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从2010年12月到2011年2月底,我一共参加了4次雅思考试(12月11日,1月22日,2月12日和2月26日),成绩为:

12月11日:听力:7.0,阅读:6.5,写作:6.0,口语:6.0

01月22日:听力:6.5,阅读:7.0,写作:6.0,口语:7.0

02月12日:听力:7.0,阅读:7.5,写作:6.5,口语:8.5

02月26日:听力:7.0,阅读:7.5,写作:7.5,口语:7.0

03月05日:听力:7.0,阅读:7.5,写作:7.0,口语:8.0

可以说,在过去的三个月里面,我感受过裸考过后无言以对的惶恐,体味过努力过后略有进步的喜悦,忍受着就差0.5、与目标无比接近却未能接近的失落,最后,苦尽甘来。因为这次考试,至少再一次让我确信”天道酬勤“。NO SWEAT, NO SWEET; NO PAIN, NO GAIN。

如果说高考是一条独木桥,那么雅思就是一个无底洞。为了填上这个洞,能用上的方法都用上了,比如说连续报5次雅思考试,下载最新的机经,把慎小嶷《十天》系列书全买了,大包围准备所有的口语和写作topic,上培训班,找老外批改作文,去卧龙岗考试(在国内的话,我会选择贵阳,海口等考点),喝红牛穿红内裤,等等,甚至连吃奶的力都用上了,此处略去一万字。

雅思其实一场持久战,更是一场心理战。在征服雅思的过程中,我们眼前最最最大的敌人不是雅思本身,而是我们自己。无论在复习过程中感到怎样的痛苦,还是在考试过程中经历了什么样的折磨,还是在知道成绩后受到何种的打击,我们都必须自我鼓励,必须乐观向上。

只要站起来的次数比跌倒的多,就是成功

不淡定便蛋疼,淡定的心态是王道

写作分享篇

17个不能回避的雅思写作问题

经过三个月的复习总结和4次的实战,我总结了17个关于雅思写作不能回避的核心问题。这17问题一直贯穿在我整个复习的过程。相信只要弄明白这17个问题,我觉得我们离写作7分就无比接近了。对于那些即将参加3月19日,4月2日,4月16日,5月7日等鸭友团来说,我觉得要搞懂问题1,2,6,7,8,13这6个问题最为迫切。如果能做好的话,分数一定能提高的。

1. 考官是怎么改卷子的?标准是怎样的?
2. 雅思写作7分是什么样的概念?
3. 雅思写作6分与7分或者6.5分与7分的距离有多远?
4. 怎么制定雅思写作复习计划?
5. 考试前需要写多少篇的大作文和小作文?
6. 写作模版管用吗?
7. 雅思写作需要背多少个词汇?
8. 雅思写作需要什么样的句型?
9. 雅思写作需要多复杂的从句和语法?
10. 我们对雅思写作的误区
11. 鸭友们通常会犯哪些语法错误,能有效避免吗?什么样的语法错误是致命的?
12. 雅思写作能速成吗?平时需要多看英文报纸吗?
13. 小作文重要吗?容易写吗?应该怎么复习
14. 怎么安排大作文和小作文的写作顺序和时间
15. 要买参考书吗?什么样的参考书?
16. 参加培训班管用吗?
17. 网络上面所谓的“名师”雅思写作预测有用吗?

推荐书目

在准备雅思的过程当中,或许很多人都会像我曾经那样不惜一切代价地去买所谓的名师参考书,因为我们都会自觉不自觉地自我游说:1450块的考试报名费都交得起了,还介意那几十块钱的参考书费吗。其实,有时候想想,我们买的书越多,证明我们越不自信;而且参考书一多,复习计划就会更乱。所以,到目前为止,我只觉得以下几本书稍微有点价值

1. 慎小嶷《十天突破雅思写作》

• 优点:比较系统地总结了雅思写作的方方面面,而且我最欣赏它的地方是让烤鸭的必备词汇量降到最低。 • 缺点:想想当全中国80%以上的烤鸭都人手一本的时候,它就不再是烤鸭战场上的大规模杀伤性武器了。

2. 慎小嶷《十天突破写作完整真题库》

• 优点:比较系统地收集和归类不同类型的雅思题目,我最欣赏它的地方是它能让考生觉得“原来9分作文都是不外如是”,而且我们能很好地找出差距。 • 缺点:看了这本书,你会很容易地掉进那个“大包围”的题海战术,你会有意无意地想把所有topics 都写了,你会有意无意地背诵别人的观点和9分范文。这样的复习方法是致命的。

3. 吴建业 《最新雅思考试胜策》之写作

• 优点:有很多很好的例句和观点,能让考生从例句中掌握单词,熟悉观点 • 缺点:观点太多,没有针对性,而且topics 很少,因为这边书是2003年的产物。它已经远远落后雅思写作题库的更新速度

4. 吴建业 《最新雅思考试胜策》之词汇

• 优点:对于渴望背单词的朋友,这本书足够你背了,而且那些词都是按照topics来划分的,所以比其他垃圾词汇书又进了一步。 • 缺点:我从来反对盲目背单词,更加反对那些为了使用某个单词而要自己的观点妥协的做法。单词是一把双刃剑,它既是武器,又是负担。

注意:以上仅仅属于本人观点和切身感受,也并非为某作者卖广告。我觉得吧,除了上述这四本书,其他的话,可以放到微波炉里面烤一下,看看有没有烤鸭的味道~~~嘻嘻

TASK 1 小作文

曾经一直忽视小作文,甚至认为雅思写作约等于是写一篇250字的大作文。轻视它的原因可以归结为,字数少(只要150字),不需要个人观点(纯粹描述客观figures),有固定的单词和句型,分数只占总分的1/3···直到后来与考官见面的时候,我才意识到小作文的杀伤力。This is especially true when it comes to those who only got band 6.5 but indeed demand band 7.0。有时候,6.5分到7分的距离,小作文起了决定性的作用。

按照剑桥雅思的分类,小作文可为:柱状图(bar chart),饼图(pie chart),曲线图(line graph),表格(table),地图(map)和流程图(processing chart)。当然,这只是按照这些图表的属性和特征来归类。为什么我要费那么多笔墨在这个人所共知的问题上面呢?经过我1个月的练习和研究,我发现,如果按照这样的归类,我们得总结出6套相对应的模版(句型和词汇)。其实这样是吃力不讨好,事倍功半的,因为这样的归类方法严重地影响了我们的复习方案和练习计划,而且并没有很好地反应出task 1的本质要求。

我的个人认为,应该把柱状图,饼图,曲线图和表格看作一个总体,然后区分出是纵向比较还是横向比较(下面会继续解释它们的区别和应对方案);然后地图题是一类,流程图是另外一类。也就是说按照本人的经验,task1 小作文按照图表的本质应该分为:横向比较,纵向比较,地图题和流程图。

Part 1 纵向比较和横向比较

由于雅思写作task 1中,柱状图,饼图,曲线图和表格占了绝大多数,所以这个板块应该作为复习的重点。每当我们拿到题目的时候,我们第一件事应该做什么?对,看图表(果然是一句废话)!!其实我的意思是,我们得首先观察它们究竟是:不同物体在同一时间点的比较(即横向比较),还是单一物体在不同时间点的比较(即纵向比较)。这一点非常非常非常非常非常重要!!!因为不同的比较,有着不同的内在比较关系。详细分析如下

横向比较:由于没有时间的变动,因此不存在物体或数据的波动,也就是说,那些描述变化趋势、描述变化特征的词汇和句型完全不适用。此时此刻,我们要focus的是

• 首先我们要找出极值(最大值和最小值) • 然后客观地、略有筛选地描述剩余数据(若数据太多,则有所侧重;若数据不多,则全部描述) • 接着就是高潮了--找出不同数据之间的共同特征和大小比较(比如说,谁和谁一样大/小,谁是谁的几分之几,谁是谁的多少倍) • 高潮过后,就需要有一个意犹未尽但有心无力的总结

纵向比较:顾名思义,就是由于时间的推移,不同物体和数据之间发生了量的变化,也就是说,这时候关于描述变化趋势和变化特征的词汇和句型就用得上了。此时此刻,我们要concentrate的是

• 首先客观描述变化的大体趋势(是升高了还是降低了,是多了还是少了) • 然后描述变化的具体特征(是怎样增加的,是怎样减少的,幅度如何,速率如何) • 接着找出变化趋势相似的不同物体,然后客观描述一下,以减少单词和词汇的重复使用,避免啰嗦 • 同样,这里也需要一个纵横全局的归纳和总结

说了那么多,估计你们也看烦看腻了。毕竟很多人都想着一蹴而就,想着尽可能多背单词多抄句型。好吧,闲话不多说,上货!请大家验明正身!!

程度副词

多于:More than, just over, over

少于:Less than, just under

几乎:Approximately, almost, nearly

完全:Exactly, precisely

表示列举data/information句型

1. Overall, A has the largest number of名词(NO1) and B the smallest (NO2). C and D both have NO3; E has NO4.

Overall, Sweden has the largest number of enrolled students (17) and Syria the smallest(5). France and Spain both have 12 students; Germany has 11. It is noticeable that France and Germany have similar profiles.

2.A has the most+名词+doing (NO1); B is next with NO2, while C has NO3. D and E have (相同) NO4 each

Sweden has the most students studyingCAD (9); Spain is next with 7, while France has 6. Germany and Syria have 4 CAD students each.

3.According to the pie chart, A, which is %, is the most···among the total···, then next is B with %, followed by C, making up %; and finally come E, F and G at %, %, % respectively.

According to the pie chart, chicken, which is 40%, is the most popular among the total meat sold, then next is pork with 20%, followed by beef, making up 18%; and finally come lamb, fish and other at 15%, 5% and 2% respectively.

纵向比较

1.Experience/witness/see/enjoy+修饰词(最高级)+增加/减少/震荡

Experience/enjoy + a significant/the most dramatic + decrease/increase

增加: increase, growth, rise 减少: decrease, drop

快速: dramatic, drastic 缓慢: gradual, steady, slow

大幅: significant, substantial 小幅: moderate, slight

震荡: considerable/marked/sharp/minor fluctuation

2.The number of··· was No1 in Yr and rose/reduced by % to No2

The number of miles that car traveled was 3199 in 1985 and rose by 50% to 4806 in the subsequent years.

增加/上升: increase, rise, grow 急促上升: jump, soar to, surge to

减少/下降: decrease, drop, decline 急促下降: plummet to, plunge to

3.主语+上升/减少 to··· or 主语+上升/减少 by

4.The percentage/proportion/number of is修饰词larger/ smaller than that of

修饰词 明显: substantially, obviously 轻微: slightly, moderately

5.A修饰词 increase/decrease occurred

修饰词 大幅: considerable, significant, substantial 小幅: moderate, slight

6.表示不变的状态:主语 remain constant/unchanged/stable/steady at

表示趋势的句型

1.there is a downward/ upward/ opposite/ general/ dominant trend

下降的/上升的/相反的/总体的/主要的趋势

2.···tend to be more/less preferred 倾向越来越受(不)受欢迎

As can be seen from the table, walk and certain short-distance transportation, such as cycled and local bus tend to be less preferred.

3.There is a considerable increase/decrease in···

There is a considerable increase in total miles by all modes of transportation, compared with the data (4,740 miles) in 1985.

表示比较增长或减少趋势

B also rose/increased/grew during this period, but less sharply

decreased/declined/dropped

The sales of games software also rose during this period, but less sharply.Sales increased from about 13 billion dollars in 2000 to just under 20 billion dollars three years later.

