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Case Study

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Midterm Review
PT-16 Studyguide 1. ABC approach: A= antecedent, B=behavior, C=consequence * Preventative approaches * Attempts to alter antecedents * Seeks to understand the purpose of function of the behavior * Behavior is presumed to have some reinforcing function 2. Acquired disorders: due to an injury. 3. Akathesia: A syndrome characterized by an inability to remain seated, with motor restlessness and a feeling of muscular quivering; may appear as a side effect of antipsychotic and neuroleptic medication. 4. Asymmetric tonic neck reflex (ATNR): A primitive reflex, also called fencer’s response, found in infants, usually is no longer evident by 3 months of age. When neck is turned in one direction, the arm shoots out on the same side and flexes on the opposite side; similar changes occur in the legs. 5. Athetoid diplegia: A form of cerebral palsy primarily seen where there is no muscle control in which the legs are more affected than the arms. 6. Athetoid hemiplegia: A form of cerebral palsy which is a form of dyskinetic cerebral palsy associated with athetosis (constant random, writhing involuntary movements of the limbs. One side of the body is more affected than the other; usually, the arm is more affected than the leg. Because the motor neurons that control one side of the body are located in the opposite cerebral cortex, a right-side hemiplegia implies damage to or dysfunction of the left side of the brain, and vice versa. 7. Autonomy: Self-determination. 8. Beneficence: obligation to act to help the individual. 9. Binet and Simon: Mental testing movement. 10. Bootleg reinforcement: The reinforcement that an individual receives (usually attention from peers) during a period in which no reinforcement is to be received (e.g., timeout or extinction). 11. Buck vs. Bell 1927: was the United States Supreme Court ruling that upheld a statute instituting compulsory sterilization of the unfit, including the mentally retarded, "for the protection and health of the state." It was largely seen as an endorsement of negative eugenics—the attempt to improve the human race by eliminating "defectives" from the gene pool. 12. Casuistry: This is the fine tuning ethical choices. 13. Centration: Young children's tendency to think about one aspect of a situation at a time is called centration 14. Comprehensive disorders: Including much; comprising many things; having a wide scope or a full view. 15. Concept of scaffolding: How and when new skills are developed depends, in part, on the willingness of tutors to scaffold (Scaffolding allows the student to have help with only the skills that are new or beyond her ability) the child's participation in learning encounters. 16. Concrete thinking: children use mental processes to clarify alterations in concrete events and objects. 17. Congenital disorders: since birth. 18. Consequentialist ethics: Right or wrong depends on the result of the action, the situation. 19. Conservation: The idea that amount is unaffected by changes in shape or configuration is called Conservation. In the case of Conservation of Number, preschoolers who are shown pairs of checkers in even rows and who then observe one row being spaced out will say that the spaced out row has more checkers. 20. Contingent reinforcement: Reinforcement that depends upon a specific response. 21. Convergence: the pointing mechanism by which the two eyes are aimed at the target. This enables a person to see an object singly over varying distances. 22. Convergent thought: thinking that brings together information focused on solving a problem (especially problems that have a single correct solution. 23. Critical thought: the thought processed used to evaluate information and practice of using such conclusions to guide behavior. 24. Custodial restraint: is a procedure in which the student is non-contingently prevented from moving his limbs and/or body for an unspecified period. 25. Deontology: A moral obligation or a duty – right is based on the kind of act. 26. Directionality behavior frequency: 27. Divergent thought: thought process or method used to generate creative idea by exploring many possible solutions. 28. Dorothea Dix: First true advocate for MR. 29. DRA (Differential reinforcement of appropriate behavior): A procedure in which a reinforcer is given following the performance of a pre-specified appropriate behavior. 30. DRI (Differential reinforcement of incompatible behavior: A procedure in which a reinforcer is given following the performance of a pre-specified appropriate behavior that is physically and functionally incompatible with the target inappropriate behavior. 31. DRO (Differential reinforcement of other behavior): A procedure in which a reinforcer is given at the end of a specified interval provided that a pre-specified misbehavior has not occurred during the interval. 32. Dysfunction in sensory discrimination: This type is present in the child who has difficulty differentiating among and between stimuli. 33. Dyslexia: is a specific reading disability. 34. Edible reinforcement: The foods preferred by the student. 35. Egocentric thinking: Child sees things pretty much from one point of view: his own! 36. Egocentrism: Children's tendency to contemplate the world exclusively from their personal perspective, which is referred to as Egocentrism. 37. Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965: Attempted to correct unequal educational opportunities that resulted from a child’s economic condition. 38. Elizabeth Farrel: Established the International Council for the Education of Exceptional Children. 39. Erikson’s stages: # | Stage | Ages | Basic Conflict | Important Event | Summary | 1 | Oral-Sensory | Birth to 12 to 18 months | Trust vs. Mistrust | Feeding | The infant must form a first loving, trusting relationship with the caregiver, or develop a sense of mistrust. | 2 | Muscular Anal | 18 months to 3 years | Autonomy vs.
Shame/Doubt | Toilet training | The child's energies are directed toward the development of physical skills, including walking, grasping, and rectal sphincter control. The child learns control but may develop shame and doubt if not handled well. | 3 | Locomotor | 3 to 6 years | Initiative vs.
Guilt | Independence | The child continues to become more assertive and to take more initiative, but may be too forceful, leading to guilt feelings. | 4 | Latency | 6 to 12 years | Industry vs. Inferiority | School | The child must deal with demands to learn new skills or risk a sense of inferiority, failure and incompetence. | 5 | Adolescence | 12 to 18 years | Identity vs.
Role Confusion | Peer relationships | The teenager must achieve a sense of identity in occupation, sex roles, politics, and religion. | 6 | Young Adulthood | 19 to 40 years | Intimacy vs.
Isolation | Love relationships | The young adult must develop intimate relationships or suffer feelings of isolation. | 7 | Middle Adulthood | 40 to 65 years | Generativity vs. Stagnation | Parenting | Each adult must find some way to satisfy and support the next generation. | 8 | Maturity | 65 to death | Ego Integrity vs. Despair | Reflection on and acceptance of one's life | The culmination is a sense of oneself as one is and of feeling fulfilled. |

