (days) Cost to export (US$ per container) Documents to import (number) Time to import (days) Cost to import (US$ per container)

Denmark France Malaysia Singapore

5 2 450 4 439 2

Selected Economy
South Africa 8 30 1531 9 35 1807

Comparator Economies
Botswana Kenya Mauritius Namibia Nigeria

6 8 5 11 10

28 26 13 29 24

3010 2055 737 1686 1263

9 7 6 9 9

41 24 13 24 39

3390 2190 689 1813 1440

53

2. Historical data: Trading Across Borders in South Africa
Trading Across Borders data Doing Business 2008 Doing Business 2009 Doing Business 2010 Doing Business 2011

Rank Cost to export (US$ per container) Cost to import (US$ per container) Documents to export (number) Documents to import (number) Time to export (days) Time to import (days)

.. 1087 1195 8 9 30 35

.. 1445 1721 8 9 30 35

148 1531 1807 8 9 30 35

149 1531 1807 8 9 30 35

3. Trading Across Borders sub indicators in South Africa over the past 4 years

54

55

4. Details on Trading Across Borders in South Africa
These tables list the procedures necessary to import and export a standardized cargo of goods in South Africa. The documents required to export and import the goods are also shown.

Nature of Export Procedures (2010)

Duration (days)

US$ Cost

Documents preparation Customs clearance and technical control Ports and terminal handling Inland transportation and handling Totals

15 4 9 2 30

272 75 284 900 1531

Nature of Import Procedures (2010)

Duration (days)

US$ Cost

Documents preparation Customs clearance and technical control Ports and terminal handling Inland transportation and handling Totals

14 4 14 3 35

397 75 349 986 1807

56

Documents for Export and Import

Export

Bill of lading Certificate of origin Commercial invoice Customs export declaration Form SAD500 (Transit document) Inspection report Packing list Terminal handling receipts
Import

Bill of lading Cargo release order Certificate of origin Commercial invoice Customs import declaration Form SAD500 (Transit document) Inspection report Packing list Terminal handling receipts

57

58

1. Benchmarking Enforcing Contracts Regulations
South Africa is ranked 85 overall for Enforcing Contracts. Ranking of South Africa in Enforcing Contracts - Compared to good practice and selected economies:

59

The following table shows Enforcing Contracts data for South Africa compared to good practice and comparator economies:
Good Practice Economies
Procedures (number) Time (days) Cost (% of claim)

Bhutan Ireland Singapore

0.1 20 150

Selected Economy
South Africa 30 600 33.2

Comparator Economies
Botswana Kenya Mauritius Namibia Nigeria

29 40 36 33 40

625 465 645 270 457

28.1 47.2 17.4 35.8 32.0

60

2. Historical data: Enforcing Contracts in South Africa
Enforcing Contracts data Doing Business 2008 Doing Business 2009 Doing Business 2010 Doing Business 2011

Rank Procedures (number) Time (days) Cost (% of claim)

.. 30 600 33.2

.. 30 600 33.2

86 30 600 33.2

85 30 600 33.2

3. Enforcing Contracts sub indicators in South Africa over the past 4 years

61

4. Details on Contract Enforcement in South Africa
This topic looks at the efficiency of contract enforcement in South Africa.
Court information:

Johannesburg Magistrate's Court
Indicator

Nature of Procedure (2010) Procedures (number) Time (days)

30 600 30.0 490.0 80.0 33.20 22.6 7.6 3.0

Filing and service Trial and judgment Enforcement of judgment
Cost (% of claim)*

Attorney cost (% of claim) Court cost (% of claim) Enforcement Cost (% of claim)

* Claim assumed to be equivalent to 200% of income per capita.

62

63

1. Benchmarking Closing Business Regulations
South Africa is ranked 74 overall for Closing a Business. Ranking of South Africa in Closing Business - Compared to good practice and selected economies:

64

The following table shows Closing Business data for South Africa compared to good practice and comparator economies:

Good Practice Economies

Recovery rate (cents on the dollar)

Time (years)

Cost (% of estate)

Ireland Japan Singapore

0.4 92.7 1

Selected Economy
South Africa 34.4 2.0 18

Comparator Economies
Botswana Kenya Mauritius Namibia Nigeria

63.7 29.8 35.1 41.5 26.8

1.7 4.5 1.7 1.5 2.0

15 22 15 15 22

65

2. Historical data: Closing Business in South Africa
Closing a Business data Doing Business 2008 Doing Business 2009 Doing Business 2010 Doing Business 2011