表示相同相似变化趋势的句式

A similar situation was seen in the···, where

A similar situation was seen in the wholesale and retail trade sector, where the number of women rose from about 550 000 in 1975 to almost 800 000 two decades later.

There are some similarities between A and B

Be similar to/ A has something in common with B

表示变化特征的词汇

[pic]

表示超过的词语

Outnumber 比···多,在数量上超过

In this profession, women outnumber men by two to one.

= there are twice as many women as men 在这个行业,女性人数是男性的两倍

The number of men outnumbered women by four to one. 我们的人数以4比1超过他们

Exceed 超过···数量

The price will not exceed $100.

Overtake (在数量或重要性方面)大于,超过

Nuclear energy may overtake oil as the main fuel.

表示连续的时间段

1.over a span of··· years

= over the period from···to···

= in the years between···and···

2.during the same period

3.in the No. years spanning from 19xx through 19xx

= from···to···within the 5 years period

4.from then on

= from this time onwards

= in the subsequent years.

横向比较

1.···程度副词 doubled/trebled三倍/quadruple四倍/halve减半(NO. vs NO.), while···doubled/trebled/quadrupled/halved which were数字(年份) and数字(年份) respectively.

The figure by long distance bus more than doubled during the same period (54 miles vs. 124 miles), while the miles by taxi trebled which were 13 miles and 42 miles respectively.

2.表示“A占总体的多少”或“A为B···倍”或“A为B的···分之···"

3.···数字(A+B), of which A were···and B were···

Italy received 20 million visitors, of which 1.2 million were from the UK and 1.8 million were from the USA.

4. ···had a higher/lower total number of名词than any of the other+名词

France had a higher total number of visitors than any of the other countries on the list.

表示比较的句型

1.likewise,句子. 同样地,···

Likewise, the use of other, unspecified, forms of transport also increased.

2.By contrast/In comparison,句子. 相反地,···

By contrast, the long distance vehicle enjoyed a significant increase over the period, spanning from 1985 to 2000, although there exists some differences.

In comparison, student expenditure in country C was considerably lower, at only US$1500 per year

3.compared with the data (数字) in年份,句子. 与···相比较,···

Overall, there is a considerable increase in total miles by all modes of transportation, compared with the data (4,740 miles) in 1985.

4.···had half/twice/triple·times as many可数名词 as···, but/yet the number of···and···was the same.

Australia had half as many visitors as Thailand (3 million vs6 million), but the number of visitors to those countries from the UK and the USA was the same, 0.3 million.

5.句子, while句子.

12 million Americans visited Canada while 5.5 million visited Mexico.

6.···had a higher/lower total number of···than any of the other+名词复数

France had a higher total number of visitors than any of the other countries on the list.

表示“%”的词语

百分比:percentage, proportion, share

高:High, large – highest, largest

低:low, small—lowest, smallest

表示“占%”的词组

正向:A constitute/occupy/account for/compose/comprise B A占B的%

负向:% of B be composed of A (总体)有%的(某一元素)

% of名词 be composed of (总体)有%的(某一元素)

Around 15% of our diet is composed of protein. 我们的饮食中大约有15%的蛋白质

composes (某一元素)构成总体的%

Christians compose around 2.5% of the country’s population 基督教徒占这个国家人口的2.5%

Comprise 构成

Older people comprise a large proportion of those living in poverty.

Constitute 构成

Constitute around 60% of the total/a larger percentage (around 20%) of

Constitute the majority of the labour force. 占劳动力的大多数

Occupy 占据

Dry lands occupy a third of the world’s surface. 陆地占了地球表面的三分之一

Account for (数量上,比例上)占

The Japanese market accounts for 35% of the company’s revenue. 日本市场占公司收入的35%.

对了,差点忘了,要区分数据是data 还是 percentage.这个决定了相对应的词汇

[pic]

[pic]

如果大家能够熟练地掌握我上述的总结和归纳的话,相对对于以上四种图表一定能够得心应手了

Part 2 地图题

地图是最近比较流行的题目,本人连续考的4次雅思写作里面,居然有两次都是地图题(12月11日和2月26日)。不过对于应付这种题型,大家不用害怕,其实没什么大不了的。慎小嶷最近的新书《十天突破写作完整真题库》里面的DAY 1O(page 297~318),有详细的归纳。以下内容均为摘抄该书的章节。

表示“A位于”

A is located/situated/lies···

A is just off the road to··· A就在通向某地的路边上

A is right at the center of··· A就在···的正中央

表示“A靠近或者紧挨着B”:A is next to/near/close to

表示“A在距离B某一面···公里处”

A is located/situated/lies···kilometers/miles to the east/west/north/south of B

表示“A位于B内的某个部分”

A is located/ situated/ lies in the eastern/western/northern/southern part of B

表示“A在B的某个角上”

A lies/is located/is situated on/at the east/west/north/south/corner of B

表示“剩下的”部分:The rest of the···

表示“道路通向/河流流向某处”: The road runs from···to···

The river runs/ flows from···to···

表示“沿着河流/道路”:Along with river/road Alongside the river/road

表示“A在道路或者河流的某一侧”

A is located/situated/lies on the north/south side of the river/ the road

e.g. situated on the south side of the River Thames, this hotel offers its guests an ideal location in central London

表示“A与B仅一河之隔/仅一路之隔”:A is right across from B

表示“A在道路或河流的南北端”

A is located/situated/lies on the north/south end of the river/the road

表示“A在B的对面”:A is opposite B

表示“A在B某一侧的边界上”

A is located/situated/lies on the eastern/western/northern/southern border of B

表示“A在B某侧的边缘上”

A is located/situated/lies on the eastern/western/northern/southern edge of B

表示“A朝北/朝南/面朝公园等”

A faces north/south

A faces towards the north/ the south

A faces a park

表示“斜向的方位”:

东北 north-east 东南 south-east

西北 north-west 西南 south-west

表示建筑物的布局:Layout

指一个建筑物周边的环境:The surroundings of a building

表示“A占据了某个空间”:A occupies

表示A由几个不同的部分组成:A consists of/ is composed of/ is made up of B, C and D

表示A的长度是:The length of A is···=A is···in length

表示A的宽度是:The width of A is···=A is···in width

表示A的面积是:A is···in area

The farm is 50 kilometers in area

The building almost doubled in floor area.

表示大约:approximately, roughly, about, around

表示一块地:a patch of land/ a stretch of land

表示从A·延伸到·:A extended/ stretched from···to···

The park extended from Main Street to King George Street

This period stretched from the mid-eighteenth century to the late nineteenth century

表示比较,“与···所不同的是”

Unlike A, B

Compared with A, B

A···while/ whereas B···

In comparison/ in contrast/ by contrast, B

表示可以“使用”:available

表示可以“容纳”:can accommodate

表示理论上讲:in theory, theoretically, hypothetically

表示但事实上:but in reality/ however, realistically/ yet in practice/ but in fact/

as a matter of fact, though

表示在某处建造了A:A was built in=was constructed in=was established in

表示在某处又增建了A:A was added to=an addition was made to···,which was A

表示改动原建筑或原场地:v. change/ modify/ remodel

n. change/modification/remodeling

表示A被改造成了B:A was turned into/ was transformed into/ was converted into B

表示A被搬走或拆掉:A was removed/ demolished/ taken down from···

表示A被B取代了:A was replaced by B/ A made way for B

表示A的面积缩小:the size of A was reduced to only half of/ one third of the original size

表示A的面积扩大:A was expanded to twice its size=the size of A almost doubled

表示A向XX方向延伸:expand/extend northward/southward/eastward/westward

表示A经历了:A experienced/ witnessed/saw

起初:at first=initially=in the beginning=originally

接着:then=next=after that=in the following stage=in the next/subsequent period=afterward

在这个阶段:at this point=in this phase=in this stage

最终:finally=eventually=in the end

Part 3 流程图

对于流程图,本人从来没有准备过。我觉得没必要捡了芝麻丢了西瓜。毕竟它出现的频率很低,而且几乎很难准备。有见及此,对于那些在考试当中遇到流程图的烤鸭们,我只能说:“不要慌,不要怕,前面就是天堂,一路走好!!”

TASK 2 大作文

Part 1. 考官是怎么改卷子的?

知己知彼,百战百胜,所以“考官是怎么改卷子的,他以什么为标准的评分”的尤为重要。经过朋友的介绍,我认识了Steward,他是一位资深的写作老师和改卷老师,在悉尼大学语言中心工作(那些在悉尼的朋友,如果想找他的话,请给我留言,我有他的联系方式)。我上了他两小时的课,他帮我改了12篇大作文和2篇小作文。我觉得这短短的两小时,远远比上什么新东方新航道环球雅思什么保7班精品班重要得多得多。after all,很多中国雅思老师还是处于意淫阶段。

看着他改了12篇文章,发现他改作文的模式非常非常的mechanical,他说考官一般会在1小时内改六份作文(including task 1 and task2),那就是说平均5分钟改一篇。在这五分钟里,他就死死地盯着评分规则,从task response, coherence and cohesion, lexical resources, grammatical range and accuracy 这四个方面评分。而且让我无比深刻的是:雅思是一门语言能力考试,它侧重于测试学生的语言表达能力,而不是思维能力。记住:核心词是语言表达!!

Part 2. 雅思写作7分是什么样的概念

以下是雅思写作的7分标准

(a). task response:

• addresses all parts of the task • presents a clear position throughout the reponse • presents, extend and supports main ideas, but there may be a tendency to over-generalise and/or supporting ideas may lack focus.

用中文最简单的理解是:首尾都要回答问题,允许泛泛而谈。这就是说,我们没必要花太多的精力去考虑观点是否绝对严谨是否意义深刻,关键是要告诉考官你的思考逻辑。这就是剑桥雅思的魅力,它要考你的不是你的思维能力,而是你的语言表达能力。哪怕在ridiculous的观点,只要你能用最恰当的语言去表达,你也可以同样得7分(当然,如果你的目标是8分,你就当我痴人说话吧)。还有就是说,很多题目本身包含很广泛的概念,很多大学教授用十几万字都解释不清的关系,怎么就能让我们这些门外汉用三言两语就解释好呢。说了这么多,我想说的是,如果你从一开始就习惯背诵满分作文,习惯复制别人的观点,这样的复习方法会很吃力(我不敢说是错的,那是确实低效,甚至有赌博成分),事倍功半。毕竟我们都是正常人,我们都有自己的思考能力和理解能力,我们说的每一个观点都是make sense,不make sense的是我们没把那个观点说清楚。

(b). coherence and cohesion

• logically organizes information and ideas, there is clear progression throughout • lises a range of cohesive devices appropriately although there may be some under-or over use • presents a clear topic within each paragragh

用中文最简单的意思是:分段分点,每点之前必须有连接词。这一点非常非常容易达到(我总结了大量这样的词汇,明天或者后天上传上来)。然后那个考官最为推介的范式(以argumentation的题目为例,因为report类的文章更死板了):开头段+主体段(让步一段,支持(反对)两段)+结尾段。其实说白了,就是我们最熟悉不过的模版。 也就是说,模版是非常有用的,之所以变成没用(serve no helpful purpose)是因为用模范的那个人没有用(想起粤语里面的一句歇后语,叫“太监撒尿”)。至于怎么用模版才能变得不落于俗套,下文回答问题7的时候会有详细分析。