40. Expressive disorders: Expressive Language Disorder is a learning disability affecting communication of thoughts using spoken and sometimes basic written language and expressive written language. This disorder involves difficulty with language processing centers of the brain. Expressive language disorders can result from inherited conditions or may be caused by brain injuries or stroke. 41. Federal Crime Bill of 1994: * Prohibits execution of people with mental retardation * Does not define when to do assessment * Atkins vs. Virginia- cruel and unusual * Eighth Amendment to the Constitution 42. Fine motor movement: (Fine motor skills (adaptive skills) include manipulative skills – Feeding, dressing, interact with environment – Involve use of small muscles in fingers & hands – Tasks such as picking up small objects Skills needed to understand others and oneself. 43. Formal operational thought: though adolescents use operations to control and alter thoughts. 44. Functional analysis assessment (leisure activity): 45. Generalization: The occurrence of a particular behavior in a situation in which training has not taken place. 46. Gross motor movement: (sitting, walking, standing, and running) 47. Hedonism: Does the act enhance a person’s pleasure. 48. Henry Goddard: Supported the Eugenics movement. 49. Hervey Wilbur: Established the first private setting for MR. 50. Interpersonal: Plays with socializing. 51. Ivar Asbjorn Folling: Discovered the biochemical mechanics related to metabolic disturbances referred to as PKU. 52. Jean Piaget, what are the two sides of adaptation?
Assimilation and accommodation are the two sides of adaptation, Piaget’s term for what most of us would call learning. 53. Justice: Fairness in distribution of resources. 54. Kinesthetic: The sense that detects bodily position, weight, or movement of the muscles, tendons, and joints 55. Lanterman Act of 1969: California law that defines the rights of persons with developmental disabilities and establishes how these services will be delivered. 56. Laterality: the ability to conceptualize a right and left side. 57. Nonmaleficence: Invoke the Hippocratic Oath. 58. Olmstead decision: decision requires federal, state, and local government to provide funds for integrating people with disabilities into community-based services in the least restrictive setting. 59. Postformal thought: A type of adult thinking that is suited to solving real-world problems. It is less abstract and absolute that formal thought, more adaptive to life’s inconsistencies, and more dialectical- capable of combining contradictory elements into a comprehensive whole. 60. Pragmatics: The study of rules for use of language in personal interactions and social situations. 61. Reversibility: What is irreversibility? The inability to recognize that reversing a process will restore the original conditions from which the process began. 62. Schemas: skills that direct the way in which an infant explores his or her environment helping them gain more knowledge of the world and more sophisticated exploratory skills. 63. Semantics: The study of and conventions governing meaning of words. 64. Shaping: The reinforcement of successive approximations of a target behavior to produce a behavior that is currently not in the student’s behavioral repertoire. 65. Sociopolitical forces: In the past and future, as much of what has happened to people with mental retardation has been determined largely by social and political factors. 66. Spastic diplegia: A form of cerebral palsy primarily seen in former premature infants that is manifested as spasticity of both lower extremities with only mild involvement of upper extremities. 