Rank Time (years) Cost (% of estate) Recovery rate (cents on the dollar)

.. 2.0 18 33.2

.. 2.0 18 32.2

77 2.0 18 32.2

74 2.0 18 34.4

3. Closing Business sub indicators in South Africa over the past 4 years

66

Since 2004 Doing Business has been tracking reforms aimed at simplifying business regulations, strengthening property rights, opening access to credit and enforcing contracts by measuring their impact on 10 indicator sets . * Nearly 1,000 reforms have had an impact on these indicators. Doing Business 2011, covering June 2009 to June 2010, reports that 117 economies implemented 216 reforms to make it easier to start a business. 64% of economies measured by Doing Business have reformed this year, focusing on easing business start-up, lightening the tax burden, simplifying import and export regulations and improving credit information systems.

The top 10 most-improved in Doing Business 2011

Dealing with Construction Permits

Registering Property

Enforcing Contracts

Positive Change
Starting a Business

Protecting Investors

Trading Across Borders

Getting Credit

Economy

Kazakhstan Rwanda Peru Vietnam Cape Verde Tajikistan Zambia Hungary Grenada Brunei Darussalam

* For Doing Business 2011 the Employing Workers indicator is not included in the aggregate ease of doing business ranking.

Paying Taxes

Negative Change

Closing a Business

67

Summary of changes to business regulation in top 10 most improved economies in Doing Business 2011 and selected comparator economies.
Brunei Darussalam

Brunei Darussalam made starting a business easier by improving efficiency at and implementing an electronic system for name searches. Brunei Darussalam income tax rate from 23.5% to 22% while also introducing a lower tax rate ranging from 5.5% to 11%. The introduction of an electronic customs system made trading easier.

the company registrar reduced the corporate for small businesses, in Brunei Darussalam

Cape Verde

Cape Verde made start-up easier by eliminating the need for a municipal inspection before a business begins operations and computerizing the system for delivering the municipal license. Cape Verde eased property registration by switching from fees based on a percentage of the property value to lower fixed rates. Cape Verde abolished the stamp duties on sales and checks. Grenada eased business start-up by transferring responsibility for the commercial registry from the courts to the civil administration. The appointment of a registrar focusing only on property cut the time needed to transfer property in Grenada by almost half. Grenada’s customs administration made trading faster by simplifying procedures, reducing inspections, improving staff training and enhancing communication with users. Hungary implemented a time limit for the issuance of building permits. Hungary reduced the property registration fee by 6% of the property value. Hungary simplified taxes and tax bases. Amendments to Hungary’s bankruptcy law encourage insolvent companies to consider reaching agreements with creditors out of court so as to avoid bankruptcy. Kazakhstan eased business start-up by reducing the minimum capital requirement to 100 tenge ($0.70) and eliminating the need to have the memorandum of association and company charter notarized. Kazakhstan made dealing with construction permits easier by implementing a one-stop shop related to technical conditions for utilities. Kazakhstan strengthened investor protections by requiring greater corporate disclosure in company annual reports. Kazakhstan speeded up trade through efforts to modernize customs, including implementation of a risk management system and improvements in customs automation. Kenya eased business start-up by reducing the time it takes to get the memorandum and articles of association stamped, merging the tax and value added tax registration procedures and digitizing records at the registrar. Kenya increased the administrative burden of paying taxes by requiring quarterly filing of payroll taxes. Kenya speeded up trade by implementing an electronic cargo tracking system and linking this system to the Kenya Revenue Authority’s electronic data interchange system for customs clearance. Mauritius introduced a new corporate social responsibility tax. Mauritius speeded up the resolution of commercial disputes by recruiting more judges and adding more courtrooms. Peru eased business start-up by simplifying the requirements for operating licenses and creating an online one-stop shop for business registration. Peru streamlined construction permitting by implementing administrative reforms. Peru introduced fast-track procedures at the land registry, cutting by half the time needed to register property. Peru made trading easier by implementing a new web-based electronic data interchange system, risk-based inspections and payment deferrals. Rwanda made dealing with construction permits easier by passing new building regulations at the end of April 2010 and implementing new time limits for the issuance of various permits. Rwanda enhanced access to credit by allowing borrowers the right to inspect their own credit report and mandating that loans of all sizes be reported to the central bank’s public credit registry. Rwanda reduced the number of trade documents required and enhanced its joint border management procedures with Uganda and other neighbors, leading to an improvement in the trade logistics environment. Tajikistan made starting a business easier by creating a one-stop shop that consolidates registration with the state and the tax authority. Tajikistan strengthened investor protections by requiring greater corporate disclosure in the annual report and greater access to corporate information for minority investors. Tajikistan lowered its corporate income tax rate.