(c). lexcial resource

• uses a sufficient range of vocabulary to allow some flexibility and precision • uses less common lexical items with some awareness of style and collocation • may produce occasional erros in word choice, spelling and/or word formation

用中文最简单的意思是:足够就好,不需要多;一两个大词就够,不需要滥。一说到单词,相信我们并不陌生,甚至认为学英语就是背单词,写作就是单词的选美与堆砌。尽管我们都知道这是不对的,但是依旧默默地坚持着,比如说背诵一大堆同义词代换,一大堆除了莎士比亚见过之外其他人都没见过的大词。这样的复习会很累而且会逐渐把雅思写作从逻辑表述变成词汇大杂烩。至于何谓是足够的单词,何谓是less common lexical items,这就是问题6的范畴了。经过我写了大概30篇雅思作文,我觉得我们需要的词汇其实真的不多(我的词汇表一定会upload上来,估计在明天或者后天)。我想说的是,记单词最好的方法是,把单词放到句型或者例句上面来,然后句型或者例句一定要与雅思写作topic 相关。如果不相关,证明那个词就算记住了,也不会用。

(d). Grammatical range and accuracy

• uses a variety of complex structures • produces frequent error-free sentences • has good control of grammar and punctuation but may make a few mistake

用中文最简单的意思是:句子结构多样性和允许语法错误的存在。对于句子结构多样性,这一点,我觉得我们中国学生肯定没问题的,什么定语从句,什么名词性从句,什么状语从句,倒装句,虚拟语态,被动语态等,我们只会过犹不及。从我的个人经验来看,我有时候会把定语从句和同位语从句搞乱(并不是我们不知道有什么不同,而是一紧张就很容易忽视了)。说到语法错误,我可以说,我们中国学生最最最常犯的语法错误都是非常低级(请参考part.4内容)。

Part 3. 雅思写作7分所需要的词汇

(a). 雅思写作必备连词--只要掌握了这些连词,就能符合到coherence and cohesion 7分以上的要求

以下为英语写作(雅思写作,学术论文等)必备的连词汇总。以下的内容参考了悉尼大学本科学生orientation handbook里面关于如何preparing for essays的总结,再加上本人的积累。有些连词与下面的句型汇总重合,请以句型汇总为重点。对于应该雅思写作和大学学术论文绝对绰绰有余,希望能帮助大家。

为了更好地分享我的经验,我将以下的词语划分成三组

• 用下划线highlight的是适用那些总感觉雅思写作写不长、写不满250字、需要灌水的同学 • 用粗体highlight的是适用于那些每次都写得太长、写爆格,务实的同学 • 用斜体highlight的是适用于那些有强烈大词欲,渴望用大词整死考官的同学

• To signal sequence or addition
Accordingly, actually, additionally, afterwards, again, also, and, another, as was previously stated, as well as, at the same time, besides this, consistent with this, correspondingly, equally important, finally, further, furthermore, in addition, in a like manner, in the first place, in the same way, including, initially, last, likewise, more importantly, moreover, next, originally, overall, primarily, similarly, to begin with, too, what is more.

• To signal time
After, afterward, as long as, at first, at last, at length, at the same time, before, concurrently, currently, during, finally, following, immediately, in the future, in the meantime, last but not least, later, meanwhile, next, once, presently, rarely, simultaneously, sometimes, subsequently, then, this time, until, until then, whenever, while.

• To show results
Accordingly, as a result, consequently, for this reason, hence, in other words, in that case, it follows that, it is evident that, otherwise, owing to, resulting from this, so it can be seen that, that being the case, therefore this implies, this suggests that, thus, under these circumstances.

• To introduce evidence/support/reasons
Contradictory to this, contrarily, in support of this, it follows, this is clear because, the evidence for···is, the reasons for···are, this is supported by, to affirm this, to attest to this, to corroborate, to explain, to further confirm, to further verify, to list, to substantiate this, in substantiation.

• To signal repetition, summary, or conclusion
Accordingly, all in all, all together, as a final point, as a result, as I have noted, as indicated earlier, as mentioned, as previously stated, as we have seen, briefly, by and large, consequently, finally, given these facts, hence, in brief, in conclusion, in other words, in short, in summary, to sum up, in summation, on the whole, overall, since, so, summing up, then, therefore, thus, thus we can see that, to conclude, to recapitulate, to repeat, to review.

• To introduce causes or effects
Accordingly, as a result, because, consequently, due to, for as much as, for that reason, hence, in as much as, in that, in view of, on account of, owing, since, then, therefore, thus, to narrow the focus, after all, from this perspective, from this point of view, given this context, in fact, in order to, in other words, in particular, in this case, in this context, indeed, particularly, put another way, specifically, that is, this is particularly true when, under certain, circumstances, up to a point, with this in mind.

• To contrast,
After all, although, alternately, and yet, at the same time, be that as it may, bu, contrastingly, conversely, despite, dissimilarly, even though, for all that, however, in contrast, in contrast to this, in opposition to this, in reality, in spite of this, inconsistent with this is that, instead, meanwhile, nevertheless, nonetheless, notwithstanding, on the contrary, on the one hand, on the other hand, otherwise, paradoxically, rather than, regardless of, still, though, whereas, when in fact, yet.

• To compare
Also, analogous to, another similar issue is, at the same time, by the same token, equally, in comparison, in like manner, in similar fashion, in the same way, likewise, similarly.

• To clarify
In other words, that is, that is to say, this means that, to clarify, to elaborate, to explain, to paraphrase, to put it another way.

• To show purpose
In order to, in the hope that, for the purpose, with this end, to the end that, with this objective

• To dismiss
All the same, at any rate, either way, in any event, in either case, whatever happens.

• To signal concession
Admittedly, albeit, although it is true that certainly, even so, granted, it may appear that, knowing this, naturally, of course, this is only the case when, while this is true, while it may seem that.

• To signify a condition
Granting that, in the event of, on the condition that, providing that, so long as

• To prove examples
As an illustration, by way of example, for example, for instance, in particular, in support of this, notably, to demonstrate, to elaborate, to exemplify, to highlight, to illustrate, specifically, that is.

• To reference
Concerning this, considering this, with respect to, with regards to

• To emphasise
Above all, as a matter of fact, certainly, chiefly, especially, importantly, in any case, in particular, indeed, it must be emphasised, that, mainly, mostly, notably, obviously, of course, particularly, primarily, specifically, truly, undoubtedly.

(b). 雅思写作必备同义词代换--只要掌握了这些连词,就能游刃有余地驾驭我们想要表达的观点,满足lexcial resource 7分要求

对于雅思写作,总有那么一个问题绕不开,那就是我们究竟需要积累多少个单词才能写出一篇能够完整表达我们观点的文章。有的老师说最起码要有6级的词汇量,有的老师(慎小嶷)说熟记286个单词就足够~~根据本人的经验,我觉得在一开始备考的时候,完全没有必要去考虑我们究竟需要多少个单词,因为在没有练笔就开始记单词的情况,我们的思路往往受我们所记过的单词的影响。在这样的惯性下,我们很可能很生硬地套用单词,而不是自然而然地抒发观点。我觉得只有在自己平时充分练笔(我自己大概写了30多篇雅思作文)的前提下,我们才知道我们自己究竟需要什么样的单词和词组,需要多少的同义词代换~~我的经验是:不要让单词成为自己的负担,最好是边写边积累,毕竟我们不是考GRE。哪怕是GRE词汇的巨人也可能成为雅思写作的侏儒~~关键是用词准确到位,清晰表达观点

以下是经过我30篇雅思写作练笔之后总结出来的75组必备的同义词代换,如果能熟练掌握,必定能让你们在驾驭和阐述观点的时候变得游刃有余~~其实不单单是为了雅思写作,出国留学不能避免的就是每个学期排山倒海的individual assignments和group works,相信以下的词汇对大家是有帮助的。

中性动词

1.导致:v. cause, bring about, give rise to, lead to, generate, create, Be a contributing factor to

2.认为:v. point out, argue, claim, assert, think, consider

3.强调:v. emphasize, bring/call attention to, accentuate, heighten, strengthen

4.集中:v. focus on, concentrate on

5.解决:v. combat, address, tackle, resolve, solve

6.从事:v. carry out, conduct, perform

7.承认:v. concede, admit, acknowledge, accept, allow, grant

正向动词

1.支持:v. support, advocate, agree with

2.增加:v. increase, grow, rise, enlarge

n. increase, growth, rise, enlargement

3.改善:v. improve, enhance, upgrade, boost

n. improvement, enhancement, boom

4.扩张:v. expand, enlarge, extend, widen, broaden

n. expansion, enlargement, extension

5.提高:v. augment, increase, develop, intensify

n. augment, increase, development

6.发展:v. develop, advance, grow, evolve, flourish

n. development, advancement, growth, flourishing

7.产生:v. develop, come into being/existence, come about

8.获得:v. acquire, gain, get, obtain, attain

9.执行:v. implement, execute, put into effect, perform

n. implementation, performance

10.实现:v. achieve, fulfill, gain, accomplish, attain

n. achievement, accomplishment, attainment

11.开始:v. commence, begin, start

n. commencement, beginning, start

12. 促进:v. promote, further, advance, encourage, stimulate, foster

n. promotion, advancement

13.鼓励:v. stimulate, encourage, act as stimulus, motivate

n. encouragement, incentive, motivation

14.唤起:v. arouse, cause, induce, prompt, trigger, spark off

15.需要:v. call for, demand, require

16. 取代:v. replace, take the place of, substitute for

n. replacement, substitution for, in place of

17. 加快:v. accelerate, speed up, quicken

n. Acceleration, speeding up

18. 减轻:v. abate, lessen, reduce, alleviate, mitigate

n. abatement, lessening, alleviation, mitigation

19. 保护:v. protect, preserve, conserve

n. protection, preservation, conservation

20.保卫:v. safeguard, defend, shield

n. safeguard, defence, shelter

21. 建立:v. establish, set up, found, construct

n. establishment, foundation, construction

22. 遵守(规则,法律):abide by, comply with, follow, respect, act in accordance with

23. 允许:v. allow, permit, give the means to, facilitate

负向动词

1.反对:v. object, raise objections, oppose

2.减少:v. decrease, lower, reduce, cut down

n. decrease, reduction, drop, decline

3. 耗尽:v. deplete, exhaust, use up

n. depletion, exhaustion, using up,

4. 阻碍:v. hamper, hinder, obstruct, impede, inhibit

n. hindrance, obstruction, obstacle, impediment

5.限制:v. limit, curb, restrict, place a limit on

n. limit, restriction

6. 危及:v. endanger, imperil, jeopardize, put at risk

7. 衰败:v. deteriorate, degrade, degenerate, rot

n. deterioration, degeneration

8. 恶化:v. exacerbate, aggravate, worsen, inflame

n. exacerbation, aggravation, worsening

9. 加剧:v. intensify, escalate, sharpen, aggravate

n. escalation, intensification, aggravation

10.破坏:v. damage, destroy, ruin, devastate

n. damage, destruction, ruin, devastation

adj. devastating, destructive

11. 污染:v. pollute, contaminate

n. pollution, contamination

12. 败坏:v. pervert, corrupt, deprave, lead astray, debase

13.扭曲:v. distort, pervert, misrepresent, falsify, misstate, misreport

14.削弱:v. weaken, undermine, impair, invalidate

15. 干涉:v. interfere in/with, intervene in, impinge on/upon(侵犯)

n. interference/intervention/involvement in/with

16. 侵犯:v. encroach on/upon (time/rights/personal life)

n. encroachment on/upon = impinging on/upon

17. 与···相违背/相矛盾:run counter to = run contrary to

Contradict (each other)= conflict with = be at odds with sth

18.误解:v. misunderstand, misapprehend, misinterpret

n. misunderstanding, misapprehension, misinterpretation

19. 逃避:v. escape, break out, evade, elude

20.遭受:v. suffer from, be stricken with, be afflicted with

21.违反:v. violate, disobey, transgress, infringe

n. violation, infringement, contravention, breach

22. 忽视:v. lose sight of, ignore, neglect

23.疏远:v. alienate, isolate, become/get estranged from

n. alienation, isolation, estrangement

其他重要的同义词代换

1.大量的:enormous, massive, tremendous, considerable

2.重要的:significant, substantial, crucial, important

3.严重的:adj. severe, serious, acute, drastic

adv. severely, seriously, acutely, drastically

4. 有害的:adj. hazardous, dangerous, harmful

5. 贫穷的:adj. poor, poverty-stricken, destitute, impoverished

6. 富有的:adj. rich, wealthy, affluent

7. 差距:n. gap, disparity, divergence

8. 积极的:beneficial, advantageous

9.消极的:baneful, detrimental

10. 明显的:manifest, obvious, evident, apparent

11. 影响:impact, repercussion, effect, ramification

12. 人类:the human race, human being, humankind, humanity

13. 当代:in current society, in this day and age, in present-day society, in contemporary society