67. Spastic quadriplegia: All four limbs and usually the trunk and muscles that control the mouth, tongue, and pharynx are affected. The severity of the motor impairment in spastic quadriplegia implies wider cerebral dysfunction and worse outcome than for the other forms of spastic cerebral palsy. 68. Spatial: Of, relating to, involving, or having the nature of space. 69. Spontaneous recovery: The reappearance of a behavior that had been eliminated by means of an extinction process. 70. Strabismus: lack of coordination of the eye muscles so the eyes do not focus on the same point (crossed eyes). 71. Symbolic thinking: Symbolic thought is the representation of reality through the use of abstract concepts such as words, gestures, and numbers. Evidence of symbolic thought is generally present in most children by the age of eighteen months, when signs and symbols ("signifiers") are used reliably to refer to concrete objects, events, and behaviors ("significates"). The hallmark of symbolic thought is language, which uses words or symbols to express concepts (mother, family), abstract references to transcend concrete reality (comfort, future), and allows intangibles to be manipulated (mathematical symbols). According to Jean Piaget, imitation plays an important role in the development of symbolic thought because the child is able to imagine behaviors observed in the past and to recreate them as imitated behaviors. 72. Symmetric tonic neck reflex (STNR): This reflex presents with the neck extended, the arms extended and the legs flexed. As the neck flexed, the arms flex and the legs extend. This reflex interferes with reciprocal movements of the arms and legs as seen in crawling and walking. The STNR also interfere with using the hands when the head position changes. 73. Tardive dyskinesia: is characterized by repetitive, involuntary, purposeless movements, such as grimacing, tongue protrusion, lip smacking, puckering and pursing of the lips, and rapid eye blinking. It is a potentially severe movement disorder resulting from the long-term use of phenothiazines or other antipsychotic medication. 74. Theory-of-mind: As a result of their experiences with others, young children acquire a theory of mind that reflects their developing concepts about human mental processes. (They begin to understand that people do not always have the same thoughts and ideas.) 75. Timeout and their levels:
Timeout – a Type II punishment procedure in which positive reinforcement is withdrawn for a pre-specified period of time following the performance of misbehavior. * Exclusionary timeout – this procedure consists of removing the misbehaving student from the reinforcing environment for a specified period of time. * Non-exclusionary timeout – this is a procedure consists of allowing the student to remain in the reinforcing environment but not allowing her to engage in reinforcing activities for a specified period of time. 76. Tonic labyrinthine reflex: Primitive reflex in which the infant retracts the arms and extends the legs when the neck is tilted backwards, stimulating the labyrinth. 77. Type of restraints and their levels: * Behavioral physical restraint: a procedure in which the student is prevented from moving his limbs and/or body for a prespecified period of time following the performance of misbehavior. * Custodial physical restraint: a procedure in which the student is non-contingently prevented from moving his limbs and/or body for an unspecified period. Level 1No adverse or intrusive | Level 2Some aversive or intrusive | Level 3Quite aversive and intrusive | DRO | Negative practice (when manual guidance is not given). | Negative practice (when manual guidance is given) | DRA | Extinction | Physical restraint | DRI | Nonexlusionary timeout | Exclusionary timeout | Satiation | | Overcorrection |

