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個案

簡介

各國制定反歧視法例和措施的過程不是沒有爭論的。事實上,因為每個國家內部都存在不同意見,有關的爭論有時會通過訴訟交給法庭裁決,有時會交給負責監察法例的執行的機關調停。法庭和執行機關會根據它們對法例的解釋作出裁決和提出它們的看法。這些看法不但反映了它們如何理解一個社會追求實現的價值,同時可以看到一個多元化的社會如何通過司法機制調停不同的觀點和建立共識。

以下個案中有向法庭提出訴訟的涉及性傾向歧視的個案,也有反歧視法例執行機構的調停個案。

□ 法國最高上訴法院:P...對聖碧岳十世修會 (1991) □ 聯合國人權委員會:杜寧對澳洲(1994) □ 南非憲法法庭:全國同志平等聯盟對司法部長 (1998) □ 歐洲人權法庭:盧思提-比努恩和貝克特對大英聯合王國 (1999) □ 澳洲人權及平等機會委員會:格列芬對天主教教育辦事處 (1998) □ 歐洲人權法庭:卡爾內爾對奧地利 (2003) □ 瑞典最高法院:檢查總長辦事處對格連 (2003)

法國最高上訴法院:P...對聖碧岳十世修會 (1991)
Social Chamber of the Court of Cessation: P...v. Association Fraternite Saint-Pie X (1991)

法國一名受僱打理教堂的同性戀者P…遭僱用他的修會「聖碧岳十世修會」以其性傾向為理由,將其解僱。1991年法國的最高上訴法院作出裁決,指該修會違反了僱傭合約。根據法庭的裁決,指修會以僱員的性傾向不符合天主教傳統作為解僱他的理由是不合法的。但法庭捕充指出,如果一名僱員的「道德」對一家公司造成明顯的破壞,解僱就不會被判決為錯誤的舉動。

換句話說,最高上訴法院認為,解僱是否合法,要看僱主是否能夠證明他「考慮過該名僱員的職責和公司的目的」,並能夠證明「僱員的行為對公司構成可以說明的明顯破壞」。

巴黎上訴法院考慮過最高上訴法院的判詞後,於1992年就此案再作出裁決,指此案的僱主因為該僱員的同性戀傾向和他作為愛滋病帶菌者的身份將他解僱,是基於一個只跟該僱員私人生活有關的原因將其解僱。這不足以構成一個真正的和嚴重的終止僱傭合約的理由。由於該名僱員的跟其性傾向有關的行為都是在機構以外進行的,所以屬於他可以自由行使權利的範圍。法庭認為,除非可以證明這些行為在該機構內造成可以說明的明顯破壞,否則解僱就是不合理的。同時,由於法庭相信該僱員真心信奉天主教信仰,因此不認為他在機構內造成了破壞。

聯合國人權委員會:杜寧對澳洲 (1994)

United Nations Human Rights Committee: Toonen v. Australia (1994)

1991年澳洲塔斯曼尼亞(Tasmania)上議院否決廢除禁止同性性行為的法例。由於當時澳洲的聯邦政府沒有任何相關的法例可以凌駕塔斯曼尼亞這條例,塔斯曼尼亞的同志團體遂向「聯合國人權委員會」(United Nations Human Rights Committee) 投訴。投訴的同志團體代表杜寧 (Toonen) 指出,塔斯曼尼亞的法例違反了「公民權利及政治權利國際公約」中保障個人私生活不受侵犯的權利(公約第17條)和締約國有責任確保所有人享有公約訂明的權利的條款(公約第2.1條)。杜寧的投訴指塔斯曼尼亞的法例同時違反了公約中保障法律面前人人平等的條款(公約第26條)。在回應這些指責時,塔斯曼尼亞政府指出肛交罪的法例並沒有違返人權,因為法例只針對某種性行為,而非某組社羣;此外,州政府認為實施這些法例對維持公共衞生及道德是必須的。

澳洲聯邦政府在接受「聯合國人權委員會」查詢其回應時,針對塔斯曼尼亞政府的解釋提出以下看法:

■ 私隱的權利 -「私隱」的定義包括兩位成年人在雙方同意下私下進行的性行為,因此塔斯曼尼亞的法例侵犯了杜寧先生的私隱。

■ 歧視 - 縱使塔斯曼尼亞的法例針對某些行為而非某組社羣,但這些法例的影響就是將一組人區別,並禁止他們某些行為,這很明顯為大眾所理解為針對男同性戀者的做法。

■ 公共衞生 - 要防止愛滋病的傳播,同性戀刑事化不是一個合理或恰當的做法。這種做法令一些有風險受感染的人士不敢公開身份,只會阻礙防止愛滋病傳播的公共健康及教育計劃的進度。

■ 道德 - 除了塔斯曼尼亞,澳洲的其他州份均已將同性戀非刑事化。很多州份亦已制定有關反性傾向歧視的法例。這反映澳洲對於反性傾向歧視的普遍認同。因此,聯邦政府不認為為了維繫澳洲的社會道德而全面禁止男同性戀者間的性行為是必須的。

澳洲聯邦政府同時表明,如果「聯合國人權委員會」裁定塔斯曼尼亞的法例違反了公約第17條和第2.1條,澳洲聯邦政府是會接納委員會的裁決的。「聯合國人權委員會」於1994年裁定塔斯曼尼亞的法例違反了公約第17條和第2.1條,因此澳洲必須採取措施廢除這些法例。在澳洲向委員會查問「性傾向」是否包括在公約第26條的「其他身份」中時,委員會回應指公約第2.1條和第26條中的「性」(sex)應被理解為包括「性傾向」。