14. 传统的:traditional, conventional, old-fashioned

15. 健康的:healthy, vigorous, robust

16. 有营养的:nutritious, nourishing, wholesome, healthy

常用的正向形容词

Adequate/ basic/ broad/ general/ sufficient 充分的/ 基本的/ 宽泛的/ 大概的/ 足够的

Penetrating/ profound/ revealing/ remarkable/ proper/ thorough

入木三分的/ 深刻的/ 发人心省的/ 出色的/ 正确的/ 彻底的

Original/ unique/ fresh/ rare/ clear/ fascinating/ interesting

独到的/ 独特的/ 新鲜的/ 少有的/ 清楚的/ 生动的/ 有趣的

Significant/ substantial/ considerable

常用的负向形容词

Unethical/ immoral/ unscrupulous/ unprincipled 不道德的

Antisocial/ unacceptable/ undesirable 反社会的/ 不能接受的/ 令人不快的

Aggressive/ criminal/ disruptive/ violent 挑衅的/ 犯罪的/ 扰乱的/ 暴力的

Notorious/ appalling/ vicious/ bloody 臭名昭著的/ 令人震惊的/ 令人发指的/ 血腥的

(c). 雅思写作必备写作单词--这一项是最虚最模糊的一项。不同的人因为有不同的观点,因而需要不同的独特单词。(如果时间紧迫的同学,请先参考慎小嶷的《十天突破雅思写作》,我的单词汇总仍在整理当中,不便之处,敬请原谅)

Part 4. 雅思写作常见的语法错误

(a). 雅思写作低级语法错误

(1) 冠词a, an, the的乱用,少用,多用。(对于这个问题,考官说了,this mistake is insignificant and it takes time for people to avoid it)。结合自身经验,就算我自己真的看了语法书,我们也同样会继续犯错,但这个错误不影响我们拿7分(当然也不能每句话都错一两次)

(2) 名词单复数。这个问题很普遍,特别要搞清楚哪些名词是可数的,哪些名词是不可数的,哪些名词是既可数又不可数(可数与不可数表达不一样的意思),哪些名词是单复数同形,以及哪些词可以修饰可数,哪些只能修饰不可数。这就需要积累。特别是平时写作的时候,刻意留意这个问题,在有疑问的单词打圈,然后写完之后马上查词典。以下是从网络上找来的,很管用的总结。

• 单数名词不能单独存在,一般前面应该有限定词修饰。 • 不定冠词a/an永远只能修饰单数可数名词。 • every和each永远只能修饰单数可数名词。但every+数词+复数名词是正确的,如:every ten years • 序数词后面一般使用单数可数名词。 • anther永远只修饰单数可数名词。但another+数词/few+复数名词是正确的,如:another eight years;another few books • other通常修饰复数名词,也可修饰不可数名词。,如Henry Smith is taller than any other student in his class. • 下列词和短语只能修饰复数名词these,those,many,various,several,numerous,diverse,few,a few,both,a (good/large/great) number of,numbers of,one of • 大于1的词数只能修饰复数名词 !!牢记的结构:one/two/many+of+限定词+复数名词!! • 只能修饰单数可数名词的词:one,anther,a/an,this,that,each,every,either,such a,many a!!注意!!many student以及many a student • 只能修饰复数可数名词的词:>1的数字(two,six.....),hundred,thousand,million,both,several,many,few,a few,these,those,a (good/large/great) number of,numbers of,the numberof,numbers of,numerous,various,diverse,a series of,a wide range of,a collevtion of • 只修饰不可数名词的词:much,little,a litter,a great deal of,a great amount of,a piece of,an article of • 既可修饰不可数又能修饰可数的词: all (of) a lot of some (of) lots of any (of) plenty of most (of) half (of) a wealth of (a) part of enough (of) the rest of other one third of such no a variety of

(3). 主谓一致:这个语法最好上百度百科,那里的分析非常详细。我发现经常犯主谓一致的错误是

• 当主语后面有as well as, with, along with, together with, but, like, rather than, except等引导的短语时,谓语动词要与最前面的主语保持一致. • "half of, the rest of, most of, all of及百分数或分数+of 等后接名词"作主语时,谓语动词形式根据of后的名词而定.

(4). 动词的时态问题,现在时,过去式,过去分词的问题。

(5). 标点符号的运用:千万不要出现满篇作文全是逗号的中国特色社会主义现象。一个句子当主谓宾完整出现就是一个句子。更加不要用叹号。

(6). 不要用缩写:例如don't, can't, won't等。一旦出现缩写,证明你太业余太随意了,一点都不学术。

(b). 雅思写作致命语法错误

(1). 句子成分缺失,通常是缺谓语(由于谓语用了动名词或者过去分词)

(2). 定语从句和同位语从句的混淆(特别容易在引导同位语从句时,误以为引导定语从句)

(3). 定语从句与状语从句的混淆(例如where, when等引导的从句需要特别注意,要清楚其在句子中的成分)

(4). 在使用倒装句时,请注意助动词提前。如果不熟练,那就请你不要用了。

Part 5. 雅思写作的误区

(a). 雅思考官是不太在乎你是用一面倒还是”先让步再支持“

记得在悉尼海外东方学院的J老师说过,现在“一面倒”已经很难甚至不能拿7分了。我问了一下考官,他给我的答复非常的straightforward,无论让步还是一面倒,都是可以拿7分,关键是reasonably explain and extend your idea.

(b). 雅思写作中只要是问opinion的题目(包括”discuss both views and give your own opinion“和”to what extent do you agree or disagree"),开头和结尾都要表明观点

记得还是悉尼海外东方学院,还是那个“名师”J,他说在写”discuss both view and give your opinion”和” to what extent do you agree and disagree”的开头是不要一样的。前者不用一开始就表明你自己的opinion,后者才需要。但是雅思考官给我的回答是:“you should preview the question and give you opinion immediate so that the examiners can easily understand what you are going to argue”.这就是说慎小嶷《十天》里面最喜欢的开头了,“介绍背景+分析双方观点+表明自己态度”;也就是说用模版。

Part 6. 雅思写作如何展开论证

记住三个英文单词“explain”, “extend”or “example”

你或我总会那么一个时候,想到了一个观点但是不知道怎么论证,或者不知从哪一个点开始论证。其实很简单,要么你就说为什么这个观点会产生,要么你就说这一观点所产生的影响(积极或消极),要么就举例子说明观点的存在性。无非就是这么三种思考方向。假如一篇文章你有4个观点,只要上述三项各用一两次,文章看起来更加有可信度,句型就自然而然变得有多样性的。

!!!重点推介···雅思写作必备句型!!!

说到这,我就分享一下怎么才能让模版看起来不像模版。最立竿见影的方法是总结和归类句型。经过我三个月的复习和总结,我发现雅思作文无非就是以下几种关系:开头句型,插入语和连词,中立关系,积极关系,消极关系,因果关系,建议关系和结尾句型。我总结超过160个句型,而且我所有文体(report类,argumentation类,综合类),几乎所有领域(教育类,社会类,发展类,环保类,犯罪类,科技类等)都写过了,而且所写的文章经过考官批改都是至少7分,有几篇8分。我这就是归功于我平时积累的这些句型。而且在上次2月26日的考试(题目应该算是比较难的,小作文地图题+社会类粮食方面的大作文)中,我用了36分钟去写地图题,只剩下24分钟写大作文,我当时都很害怕,害怕写不完。但是我总结的句型帮了我一大忙。我用了20分就写完了,最后得了7.5分。并不是我在吹牛,我只是想说,学会用以下句型,既可以保证你有稳定的发挥,又可以有效的避免语法错误,而且还能把大词很自然而然地就写出来了,一点都不造作。

还有,我想说的是,这里没有所谓的7分句型或者什么6分句型。我觉得这样划分只会导致我们盲目地背诵高分句型而忽略它实际的用法和语境。什么是高手?高手就是用最简单方式表达最准确的意思。你们可以根据自己的喜好和习惯,自己选择。还有,再好的句型,如果不能很随心所欲地从自己笔下写出来,那只能证明那个句型还不是属于自己。这就需要平时刻意的运用,每写完一篇之后再回过头来看看,有哪些更恰当的句型没有用上。经过多次的trial and error,这些句型就会变成你以后show off的资本了。

我怎么变得这么啰嗦啊,说了这么多还没有上货。对了,还有一点,对于以下所有句型和单词,我都查过牛津高阶词典和柯林斯大词典,语境和用法基本是正确。很多都配上例子,如果发现有错的,希望大家提个醒,我会马上纠正。

如果觉得要记上这160+的句型很吃力的话,或者觉得下周就要考试了,来不及熟悉用法的话,我用红色highlight了我最最最常用的,最最最喜欢的而且最最最万金油的句型

(a). 开头句型

适合discussion问题的开头

The issue/ discussion/ topic/ problem/ subject about/ of (whether从句 or how +不定式) is of great interest/ concern/ importance/ significance to/ for···

has triggered/sparked off an intense controversy in the realm of···

• The issue of···is of great interest to···
e.g. The issue of whether the practice of requiring students to wear school uniforms will affect their personality and individuality is of great interest to many people.

• The topic of···is of great concern for···
e.g. The topic of whether it is appropriate and effective to use corporal punishment on young children is of great concern for many people.

• The subject of···is of great importance to···
e.g. The subject of how to resolve the problems caused by the rapid development of technology nowadays is of great importance to many scientists.

• The discussion about···is of great significance to···
e.g. The discussion about the most effective way to provide financial and technological supports to third-world countries is of great significance to both industrialized and developing countries.

• The question of···is a matter of much contention among • The problem···has been widely debated in the world of··· • The inquiry into··has triggered/sparked off an intense controversy in the realm of···
e.g. The inquiry into the morality of conducting various researches and experiments on human cloning has triggered an intense controversy in the realm of science

对于人类克隆研究与实验的道德性所作的研究已经引起了科学界的激烈争议

适合agree/disagree问题的开头

• Although it is commonly believed that···, this is actually not the case
e.g. Although it is commonly believed that conventional views about a healthy lifestyle and proper conduct are no longer relevant to young people’s needs today, this is actually not the case.