78. Utilitarianism: The most pleasure for the most people. 79. Vernal: Vernal/linguistic: Plays with words 80. What are the three domains of development? * Biosocial: * Brain and body changes and social influences * Cognitive * Thought, perceptual, language, institutions * Psychosocial * Emotions, personality, and interpersonal relationships

81. What is meant when said that a preschoolers’ understanding of the world tends to be static?
Static, which means that they tend to think of their world as unchanging 82. Zone of proximal development: The concept, termed by Lev Vygotsky, in which each child had a range of skills that can be exercised with help but not yet performed independently. MEDICATION | FUNCTION CLASS | USES | SIDE EFFECTS | Ritalin/methylphenidate | Psychopharmacological agent | Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder | Appetite suppression, insomnia, arrhythmia, hypo- or hypertension, abdominal pain, headache, irritability. | Buspar/buspirone | Antianxiety, Sedative | Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, anxiety, aggression | Chest pain, ringing in the ears, sore throat, nasal congestion, restlessness. | Desyrel/trazodone | Antidepressant-miscellaneous | Depression | Dizziness, drowsiness, confusion, headache, anxiety, tremors, stimulation, weakness, insomnia, nightmares, EPS (geriatric), increase in psychiatric symptoms. Suicide in children/adolescents. | Paxil/paroxetine | Psychopharmacological agent | Depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety disorders | Heart palpitations, headache, anxiety, nausea, decreased appetite, constipation, weakness; FDA warns of possible increased suicidal risks in children and adolescents. | Prozac/fluoxetine | Psychopharmacological agent | Depression, self-injurious behavior, Tourette syndrome, obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety | Anxiety, agitation, sleep disruption, decreased appetite, seizure; FDA warns of possible increased suicidal risks in children and adolescents. | Dilantin/phenytoin | Antiepileptic | Generalized tonic-clonic and complex partial seizure | Swelling of gums, excessive hairiness, rash, coarsening of facial features, possible adverse effects of learning and behavior; risk of birth defects if taken during pregnancy; nystagmus and unsteady gait with toxic levels; blood dyscrasias. | Mysoline/primidone | Antiepileptic | Generalized tonic-clonic and complex partial seizures | Drowsiness, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, leucopenia (low white blood cell count), systemic lupus-like syndrome, nystagmus, personality change. | Tegretol/carbamazepine | Antiepileptic | Generalized tonic-clonic, complex partial, and simple partial seizures, also used to treat aggression. | Unsteady gait, double vision, drowsiness, slurred speech, dizziness, tremor, headache, nausea, abnormalities in liver function; FDA warning of reported aplastic anemia and agranulocytosis. | Klonopin/clonazepam | Antiepileptic | Lennox-Gastaut syndrome; absence, atonic, myoclonic, and partial seizures; infantile spasms; anxiety | Sedation, hyperactivity, confusion, depression-especially if with-drawn quickly, do not stop abruptly; tolerance to the drug can develop. | Depakote/valproic acid | Antiepileptic, Psychopharmacological agent | Myoclonic, simple absence, and generalized tonic-clonic seizures, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, infantile spasms, also used to treat aggression and mood disorders, bipolar disorder, impulsive aggression, intermittent explosive disorder, migraine prophylaxis. | Hair loss, weight loss or gain, abdominal distress, tremor, agranulocytosis, low platelet count; risk of birth defects if taken during pregnancy; FDA warning for potentially fatal liver damage (risk is 1/800 in children with developmental disabilities your than 2 years who are taking more than one antiepileptic drug) and pancreatitis. | Thorazine/chlorpromazine | Psychopharmacological agent, antiemetic | Psychosis, anxiety, aggression, severe hyperactivity in individuals with intellectual disability (rarely used now because of newer drugs with fewer side effects. | Drowsiness, tardive dyskinesia (involuntary movements of face and tongue), hypotensive, weight gain, lower seizure threshold, electrocardiogram changes, agranulocytosis (depletion of white blood cells), rash, hyperpigmentation of skin. | Valium/diazepam | Antispasticity agent, antiepileptic, psychopharmacological agent | Sedation, aggression, anxiety, spasticity, seizures | Sedation, weakness, depression, ataxia, memory disturbance, difficulty handling secretions and chewing/swallowing foods, anxiety, hallucinations, agitation, insomnia, respiratory and cardiac depression, urinary retention or incontinence, rash, low white blood cell count; drug dependence can occur. | Mellaril/thioridazine | Psychopharmacological agent | Self-injurious behavior psychosis | Drowsiness, movement disorder, electrocardiogram abnormalities, retinal abnormalities, FDA warning for QT prolongation on electrocardiogram. | Haldol/haloperidol | Psychopharmacological agent | Self-injurious behavior, Tourette syndrome, severe agitation, psychosis. | Movement disorder, hypotension, nausea, vomiting, electrocardiogram changes, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, lower seizure threshold in epilepsy. | Dantrium/dantrolene | Antispasticity agent | Spasticity in cerebral palsy or spinal cord injury, malignant hyperthermia prevention. | Weakness, drowsiness, lethargy, dizziness, tingling sensation, nausea, diarrhea; FDA warning for hepatotoxicity (liver function should be monitored); long-term side effect in children are not known. |