Grenada

Hungary

Kazakhstan

Kenya

Mauritius

Peru

Rwanda

Tajikistan

68

Vietnam

Vietnam eased company start-up by creating a one-stop shop that combines the processes for obtaining a business license and tax license and by eliminating the need for a seal for company licensing. Vietnam made dealing with construction permits easier by reducing the cost to register newly completed buildings by 50% and transferring the authority to register buildings from local authorities to the Department of National Resources and Environment. Vietnam improved its credit information system by allowing borrowers to examine their own credit report and correct errors. Zambia eased business start-up by eliminating the minimum capital requirement. Zambia eased trade by implementing a one-stop border post with Zimbabwe, launching web-based submission of customs declarations and introducing scanning machines at border posts. Zambia improved contract enforcement by introducing an electronic case management system in the courts that provides electronic referencing of cases, a database of laws, real-time court reporting and public access to court records.

Zambia

69

70

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...Case Study The case study of a 6 year old boy, who brought a gun to school and shot a first grade classmate, then was later found hiding in a corner, has brought multiple psychological issues to the forefront. According to the law a child under the age of 7 is not criminally responsible. The prefrontal cortex of the brain is the area where high-order cognition, planning, goal-directed behavior, impulse control and attention are centered. This portion of the brain is not considered mature until much later in life. The Limbic system of the brain controls and regulates emotion and contains three parts: the amygdala, the hippocampus, and the hypothalamus. According to researchers, the amygdala is the portion of the limbic system that registers emotions, especially fear (LoBiondo-Wood & Haber, 2010, p. 214). According to this fact, high levels of fear and stress negatively affect other areas of the limbic system including the hypothalamus, which is responsible for activating hormones that produce responses from other brain and body parts as well. An overproduction of hormones can cause permanent damage to learning and memory. Perseveration is a tendency to stick to one-thought or action. This, along with impulsiveness is believed to occur in children with still immature prefrontal cortex as well. This is evidenced by temper tantrums, and immature emotional responses to name a few. From a cognitive developmental standpoint, according to Jean Piaget, a 6 year-old is on the...

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...for the achievement of sustained competitive advantage. Your discussion is to be based on three suitable published case studies. This means case studies published in the academic literature – for example, the series of case studies in the textbook or in equivalent textbooks. You may not use Yahoo! as one of the case studies and short articles in newspapers, magazines, website opinion pages and the like are definitely not acceptable, although such materials may be used to supplement the published case study and your analysis. All sources must be properly referenced. If in any doubt about the suitability of a case study, seek an early ruling from your tutor. This is a substantial piece of scholarly work and will require extensive engagement with both unit theory and at least three detailed case studies. Process: 1. Choose your three cases. They all need to be published cases in academic sources (e.g. textbooks, journal articles). It is obviously important that each case represents an instance of a company achieving sustained competitive advantage (check your materials to be clear about what that means). 2. Analyse and locate evidence. Begin to analyse each case in terms of the two questions – particularly question one. It is vital that you respond to both questions, but the evidence for sustained competitive advantage is more likely to be in the case material itself. It is in this part of the process that you might bring in supplemental material from company......

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...Running Head: Case Study 1 Case Study #1 Clinical Psychology: Severe Depression Princess Coles ABS 200 Introductions to Applied Behavioral Sciences Instructor Weniger 08/4/2015 Severe depression is one of the many mental illnesses that affect one out of ten Americans. Severe depression involves, extreme or constant feeling of sadness, loss of interest in activities and even relationships. Those suffering from depression might even struggle with the feeling of worthlessness and repeated thoughts of suicide. Therefore the effects are not only psychological but physical as well. According to Kessler author of Twelve-month and lifetime prevalence and lifetime morbid risk of anxiety and mood disorders in the United States International Journal Of Methods In Psychiatric Research, (3), 169. About 17% of people are likely to experience some kind of depression at some point in their lives. I have chosen this topic of interest because it is important to help those suffering from depression understand that there is help and that with treatment they can lead a more positive way of thinking. Some mental health problems are caused by dysfunctional ‘ways of thinking’-either about self or the world (e.g. in major depression) and many anxiety disorders are characterized by a bias towards processing threatening or anxiety relevant information. Cognitive behavioral therapy is generally perceived as an evidence based and cost effective form of treatment that can...