• Although it is widely accepted that···, this is simply untrue in our day-to-day experiences

• Although it is generally acknowledged that···, this can hardly be held true in many real-life situations.

• Although conventional wisdom has it that···, the reality of the situation is often far more complicated than that. 虽然传统大众观念认为···,但是现状却远比这种观念要复杂得多

• Although the received opinion is that···, the harsh realities usually turn out to be a completely different picture 虽然大众普遍接受的观点是···,但是无情的现实往往显现出不同的图景

e.g. Although the received opinion is that schoolchildren generally benefit from watching television and using other high-tech media in their learning process, the harsh realities usually turn out to be a completely different picture.

• Although many people subscribe to the belief that···, this is in fact a common misconception that we need to clear up 虽然许多人认同这样的观点:···,但是事实上这却是一种我们需要澄清的普遍错误观念

e.g. Although many people subscribe to the belief that providing public library facilities and services is a waster of taxpayer’s money, this is in fact a common misconception that we need to clear up.

• Although most individuals are convinced that···, this is actually a popular myth that must be exploded. 虽然大多数人坚信···,但这却是一种我们必须揭穿的普遍错误观点

e.g. Although most individuals are convinced that their happiness is closely linked with the level of their financial success, this is actually a popular myth that must be exploded.

表示趋势的句型

There has been a growing trend that···

an interesting tendency that/of···

a common practice of/that···

a widespread phenomenon that···

e.g. There has been a widespread phenomenon that students from rural areas find it increasingly difficult to have access to college or university education.

• Recent decades have seen an increased awareness of··· • Recent decades have witnessed a major transformation in···
e.g. Recent decades have witnessed a major transformation in agricultural development, where industrial technologies are being employed and new varieties of crops are being created, yet, opponents of this development have raised a number of difficult questions. From my point of view, this is a really complicated matter, and we need further investigations to understand the whole picture.

(b). 中立关系

• It is worth mentioning that··· 值得一提的是 • It is by no means certain that··· 完全不能确定的是 • It is far too soon that··· 为时过早的是 • It is not uncommon that··· 不足为奇的是 • It is undeniable that··· 不可否认的是 • It is unavoidable that 不可回避的是 • It is obvious/ evident/ manifest that 明显的是 • It is gradually borne in on sb that 逐渐被某人认识到 • It is of great interest that··· 广为兴趣的是 • It is of paramount importance that··· 首要的是 • It is of great urgency that··· 刻不容缓的是 • It is +副词 + suggested/argued/advised/believed that 普遍认为 • It is widely accepted that • It is generally/commonly believed that 普遍相信的是 • It is universally acknowledged that 众所周知的是 • It is strongly/commonly suggested recommended/ advised that 强烈建议的是 • It is sometimes argued that 有时候争论的是 • There is/was little/no substance that ···几乎毫无/没有根据 • It is no without substance that ···并非没有根据

表达观点的句式

• Advocates of······的支持者 • Opponents of······的反对者 Point out/ argue/ claim声称/believe / assert断言/ declare宣称/ conceive设想 that


表示趋势的句型

There has been a growing trend that···

an interesting tendency that/of···

a common practice of/that···

a widespread phenomenon that···

Recent decades have seen an increased awareness of

witnessed a major transformation in


表示“强调某种状态在特定明显或不明显”的句型

This is especially true if/when we consider the fact that/when it comes to/in terms of

当我们考虑··的时候,这一点尤为正确

It is not even always true that··· ···并不是总是正确的


Incline to = tend to 倾向于


Gain/get/have(direct/free/ready/unlimited/unrestricted/restricted/equal) access to

获得/得到直接/自由/容易/方便/不受限制/受限制/平等/接近的机会

e.g. Men and wowen should have equal access to education and employment.


Be accompanied by B伴随 A


Be entitled to = be eligible to = be authorised to 使享有权利,使符合资格

e.g. the privately insured are entitled to special benfits such as having the choice pf their own doctors, and being able to avoide long waiting lists for hospital beds.


Have and will continue to 现在是并且将来也会继续···

e.g. Education has been and will continue to be central to the country’s economic performance in the 21st century.


Give rise to = bring about = create = generate = provoke(负面的) = evoke 引起,造成

e.g. Computers have brought about many changes in the workplace.

Have/exert an influence/impact/effect on sb/sth 起···作用

Play a role in sth 扮演···角色

• 正面:Considerable/enormous/dominant/profound/crucial/beneficial(favourable)/ stablizing/pervasive/substantial/lasting/formative 相当大的/巨大的/起支配作用的/深远的/有利的/稳定的/广泛的/实际的/(对成长或发展) 重大作用

• 负面:adverse(unfavourable)/corrupting /destructive (devastating/disruptive) 不利的/腐蚀的/破坏的

Have inherent advantages/disadvantages 有内在的优点/缺点

e.g. In terms of environmental protection, exporting agricultural products by means of air transportation has its inherent disadvantages.


Be in a position to do 有条件去做

e.g. Because of the existence of express transport such as air freight, people in frigid zone are in a position to acquire more nutritious food and vegetable from the tropical zone.


Be a double-edged sword ···是一把双刃剑


Equip sb with sth = furnish sb with sth 装备,使有能力,向···提供


Turn on = hinge on 取决于

e.g The environmental protection hinges on the actual action by the civilians.


A is a key determinant of B A是B的决定因素

e.g. In an individual’s career, tenacity is a key determinant of success.


Be an underlying factor in··· 是···潜在/隐含力量

e.g. Human curiosity is an underlying factor in the growing popularity of newspapers


Rely (almost exclusively) on = depend on (几乎全)依靠

e.g. Children should not always rely on parent’s help.


Be considered as = be think of as = be acknowledged as = be regarded as被认为是


Be served/used as a brenchmark


It turned out that = turn out to be 证明是

E.g. the advancement of technology turns out be conducive to the mankinds.


Be confronted with···= In the face of ··· 面临着

e.g. be confronted with/in the face of fierce/stiff/intense competition


Deserve/require (careful/full/serious/sufficient/ special) consideration

需要仔细/全面/认真/足够/特别考虑

Take sth into consideration/account 考虑到, 顾及


A and B are not mutually exclusive 两者并不互相排斥

e.g. This two options are not mutually exclusive.


Be no exception to··· 也不例外

e.g. There is no exception to this rule in modern or in accent times.


Does not necessarily mean 并不必然意味着


···be now a commonplace··· 司空见惯的事


A and B alike 两者都,同样地


Reach saturation point 到达饱和程度


End up + doing/ adj/ in sth 以···告终

(c). 插入语和衔接词

In essence 本质上


In terms of 就···而言


As the case may be,句子 or主语+谓语, as the case may be,宾语

根据具体情况而定,视情况而定

e.g. Students should be given sufficient autonomy in deciding the courses they take as the case may be.


More often than not,句子. 通常,往往

e.g. More often than not it is these moments that separate the victors from the rest – because they never despair , and press on when others fade.

往往就是这些时刻将成功者与其他人区分开来——因为成功者从不绝望,会在他人放弃时选择坚持下去。

表示“依我而言”的词组

From my point of view,

From my perspective,

To my mind,

In my opinion,

To my way of thinking

关于By no means的应用

Be by no means an exclusive/a unique way 绝不是唯一的方法

Be by no means confined to··· 绝不局限于

e.g. Poverty and deprivation are by no means confined to the north of the country.

Be by no means fortuitous/coincidential 绝非偶然

e.g. The occurrence of such things is by no means fortuitous/ coincidental

Be by no means isolated 绝非孤立/个别

e.g. Such cases, though not prevalent, are by no means isolated.

Be by no means separated from 绝不应该脱离

e.g. Theory should by no means be separated from practice. 理论绝对不应该脱离实际

Be by no means certain 仍未确定的

e.g. It is by no means certain that genetrically modified food will benefit humans in the future. 转基因食品能否在未来有益于人类仍是不确定的

Be by no means a perfect way 绝非完善的方法

e.g. This is by no means a perfect way to solve the problem.

表示例证的句型

···is a good case in point

= one example will suffice to illustrate this point

= a telling(有说服力的) /notorious (臭名昭著的) example is ···

= ···is a representative of ···

表示大量的词组

A+形容词+ number of+可数名词+谓语动词复数

A+形容词+amount of+不可数名词+谓语动词单数(time/money/information/help/data)

大量的: Massive/considerable/enormous/ tremendous

不成比例的:disproportionate

小量的:Limited/moderate/small

A wide range of = a vast/impressive array of = a wealth of = a host of = a variety of

表示“一系列”的词组

A series of = a chain of = a sequence of

表示“等等”的词组

and so forth= and so on = and the like

表示程度的短语

in full measure 最大程度地,最大限度地

in no small/ some/ large/ equal measure 在很大/某种/很大/同样程度上

To some/a certain extent 在某种/一定程度上

To a lesser extent 其次

表示“关于,谈及到,就···而言”的词组

When it comes to

With respect to

In regard to

In relation to

表示某个时间段的词组

In the midst of 正值···时候

Amid +名词词组 在···当中

Under the wave of +名词 在···浪潮中

表示伴随状态的词组

With the rapid development of··· 随着···快速发展

With the advent of··· 随着···时代的来临

With the proliferation of··· 随着···扩散

With the huge expansion of··· 随着···扩张

表示“不管”的词组

Regardless of = irrespective of

表示“考虑到,鉴于”的词组

In the light of = in view of

表示“更不用说”的词组

not to mention + sth = let alone

表示“(对社会规则的)遵从,遵守”的词组

In conformity with = in compliance with = in accordance with

表示“除了之外”的词组

Apart from···= Other than···

表示“连锁反应”的词组

Domino effect 多米洛骨牌效应

Knock-on effect 连锁反应

(d). 积极关系

Be made (readily/ freely/ publicly/ generally) available for/to sb

可以容易/免费/让公众/普遍得到

e.g. Free medical care must be made available for those too poor to do so.


Provide/give sb deep/penetrating/revealing/ fascinating insights into sth

给予某人深刻的/有启发性的/发人心省的/生动的见识

e.g. The old buidling in cities can give people especially teenagers fascinating insights into the change of history.

acquire/advance/broaden/deepen one’s understanding of sth 获得/增进···见识

= gain/get/obtain insights into


Have better acquaintance with 更了解···

e.g. Have better acquaintance with the local needs than those in other countries so that it utilise the social resources more efficiently

= have better knowledge with

e.g. Local people or government have better knowledge with the operation of charity organization in terms of the oversee of donations, thus ascertaining the transparency of fund arrangement and avoiding misappropriation of the public fund.


Become/be proficient/skillful in/at sth/ in doing 精通,熟练

e.g. student should become proficient in using several languages.


Instill sth in/into sb = inculcate sth in/into sb 灌输某人···

e.g. instill an idea/confidence deeply into sb

inculcate a sense of responsibility in sb

= impart sth to sb 传授···给某人


Be capable of sth/doing sth有能力的,足以胜任的

= be competent to do sth

= Be more than capable of ···完成有能力

e.g. Schools should equip students with practicial skills so that they are competent to find a job under current fierce competition.

Be well/fully aware of/that = be conscious of/that 意识到,注意到

e.g. People have been fully aware of the urgency of environmental protection.