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...Case study analysis CASE METHOD EXERCISE: ABERCROMBIE & FITCH (by Meg Connolly, in Marketing Ethics: Cases and Readings (2006), edited by Patrick E. Murphy and Gene R. Laczniak) Abercrombie & Fitch (A&F) of today differs dramatically from the original waterfront shop in New York that carried high-quality clothing suitable for camping, fishing and hunting. The A&F of 2002 can be found in virtually any major mall in America, and its target market includes preteen and teenagers. Indeed, the shift has been rather dramatic, and it could certainly be asserted that the direction A&F has recently headed strays substantially from the original vision of its founders. The style of clothes offered by A&F could be described as worn, casual, and rather rugged. Some critics contend the merchandise at A&F is seemingly overpriced considering that it is arguably no more unique than any other store of its kind geared toward the same market. One aspect of A&F that does make it unique from other stores, however, is their catalogue that was first published in 1997 and comes out four times a year with a spring break, summer, back-to-school, and Christmas issue. The Quarterly is a magazine-hybrid that, in addition to the clothing portion of the catalogue, has interviews with actors, musicians, directors and even some famous scholars. Fashion legend Bruce Weber does many of the photographs that appear throughout the magazine, and “these photos depict young, healthy, presumably......

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...Case Tudy Example Regarding Decision Making Example of case study Let us examine the problem faced by Mr. Nataraj, Regional Manager of Alpha Pvt. Ltd. Alpha makes and distributes products from more than 10 international pharmaceutical and health care companies. Mr. Nataraj is responsible for managing existing clients and also to get new clients. He manages a number of sales representatives. Important customers have dedicated sales representatives, while other sales representatives try to get new clients. One day an important customer (Good Health Hospital) called Mr. Nataraj and complained that Mr. Bhavan (the sales representative) was ineffective and insisted he be removed, or else they would not give any business. Here are Mr. Nataraj's thoughts: * In an internal enquiry, Mr. Nataraj found that the real reason was personal differences between Mr. Bhavan and the hospital superintendent. * The track record of Mr. Bhavan was good and he was liked within the company. Dismissing him or even transferring him to a new region will affect the morale of the work force. * Good Health Hospital is a major customer and gives good business. Losing the hospital is not an option. Therefore the demands of the hospital have to be met. If you were Mr. Natraj - How will you solve this issue ? Here are some sample options: 1. Good Health Hospital is a major customer and cannot be displeased. I will remove or transfer Mr. Bhavan. 2. Mr. Bhavan is a loyal and hard......

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...Recovery of Trust: Case studies of organisational failures and trust repair BY GRAHAM DIETZ AND NICOLE GILLESPIE Published by the Institute of Business Ethics Occasional Paper 5 Authors Dr Graham Dietz is a Senior Lecturer in Human Resource Management and Organisational Behaviour at Durham University, UK. His research focuses on trust repair after organisational failures, as well as trust-building across cultures. Together with his co-author on this report, his most recent co-edited book is Organizational Trust: A cultural perspective (Cambridge University Press). Dr Nicole Gillespie is a Senior Lecturer in Management at the University of Queensland, Australia. Her research focuses on building, repairing and measuring trust in organisations and across cultural and professional boundaries. In addition, Nicole researches in the areas of leadership, teams and employee engagement. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the contact persons in the featured organisations for their comments on an earlier draft of this Paper. The IBE is particularly grateful to Severn Trent and BAE Systems for their support of this project. All rights reserved. To reproduce or transmit this book in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage and retrieval system, please obtain prior permission in writing from the publisher. The Recovery of Trust: Case studies of organisational......

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...Case 2 Whitmore Products: Time Based Logistics at Work Overview From Whitmore’s perspective, the HomeHelp partnership offers substantial rewards, but at a price. This case demonstrates the all-encompassing change that is sometimes required for a firm to maintain long-term competitive success. Change is very difficult to achieve in organizations large and small. Laborers, managers and executives alike establish “comfort zones” that are difficult to break. The case follows John Smith as he first studies the potential benefits of refocusing production and logistics strategies before promoting the idea to top management. Solutions to Questions 1. As the supplier, Whitmore is faced with the ultimatum of effecting the change (implementing the time based service strategy) or losing the HomeHelp business. To implement the time based strategy will require new approaches to production and logistical operations as well as significant, constant investments in technology. The changes are likely to affect the way Whitmore conducts business with other customers and channel participants (suppliers, transportation providers, etc.). As the customer, HomeHelp has issued the ultimatum to Whitmore Products. However, should Whitmore elect to turn down the opportunity, HomeHelp will have to look elsewhere for products and service. Though the issue is open to debate, it seems that both firms stand to benefit from the time based strategy. Both firms stand to gain potential...

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