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...Case Study Complete Case History The patient in this case study reports being ‘sick with flu’ for 8 days. She has been vomiting, and cannot keep any liquids or food down. She also reports that she has been using antacids to help calm the nausea. After fainting at home, she was taken to the local hospital, severely dehydrated. Upon looking at her arterial blood gas result, it would appear that this patient would be suffering from metabolic alkalosis. This patient’s pH is greater than 7.45 (normal: 7.35-7.45) and her bicarbonate (HCO3) is greater than 26 (normal 22-26). Blood gases indicate that case study patient is suffering from hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis. Focused Assessment The case study patient reports being “sick with flu” for eight days. She reports vomiting several times a day and taking more the recommended dose of antacids. She reports that she fainted today at home and came to the hospital. The case study patient reports that this all started approximately eight days ago. The case study patient also reported taking excess amounts of antacids. Ingesting large amounts of this medication can cause metabolic alkalosis. When antacids are taken in large doses, the ions are unable to bind, and therefor the bicarbonate is reabsorbed and causes alkalosis (Lehne, 2013). Renal and Respiratory systems response Hypochloremic Metabolic alkalosis occurs when there is an acid loss due to prolonged vomiting which causes a decrease in the extracellular...

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...Case studies Name: Tutor: Course: Institution: Date: Flying to the Auto Bailout on a Private Jet Basic problems In this case study, there is wastage of resources. The CEOs of the nation's three largest automobiles uses private jets to attend the corporate public relations congress. This is wastage of resources since they are using private jets to travel when their companies are struggling to stay afloat. Ignorance is another basic problem evident in this case study. These CEOs are very ignorant. They attend the corporate public relation congress in Washington unprepared and thus appear to know nothing about their problems. The three companies, GM, Ford and Chrysler, lack the concepts of public relations. The main issues American economy is melting down. Most of the workers are losing their jobs since the companies cannot handle many workers anymore. The companies have got inadequate cash. Bankruptcy is another main issue experienced in this case study. The General Motors Company and the Chrysler can no longer pay their debts. Key decisions * According to the case study, the leaders have to come up with a new public relations strategy. * The CEOs should correct any mistakes they have made before such as using private jets to travel. * Introduce innovation in products * The auto industry of the US should promote its products. * Ensure transparency in business operations. SWOT analysis Strengths * Availability of resources for the......

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...[pic] OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT MGCR 472 CASE STUDY ASSIGNMENT Due on November 23 in class INSTRUCTIONS: 1. Make sure to write down the name, student # and section # for each student in the group on the cover page of the case study report. 2. This assignment counts for 14% of your final grade. 3. Late submissions and submissions by e-mail will not be accepted. 4. You have to work in this assignment in groups. The number of students that can be in a group is 5. Group members can be from different sections taught by other OM professors. Each group should submit only one case study report. Reports can be submitted to any instructor. 5. Good luck! CASE STUDY REPORT In the Delays at Logan Airport case, there are different proposals for reducing congestion. One of the methods proposed to tackle the impact of delays was peak-period pricing, PPP. The other one was to build a new runway. In this case study, your objective is to evaluate these alternatives using waiting line models and to provide a recommendation to FAA to solve the delay problem at Logan Airport. Make sure you demonstrate that you have thought through your recommendations and the effects on other related activities. Also demonstrate that you understand the concepts and tools from the class that apply. Prepare an action-oriented advisory report, which presents concisely your analysis and recommendations for solution of the primary management problems. In order to assist you in......

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...ASSIGNMENT GUIDANCE – NRSG258 ASSESSMENT 1: CASE STUDY Dear students here are some guidelines to assist you in writing Assessment 1: Case Study. If, after reading through these, you still have questions please post on the relevant forum. If you are still unsure then please contact your campus specific lecturer to arrange to discuss your assignment. We ask that you bring these guidelines to any meeting and highlight the areas about which you are still unsure. In this case study you do not need an introduction or conclusion for this case study of 1500 WORDS ± 10% due by midnight 8th April Turnitin. Just answer the questions. Turnitin is located in your campus specific block. Although we suggest you do your background reading in the current textbooks for basic information, the case study also requires you to find current literature/research/articles to support your discussion throughout the case study. Do NOT use Better Health Channel, WedMed, dictionaries, encyclopaedias etc. These are NOT suitable academic sources. If you use these you will not meet the criteria for this question and you will lose marks. You must follow the APA referencing format as directed by ACU in your case study and in your reference list. The Library website has examples of how to do this referencing and you can find the correct format at the end of your lectures and tutorials as well as in the free Student Study Guide. This essay should have approximately 10 relevant sources.......

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