Be the major beneficiaries from = largely benefit from··· 成为最主要的受益人

e.g. In respective of individuals, they are the major beneficiaries from doing their tasks at home in this age of the computer technology

Be conducive/ helpful/ beneficial/instrumental to··· 有利于,对···起作用

= be advantageous to

= be of advantge to = to the advantage of

e.g. be instrumental in bring about an end to the conflict.

An environment conducvie to learning


Be given sufficient/greater autonomy in doing··· 给予足够的/更大的自主权

e.g. students should be given sufficient autonomy in deciding the courses they take as the case may be

Be in the best interest of··· 符合···利益

e.g. Even though most citizens are conscious that recycling garbage can fully utilise natural resources in the best interest of the whole society, they are still reluctant to do so


Become an indispensable part of··· 成为···不可分割的一部分

e.g. car have become an indispennsable part of our lives.


Make use of = turn sth to good account = take advantage of sth 善用/利用机会

e.g. People should put the media to good account.

We should make better use of our resources.


Break down/remove/cross/overcome the barriers打破/消除/跨越/克服障碍

e.g. they believe that sport can cross any barriers.

他们相信体育可以跨越任何障碍。


Get rid of··· 摆脱,消除(不好的感觉,情况)

= rid sb/sth/yourself of sb/sth 消除,解除

= extricate sb/sth/yourself from sth (使)摆脱,脱离,解救,挣脱

e.g. he had managed to extricate himself from most of this official duties.


Alleviate the heavy burden of··· 减轻···重负

e.g Staying at home for work and study can alleviate the heavy burden of transport and energy consumption.


Serve a useful function of 起到有用的功能

= Perform the function of 履行···的功能

= Fulfilll a valuable function in 实现一种有价值的功能

= Serve the purpose of 起到···的目的

= Fulfill an educational purpose 实现一种教育目的

e.g. It is sometimes claimed that zoo perform an improtant function in the protection of endangered or rare species

e.g Apart from serving the practical function of giving people a comfortable shelter, a good building should also fulfill an aesthestic purpsoe by inviting the residents to appreciate its beauty both inside and outside.

e.g. Visiting museum is not only an enjoyable experience for young children, but it also fulfills an important edcuational purpose by exposing them to a rich deposit of history, culture and tradition.


Be/get accustomed to doing/sth 习惯于···

= be/get used to doing/sth

e.g. Students should not get accustomed to relying on others’ help.


Adapt yourself to sth/ doing 适应(新环境)

= adjust oneself to sth/ doing

e.g. students should adjust themselves to current fierce competition


Serve/ satisfy/ cater to the needs of··· 满足···要求

e.g. satisfy/cater to the needs of tourists from abroad

serve the needs of future generations


Cater for sth 迎合

e.g. Catering for international tours, the local government commits more money to improve local infrastructure.


Provide a solid foundation for··· 提供巩固的基础

e.g. respect and friendship provide a solid foundation for marriage.

= Lay the foundation on··· 为···提供基础

e.g. Basic science lays the foundation on which any other subjects are built.

Have no more worries about··· 不用再担心

e.g. The owners of companies have no more worries about employees not coming for work, because of the heavy snow storm.

Be immune to 不···(负面的)影响

e.g. The corporate sector has remained largely immune to this crisis.

Immerse oneself in = Commit oneself to sth 潜心于,专心于

e.g. Student should immerse themselves in studying theory in universities instead of learning practical skill

Reach a consensus on 达成共识

e.g. The EC Council of Finance Ministers failed to reach a consensus on the pace of integration


Be brought up to do··· 教养,培养

e.g. It is standard practice that children are brought up to respect the law.

通常来说,小孩子接受教育要遵守法律


Keep the pace with 与···俱进

e.g. A number of advanced professional personnel are needed to keep the pace with the rapid economic development.


With less +名词+动名词组合, greater possibilities of动名词组合 will be taking place someday.

如果少一点的··,··更有可能在某天发生

e.g With less people driving to work or school, greater possibilities of returning us a balance in ecosystem will be taking place someday.

(e). 否定关系

Serious/distinct/relative lack/ shortage/ absence/ insufficiency/ scarcity of

= Be lack of/be short of/ be deficient in/ be in need of (严重地/明显地/相对地)缺乏···


Be a hurdle to/ be a hindrance to/ be a barrier to 阻碍···

= confronted with/encounter/erect/put up barriers to


Scratch the surface of the problem 治标不治本

e.g. obviously, this solution scratch the surface of the problem.

Find it difficult to be immune to··· 很难不受···的影响

e.g. with the development of globalisation and social development, one country finds it difficult to be immune to global affairs.

Be (severely/grievously) stricken with sth = be afflicted with/by = suffer from

受煎熬,遭难的,受折磨

e.g. The country ends up being stricken with the epidemic.

A bear/take the brunt of B A首当其冲受到B的不利影响

e.g. women bear the brunt of childcare duties

School will bear the brunt of cuts in govenment spending.

政府削减开支,学校将首当其冲受到影响


Fall prey to sth 受害,受坏影响

e.g. the new government has fallen prey to corruption and fraud.

新一届政府深受腐败和欺诈行为之苦


Be vulnerable to 容易受···(不好的)影响

e.g. The entity is potentially vulnerable to competitor’s moves.

Students are usually vulnerable to social evils. 易受到社会恶习腐蚀


Be prone to sth 易于遭受,有做(坏事)的倾向

e.g. tired, malnourished people are prone to infection.

Come with unpleasant/undesirable side-effects···伴随着不好的副作用


Fall victim to = become a victim of 成为···的牺牲品

e.g. Vital public services have fallen victim to budget cuts

一些重要的公众服务项目成了削减预算后的牺牲品


A take one’s toll on B A对B产生严重不良影响,造成重大损失

e.g. The recession is taking its toll on the housing markets. 经济衰退使住房市场遭受重创

The pressure of trying to win a competition has taken its toll on their health.

Illness had taken a heavy toll on her. 疾病对她的身体造成极大的损害


Shake/rock the foundations of sth 从根本上动摇···

e.g. this issue has shaken the foundations of French politics. 这个问题从根本上动摇了法国的政治

• run counter to = be at odds with sth = conflict with 与···不相符/相矛盾

e.g. government intervening in people's private lives run counter to modern democratic spirit.


动词形式:interfere in/with = intervene in 干涉,介入

名词形式:interference in/with = intervention in/with

e.g. government should interfere in the coverage of media.


动词形式:impinge on/upon = encroach on/upon侵犯

名词形式:impringing on/upon = encroachment on/upon

e.g. one country should not impringe on other's internal affairs.


Be (potentially/rather/highly) hazardous to 对···有潜在/相当/很大的危害

e.g. chemicals that are harzardous to human beings


Defeat the very purpose of = render sth useless/ineffective 使某物无用/无效

e.g. Merely equipping students with employment skills may defeat the very purpose of universities as educational institutions.


Serve no useful purpose 不起作用

e.g. the experiments serve no useful purpose.


Be awash with sth = be inundated with sth 充斥着···

e.g. TV nowadays is awash with violent and pornographic content


Create a vicious circle 产生恶性循环

e.g. It turns out to be a vicious circle of destruction/ poverty


句子+ to the detriment of +名词 = Be detrimental to 有害于,不利于

e.g. He works longer and longer hours, to the detriment of his marriage.


Pose a grave threat to···对···构成威胁

e.g. In present-day society, the proliferation of non-biodegradable trash poses a grave threat to humanity.

句子+ at the expense of +名词 以(损害)···为代价

e.g. High production rates are often achieved at the expense of quality of work.


Be notorious for sth/ doing sth 因···而臭名昭著

e.g. The international fast foods have long been notorious as a kind of junk food.


Be apathetic to/about= be (utterly)indifferent to 对···冷漠/漠然

Not have sb’s best interests at heart 不关心···利益

e.g. People intend to maximize their own interest instead of having the best interests of the whole society at heart.


Get/grow weary of sth/ doing sth= lose interest in 对···不再热心

e.g. students grow weary of learning a series of historical fact.


Be reluctant to = be unwilling to 不愿意

e.g. People are reluctant to recycle garbage for the reason that they cannot acquire direct benefit from it.


Turn a blind eye to = shut one’s eyes to sth 对···视而不见

e.g. Those children have a good life and to turn a blind eye to patriotism


Have a slack attitude about对···持有疏忽的态度

Be largely ignored/neglected by···= lose sight of 被···忽略

e.g. Strange as it may seem, the significance of basic science – the main driving force behind productivity, has been largely ignored by the general public.


Addict oneself to doing = get/be(irreparably不可收复地/seriously) addicted to

= indulge oneself in = indulgence in 沉迷,放纵

e.g. addict oneself to gambling, drug, electronic game, pornograhy, delights of lesure (安逸)

Too much indulgence in the Internet games or movies may lead to a superficial (肤浅的) idiot (傻子) short of abstract thinking or may aggravate the isolation of the single children.


Give way to temptation= not resist the temptation to 经不住诱惑

e.g. the young are not mature enough so that they may not resist the temptation to conduct some unhealthy behaviours.


Be accused of = be prosecute for/as 被指责/被控告

= be on trial(审理) for

= Accuse/prosecute sb of doing/sth

= A stand accused of = stand trial/go on trial for A被控告···

• lay/put the blame for sth on sb 把某事归咎某人

e.g. some lay the blame for falling exports on financial turmoil sweeping many Asian countries

有的人干脆认为造成出口下降的原因是横扫亚洲许多国家的金融危机。

• be criticised for··· 因···受到批评

be condemned for/by··· 因···受到谴责 (宽恕 condone)

e.g. the action has been widely condemned by human rights groups

这一行动受到人权组织的普遍谴责


Deprive sb of sth 剥夺某人···

e.g. modern cities deprived city-dwellers of fresh air and the comfortable pace of life.


Be exposed to / expose sb to sth 使暴露于险境

e.g. The report revealed that workers had been exposed to unacceptably high levels of radiation 报告披露了工人们收到有害的高强度辐射


Sth prompts/ impels sb to do 促使···去做

e.g. Peer pressure often impels yongsters to spend excessively on fancy clothes and accessories (首饰)


If···, something will ensue 如果···,(不好的现象)接着发生

e.g. if parents neglect their offspring, lack of discipline and respect will ensue.


Sth is/seem (quite/totally/wholly) unwarranted/ unjustifiable很不合理

e.g. experimentaing upon lab animals without rying to alleviate their pain is unwarranted/ unjustifiable.


It is a waste of time/money/effort doing sth 浪费(时间/金钱)去做···

= squander = fritter away(time/energy/money/fortune)

(f). 比较关系

Unlike A, B

Compared with A, B

A···while/ whereas B···

In comparison/ in contrast/ by contrast, B

(g). 因果关系

归因类

• 根本原因
Root in = be (deeply) rooted in = be the root (cause) of ···是根本原因

e.g. These traditions were deeply rooted in local custom.

Be the chief culprit of··· ···是罪魁祸首

e.g. the modern farming techniques seems to be the chief culprit of the current crisis.

• 主要原因
Be a major contributing factor to

Be a driving force to

Be largely attributed to

(结果) be the result of (原因) ···的原因是···

e.g. The need for short-term profits seems to be the driving force behind these mergers

The significance of basic science, as the main driving force behind productivity, has been largely ignored by the general public

• 可能原因
Be attributable to可能由于

Be largely due to 很大可能是由于

e.g. The public ignorance of basic science research is largely due to its unpredictable value.

Put the blame for sth on sb 把某事归咎于某人

Be blamed on··· 把···归咎于,归罪于

e.g. some people blame the increasing gap between the poor and the rich on unfair social systems.

On account of = due to = owing to = because of

On account of fierce competition, people have no choice but to work overtime and put more effort into jobs

The reason for···lies in the nature of···来源于···的特性

The reason for this unfortunate fact lies in the nature of basic science

Account for 是···的原因

Recent pressure at work may account for his behaviour

目的类

For the sake of = for the purpose of + 名词

Companies and institutes should financially support scientists who commit themselves to basic science, not just for the sake of profit, but for the development of science as well.

In expectation of = in hope of = in order to = with a view to doing

= with the aim of = in an attempt to = in an effort to 为了···

(h). 建议关系

Do not slacken their vigilance against 不可放松警惕

e.g. Do not slacken their vigilance against the possible abuse of such a tremendous powers

Exercise/ maintain (constant/ continued/ extra) vigilance against

实行/保持(时刻的/始终的)警惕

Be/keep alert to 对···保持警惕

e.g. People should be alert to conditions that may indicate possible misstatement due to error and fraud.


Have no choice/alternative but to··· 别无选择,唯有···

e.g. The government has no choice but to take feasible action to protect the environment.


Keep a wary eye on sb/ sth

= Take a very cautious approach

= Cast a discriminate eye on密切注意

e.g. Cast a discriminate eye on their way of presentation, comments and implict assumptions


Be cautious of= Be wary of 小心翼翼的,谨慎的

e.g. We should be wary of using a strong form of output control to encourage certain scientist while discouraging others

• take priority over = give priorities to··· 优先,优先权

e.g. the improvement of poverty should take priority over the space exploitation.

• put···on top agenda = be a top priority

Be on top of the agenda = be high on the agenda当务之急

e.g. financial security was high on the list of priorities.

• attach heavier weight to= give serious/ fullest consideration to

e.g. environmental considerations should be attached heavier weight during the decision-making process.

• hold more responsibility for = be held accountable for···为某人应对某事负责

e.g. The government should be held accountable for citizen’s health

• take account of = take sth into account/ consideration 把某事考虑在内

e.g. these figures do not take account of changes in the rate of inflation.


Some steps must be taken to reverse this trend···

e.g. Since basic science is the foundation of most technological developments, some steps must be taken to reverse this trend.


Take a long view of 长远打算

• unless +句子,主句.如果没有,···

unless there is an effective incentive program for recycling, people could not have enough motivation to put effort into environmental protection.


Bear sth in mind = bear in mind that +句子 注意,记住

(i). 结尾句型

Given the above argument, it is reasonable to conclude that可以合理去推断

e.g. Given the above arugment, it is reasonable to conclude that if every member of the society is aware of the relationship between humans and nature and stops their destructive behaviour, it is going to alleviate the pressure of ecosystem.

Based on the above argument, I concede that 我承认···

e.g. Based on the above arugment, I concede that using air freight comes with some unpleasant side-effects.

I am convinced that 我相信···

e.g. I am convinced that as long as people turn the massive media to good account, they can constantly benefit from its favourable functions.

···outweigh···在···(影响或重要性方面)超过

e.g. The advantages outweigh the disadvantages.

Part 7. 本人的拙笔--7分作文

以下为我写的,经过考官评分的7分作文。相信大家看了之后就能体会到熟练掌握上述列举的160+句型所带来的好处和快感。唯一需要担心的是,怎么控制不要让字数超过300字

本人建议,若想快速提高写作分数,必须是要多练笔多总结多修改。千万不要直接抄袭别人的模版,千万不要背别人的观点,更不要迷信所谓的满分作文。我最疯狂的时候可以写4篇大作文,2篇小作文。重点不是在写,重点是写完之后的反思与总结。上述的所有句型,词汇和感受都是在我不断的练习当中总结和归纳的。我觉得,每个人一旦习惯了不断总结与反思的这样一个做事模式的话,没有什么是攻克不了的。(紫色字体为最新upload )

Argumentation –社会类

In many countries, traditional foods are being replaced by international fast foods. this is having a negative effect on both families and societies. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

Recent decades have witnessed an obvious trend that international fast foods have gradually taken the place of traditional foods in many regions. Althoughfast foods may bring about some direct benefits in people's daily lives, I personally believe that these foods exert an adverse impact on both families and societies.

It is undeniable that international fast foods, such as hamburgers and fried chickens, have helped people save time for cooking and extricated them from a series of complicated cooking processes that are used in cooking traditional foods. This is especially true when we consider the fact that nowadays more and more people are participating in the labor market and undertaking an enormous amount of work. However, the negative effects induced by these fast foods should not be ignored, since they are, actually or potentially, detrimental to individuals and societies.

For families, one of the most direct influences induced by fast foods is that they worsen the quality of people's health. It is widely accepted that international fast foods have long been criticised as junk food because they contain a considerable number of calories with high level of heat and fat. If people get accustomed to eating these foods, they may be easily stricken with some severe chronic diseases, such as heart disease, high blood pressure, cancers and so forth. Therefore, these foods, to some extent, render people weak in combating diseases.

For societies, the introduction and the growing popularity of international fast foods, directly and indirectly, takes its toll on the protection of traditional culture. It is generally acknowledged that the culture of diets and foods is an indispensable part of traditional culture, which reflects the unique character of a nation. If local people prefer to eat fast foods rather than cook traditional foods, the recipes of traditional foods will gradually disappear. Consequently, local citizens may lose a sense of cultural identity and social belonging. Hence, this is unfavourable to the carrying forward of traditional culture.

To conclude, although international fast foods may provide people with some direct benefits, they pose a serious threat to people’s health and the preservation of traditional culture. Therefore, people should pay attention to the negative effects of these fast foods and properly change their diet structure.

考官评分(按照上述4项评分规则):7,8,8,8 总分:7.5

Argumentation – 政府类

Many people arts and music do not improve the quality of life, the government should spend money on other things rather than the arts such as music and painting, to what extent do you agree or disagree?

The issue of whether governments should spend money on the arts has sparked off an intense debate. Some people argue that art and music are conducive to the improvement of people’s lives; while others claims that it is of great urgency for governments to allocate money to the areas that are in need. To my way of thinking, the governments should give priority to some basic social systems, such as education and medicare programs instead of subsidizing the arts.

To begin with, art and music are not the key determinant of a good quality of life. It is not uncommon that the arts such as music and painting are a meaningless symbol to many because from their perspective, those arts cannot generate direct benefits for them. Therefore, subsidizing artist cannot help the public get rid of the heavy burdens of their lives.

In addition, it is more urgent for governments to commit money to some fundamental social systems like education and public health. This is simply because a well-rounded social system is the guarantee of the enhancement of the quality of people’s lives. Investing in education is a good case in point. It is of paramount importance to equip the public with abundant knowledge and impact a proper outlook on life to them. Consequently, the citizens can become competent enough to maintain their daily lives by means of their own efforts. Obviously, it is money and knowledge that contribute to the improvement of people’s lives.

Admittedly, arts and music, to some extent, serve a valuable function in enriching people’s daily lives and help them to foster a positive attitude towards life. However, they are by no means a unique tool to achieve this goal. In fact, art and music are not an actual prescription to extricate people from an array of worries and burdens.

To conclude, I concede that the arts can play a favourable role in improving the quality of people’s lives. Nevertheless, I am convinced that governments should attach heavier weight to other sectors, such as education and medical care, whichare considered as an essential way to enable people to live a decent life.

Argumentation – 广告类

Many people argue that nowadays consumers buy lots of goods they don’t actually need because they are influenced by advertisements. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

Although it is widely accepted that the prevalence of advertisements plays a positive role in stimulating consumers to go shopping, it is not true to consider advertisement as the chief culprit of the fact that consumers buy a host of things that they do not need. In fact, some social factors, such as peer influence and celebrity effect, contribute to this phenomenon. Therefore, I disagree with this statement.

It is undeniable that advertisements have exerted a considerable impact on triggering people to buy goods. Some advertisers may exaggerate the quality of products in an attempt to mislead customers, thereby promoting sales of products. Consequently, customers bear the brunt of these advertisements and purchase an array of useless goods. However, with the enforcement of relevant laws in the realm of protection of consumers’ rights, the advertisements are no longer the main cause to lead consumers to buy things that they do not need.

In fact, peer influence is attributed to this situation. With the improvement of living standards and the increase of disposal incomes, people tend to compare with their peers and flaunt their wealth, so that they can enjoy the sense of accomplishment and vanity. As a result, people are gradually addicted to buying goods, especially luxurious goods, for the purpose of gratifying their vanity. Obviously, those products serve no helpful function in satisfying their real needs.

In addition, some people, especially young teenagers, are significantly influenced by the celebrities who endorse the products. They tend to imitate their idols with a view to expressing their love and spiritual support for those stars. Accordingly, they may buy the products that their idols are in favour of. Hence, such purchasing behaviour is not actuated by the needs of those products

To conclude, advertisements have a certain influence on customer’s purchasing behavior. Nevertheless, peer influence and celebrity effect are the major cause of people buying a vast number of goods that they do not actually need.

Argumentation – 犯罪类

Giving detailed descriptions of crime by newspaper and television, someone says it could make bad consequence; this kind of media should be restricted. To what extent do you agree or disagree.

The issue of whether mass media should give detailed descriptions of crime is of great concern to the public. From my perspective, it exerts an adverse impact on individuals and society. Therefore, the media should be constrained in the amount of details they report.

Admittedly, giving detailed descriptions of crime can serve as a warning to potential criminals, which reduces the possibility of the occurrence of similar crimes. Also it helps people to strengthen the awareness of crime-prevention by popularizing the protective actions against crime. However, the negative influences resulting from these detailed illustrations of crime should not be ignored.

To begin with, victims who suffer from crime bear the brunt of it. Giving detailed demonstrations of crime, to some extent, forces those victims to experience the nightmare again. Consequently, it will lead them to be afflicted with chronic psychological problems, such as nervousness, anxiety, fear and so forth. Also, those programs may give the public an illusion that they are surrounded by a considerable number of would-be criminals. Obviously, people may lose a sense of social security and find it difficult to trust others. Under this circumstance, the alienation of interpersonal relationships will ensue.

In addition, those programs may give some would-be wrongdoers a chance to imitate the anti-social behaviours that were described in the programs. It seems that those shows do nothing but indirectly encourage some to commit a crime. As a result, the whole society will fall prey to it.

To conclude, I concede that giving detailed descriptions of crime can serve a positive function in combating the crime. Nevertheless, I am convinced that it comes with certain unpleasant side-effects, which are detrimental to both individuals and society. Therefore, this kind of media should be restricted.

Argumentation –政府类

Some people think it is the responsibility for government to ensure that people have healthy lifestyles. Others think people should have a free for their own lifestyles decisions.

The issue of whether government should hold responsibility for people’s healthy lifestyle has sparked off an intense debate. To my mind, governments should respect people’s rights on deciding their lifestyles.

Advocates of government’s dominant role in people’s lifestyles claim that the functions of a government and the costs of unhealthy lifestyles determine that governments have an obligation to make sure that people have healthy lifestyles. To begin with, the purpose of establishment of a government is to fulfill the essential function of maintaining social stability. Simultaneously, healthy lifestyles of citizens lay the foundation ofsocial order. Hence, ensuring that people have healthy lifestyles is conducive to social harmony as well as performing of government’s functions. In addition, without proper lifestyles, individuals and societies alike would fall victim to its destructive influence. It is not uncommon that a considerable extension of unhealthy lifestyle is associated with some undesirable consequences. Drug and alcohol abuse is a good case in point. If local governments do not limit the misuse of drug and alcohol, an increase in crime rate and widespread vandalism will ensue.

On the other hand, opponents argue that it is pointless for government to interfere in civilian private life. First of all, healthy lifestyle is an abstract concept and by no means confined to a defined as well as unique prescription. That means it is costly and even impossible for government to ensure that people have lifestyles in conformity with the definition set by the government. Even if the government can do so, it inevitably leads to stifle the expression of diverse personality. Furthermore, government’s intervention in personal lifestyle, in no small measure, deprives people of freedom of choices. This is especially unacceptable in modern democratic countries because it run counter to the spirit of democracy that human rights should deserve full consideration and respect. Any obstacles to the realization of reasonable human rights are unwarranted by the public.

To conclude, I concede that government can play a dominant as well as favourable role in the daily life of citizens. However, this does not necessarily mean that government can interfere with people private life. I believe that civilians are entitled to live in a way that they wish and have a freedom of choice in terms of their lifestyles.

考官评分(按照上述4项评分规则):7,8,8,8 总分:7.5

Report –社会类

People now can perform some everyday tasks, such as shopping and banking as well as business transactions, without meeting other people face to face. What are the effects of this development on an individuals and on society as a whole?

With the advent of the Age of the Internet, the pattern of people’s interaction and communication has become diverse, which exerts a profound impact on both individuals and society.

For individuals, the pervasive use of the Internet helps people save time and enhance the efficiency. So convenient is the application of telecommunication and online-shopping that people are extricating themselves from such undesirable factors as traffic congestion, bad weather and tight schedule and so forth. However, over-indulgence in the Internet potentially renders people as a slave ofinternet and computer. Due to the absence offace-to-face interview and communication, people are going to be, geographically as well as emotionally, isolated from each other, which further makes people lose a sense of identity and social belonging.

For society, industries such as electronic commerce and online-business have become major beneficiaries of this tendency. This is simply because the interaction and communication is no longer confined to geographical impediment. With increasing popularity of online shopping and banking, consumption and investment undoubtedly flourish, which can served as a driving factor to facilitate the sustainable development of social economy. However, many small and medium sized enterprises may fall victim to the wave of electronic business on account of insufficiency of money and technology to develop online transaction system. In addition, unemployment rate may be driven up because many job positions have and will continue to be replaced by online automatic transaction systems.

To conclude, I concede that the development of telecommunication technology and internet comes with some unpleasant side-effects.However, its positive effects outweigh its negative ones. As long as people turn the application of electronic transaction systemto good account, both individuals and society will profit from it.

考官评分(按照上述4项评分规则):7,8,8,8 总分:7.5

Argumentation --教育类

Some people think that schools should select students according to their academic abilities while others believe that it is better to have students with different abilities study together. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.

The issue of whether academic abilities should be served as an only reliable standard in terms of selecting students has sparked off an intense debate. In this essay, I aim at discussing both sides of the problem and put up my own opinion.

On the one hand, advocates of the of academic results claim that it is more effective as well as fairer for schools to adopt an academy-oriented approach to select students. To begin with, schools are set up to fulfill the educational function of imparting a great deal amount of knowledge, such as liberal arts and science, to students; while students go to school mainly for the purpose of fostering academic ability. Accordingly, it is understandable that some take it for granted that academic results can serve as an effective benchmark for assessing students’ capability. Besides this, it is widely accepted that it is a relatively objective and fair assessment system to all students and better reduce the dispute of unfair treatments. One example will suffice to illustrate this point. Other than academic mark, educators find it difficult to compare the ability of student who is proficient at painting and who is skillful at sports. Whoever is chosen by schools could not ensure the absolute fairness and objectivity of the selection.

On the other hand, opponents of only concentration on academic abilities argue that the academic result is by no means an exclusive way to evaluate students’ capabilities. First and foremost, schools are not a place where students are turned into pedants. Instead, it is considered asan educational platform for students to develop their versatile skills and grow into a person who gets accustomed tothe needs of the society. Only focusing on academic skills inevitably leads many who are short of academic study but good at other subjects to lose opportunities to promote their talents. In addition, if students with different abilities can study together,it is out of question that all the students will benefit from such a combination. This is simply because it helps students complement each other and give them motivation as well as chances to learn more from each other.

To conclude, I concede that judging students by academic ability helps schools select proper students. Nevertheless, I am convinced that allowing students with many talents to study together outweigh the former view.

考官评分(按照上述4项评分规则):7,8,8,8 总分:7.5

Argumentation –环保类

Air transport is increasingly used to export fruits and vegetables to countries where they cannot be grown or are out of season. Some people say this is a good thing while other people think it cannot be justified. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.

The issue of whether exporting fruits and vegetable by means of air transport is conducive to the society is of great concern to the public. Some people argue that exporting food benefit people in both exporting and importing countries, while others claim that airfreight pose a serious threat to environment. To my mind, people will become a major beneficiary from such trade if they can develop environmental-friendly fuel for air transport

It is widely believed that using air transport for the purpose of the export of agricultural products to countries where they cannot be grown or out of season can have a beneficial influence on both importing and exporting countries. For importing countries, those agricultural products substantially enrich the diet of local citizens and improve the nutrition structure. A convincing example is that people in Frigid Zone would by no means have access totropical food without the export of farm produce. Because ofthe existence of express transport such as air freight, those people are in a position to acquire a more abundant supply of food and vegetable. In terms ofinternational trade, export countries may become a major beneficiary from this situation, because it helps expand the market of farm produce, accelerate the sales of agricultural output and improve the well-being of domestic farmers.

However, it is also manifest that in terms of environmental protection, exporting agricultural products by means of air transportation has its inherent disadvantages. To begin with, it accelerates the depletion of fossil fuel that is non-renewable resources. So far there has not been complete substitution for oil. We should not pursue short-term profit at the expense of the sustainable development. Also, the toxic fumes – such as sulphur dioxide, released from the aircraft are the chief culprits of atmospheric contamination. Consequently, people are unavoidably afflicted with respiratory diseases. Other than toxic gases, greenhouse gazes (i.e. carbon dioxide) worsen the global warming and then potentially induce the change of global climate.

To conclude, I concede that using air transport comes with some undesirable side-effects. Nevertheless, it is rather one-sided to deny the rationality of this phenomenon. People should develop a new, environmental-friendly energy for aircraft so that people can constantly benefit from the export of agricultural products.

考官评分(按照上述4项评分规则):8,8,8,8 总分:8

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...CPET 575 Management of Technology Technological Innovation Case I-1 Elio Engineering, Inc Lecture Note & Summary by Professor Paul I-Hai Lin Pages 13-31 of Text Book: Robert A. Burgelman, Clayton M. Christensen, and Steven C. Wheelwright, Strategic Management of Technology and Innovation, 5th edition, McGrawHill, 2009. Case I-1 Elio Engineering Inc. 1 Outline       Origin of Elio Engineering Seat Mechanism Technologies Industry and Regulatory Environment Technological Barriers and Risks Capabilities Requirements for Players in Automotive Seats and Comparative Company Profiles Decision Time Case I-1 Elio Engineering Inc. 2 1 Origin of Elio Engineering Paul Elio  Hari Saknkara   Technical Capabilities • JCI Benchmarking Department • JCI Structural Design and Analysis Department 1996 -1998 • A patent: revolutionary bike design • Failed venture   Technical Capabilities: 1988 – 1997, JCI’s Structural Design & Analysis Department MBA training 1998 Summer Intern at Booz Allen Hamilton, a management consulting firm  Feb. 1998 • A new seat design “No Compromise”  Feb. 1999 Case I-1 Elio Engineering Inc. 3 Origin of Elio Engineering 1998  First venture meeting: Paul & Hari, at Venice, CA  Agenda • ABTS (All-Belts-To-Seat) • Announcement & comments  A cost effective new seat design - a special class of ABTS Utilizing new technology Resulting structure: Low cost, Light weight, Strong • Features ...

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...THE ON OT C OP YO CASE STUDY HANDBOOK RP OS T ON OP YO RP OT C OS T THE ON OT C Write Persuasively About Cases OP CASE STUDY HANDBOOK How to Read, Discuss, and William Ellet Harvard Business School Press Boston, Massachusetts YO RP OS T Copyright 2007 William Ellet All rights reserved Printed in the United States of America 11 10 09 08 07 5 4 3 2 1 No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without the prior permission of the publisher. Requests for permission should be directed to permissions@hbsp.harvard.edu, or mailed to Permissions, Harvard Business School Publishing, 60 Harvard Way, Boston, Massachusetts 02163. The copyright on each case in this book unless otherwise noted is held by the President and Fellows of Harvard College and they are published herein by express permission. Permission requests to use individual Harvard copyrighted cases should be directed to permissions@hbsp.harvard.edu, or mailed to the Permissions Editor, Harvard Business School Publishing, 60 Harvard Way, Boston, MA 02163. ON OT C Case material of the Harvard Graduate School of Business Administration is made possible by the cooperation of business firms and other organizations which may wish to remain anonymous by having names, quantities, and......

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...Assignment 1, 2013 – Case Studies Tutorial-based group assessments Due: See ‘Due Dates for Case Study Submission’ section Marks: 30% of the total marks for the unit Background – Learning with Cases Harvard University, probably the most famous source of teaching cases, describes these resources as follows: “Teaching cases – also known as case studies – are narratives designed to serve as the basis for classroom discussion. Cases don’t offer their own analysis. Instead, they are meant to test the ability of students to apply the theory they’ve learned to a ‘real world’ situation … where good accounts of specific events can help exemplify and illuminate theory” (Harvard, 2000). The use of cases based on or around real organisations and/or current issues provides an entirely different approach to learning from that of lectures or more conventional tutorial exercises, where students solve specific problems in isolation from the world of business. Case preparation is a significant part of both undergraduate and postgraduate business study – particularly in the English-speaking world – and it is important to learn to do it effectively and efficiently. I have provided two introductory readings to help you with this process: “Learning Information Systems with Cases” (a pdf file available from your KXO223 MyLO resources) and “Notes on Writing a Case Study Report” (included in this document as Appendix A). Please begin by reading these carefully. Cases are usually based......

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...Join now! Login Support Other Term Papers and Free Essays Browse Papers Business / Timbuk2 Case Study Timbuk2 Case Study Term Papers Timbuk2 Case Study and over other 20 000+ free term papers, essays and research papers examples are available on the website! Autor: santhanam.vikram 09 December 2013 Tags: Words: 723 | Pages: 3 Views: 86 Read Full Essay Join Now! CASE STUDY: TIMBUK2 1.) Consider the two categories of products that Timbuk2 makes and sells. For the custom messenger bag, what are the key competitive dimensions that are driving sales? Are their competitive priorities different for the new laptop bags sourced in China? Some of the competitive advantage which are the key factors of Timbuk2 bags are:-  Quality  Durable  Reliable  Not prone to defects  Custom made bags for each of the customers  The quick delivery of bags  The rave review which the company gets for its bags i.e. it basically carries a good name in the market  For its laptop bags, even though they are manufactured in china, the designing is done in San Francisco. so the exclusivity remains  Cost effective manufacture of laptop bags in china  Being able to adopt to changes in demand and fashion By manufacturing the bags in china the company saved the manufacturing cost but lost their niche of manufacturing and selling in America itself. The general perception of it being a Chinese product led to customers felling......

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