聯邦政府在聯合國裁決公報後提出「人權(性行為)法案1994」(Human Rights (Sexual Conduct) Act 1994),將私下進行性行為的權利納入聯邦的法例中,讓人們有機會透過高等法院的訴訟去挑戰塔斯曼尼亞的法律。

聯合國的判決亦給與聯邦政府權力去制定全面的反歧視法,以及給與聯邦法凌駕州份帶有歧視成份的法例的位置。

> 案件背景和詳情

南非憲法法庭:全國同志平等聯盟對司法部長 (1998)
South Africa Constitutional Court: National Coalition for Gay and Lesbian Equality v Minister of Justice (1998)

在1998年10月以前的南非,男性間的肛交一向被法律禁制。1997年該國的全國同志平等聯盟(National Coalition for Gay and Lesbian Equality)向若翰內斯堡高等法院提出訴訟。若翰內斯堡高等法院同年宣判,禁止男性間的肛交觸犯了平等原則,違反了憲法。若翰內斯堡高等法院法官何賀爾(Jonathan Heher)作出裁決時指出,因為一個人表達其性傾向而懲罰他,這樣的做法只能是基於「宗教上的不寬容、無知、迷信、頑固、害怕跟自身日常經驗不同的事物或因為歷史距離對陌生的事物所產生的恐懼。」

1998年10月南非憲法法庭確認若翰內斯堡高等法院的判決。法庭在判詞中指出,南非憲法明確禁止基於性傾向的不公平歧視。禁止男性間的肛交因此觸犯了憲法的平等原則。同時,以刑法禁止男性間的肛交是將男同性戀者最親密的關係變成一種罪行,這樣做是在貶低男同性戀者,因此傷害了男同性戀者的尊嚴。再者,將兩個成年人雙方同意下和在不傷害第三者的情況下發生的私人行為刑事化,實際上是侵犯了憲法賦予他們的私隱權。由於禁止男性間的肛交侵犯了男同性戀者享有尊嚴和私隱的權利,因此是缺乏合理原因的不公平歧視。為此,憲法法庭判決所有禁止男性間的肛交的法例違反憲法,因而是無效的。

憲法法庭的一位法官賽克斯 (Sachs) 在他所撰寫的另一份判詞中指出,個人的尊嚴和對自我價值的肯定對平等概念來說十分重要。不平等的出現並不單只是因為存在差別待遇,而更加是因為這些差別待遇令某些人處於不利的位置,並令這個群體的尊嚴和自我觀感受到傷害。

賽克斯法官在其判詞中還指出,憲法保障的平等原則要求國家機關和法律承認人類的多元性,並且確認所有人都應享有尊嚴和關懷。統計數字上的「正常」(normal)不能作為法律上的「常規」(normative) 的基礎。相反,憲法上被認為是「正常的」(normal) 的範圍應擴大至包括最大可能的觀點,並且應承認存在和接受最大的不同。

> 憲法法庭判詞

歐洲人權法庭:盧思提-比努恩和貝克特對大英聯合王國 (1999)
The European Court of Human Rights: Lustig-Prean and Beckett v the United Kingdom (1999)

在2000年以前,英國軍隊嚴格禁止同性戀者加入軍隊。任何軍人被發現是同性戀者都會被立即革職。英國國防部所持的理由是同性戀行為會引起一些人的不滿,令同僚之間的關係兩極化和軍中秩序受影響,並因此影響士氣和效率。從1992年起,就有因為性傾向而被革職的軍人對這項政策作出挑戰,但並未足以改變國防部的政策。

從1995年起,多名因性傾向被革職的軍人先後向法院和工業審裁處提出訴訟,指出以他們是同性戀者為理由將他們革職違反了「歐洲人權公約」和構成不合理解僱。英國法院雖然承認國防部推行這項政策的理據缺乏說服力,但認為這政策沒有違法,所以拒絕下令國防部撤銷這政策。

1996年起,四名因性傾向被革職的軍人盧思提-比努恩 (Lustig-Prean)、貝克特(Beckett)、史密斯 (Smith)和格雷地 (Grady)先後向「歐洲人權法庭」提出訴訟,指英國海軍以他們是同性戀者為理由調查和解僱他們是違反了「歐洲人權公約」。1998年「歐洲人權法庭」決定接受上述四人提出的的訴訟,並將盧思提-比努恩對大英聯合王國和貝克特對大英聯合王國兩宗訴訟一併審理。訴訟在1999年5月展開並於同年9月審結。法庭一致裁定英國政府違反了公約中保障私人和家庭生活獲得尊重的權利的條款(公約第8條)。

「歐洲人權公約」第8條除說明私人和家庭生活應獲得尊重外,也說明「除非為了國家安全的目的……和為了防止失去秩序,並且是遵照法律和一個民主社會所必須採取的做法,公權力不得干預任何人享有這權利。」 英國政府在其辯詞中承認干預了兩名前海軍的私人生活獲得尊重的權利,但指出禁止同性戀者參加軍隊是為了維護軍隊的士氣和受此影響的戰鬥能力和執行任務的效率。英國政府引用國防部1996年成立的同性戀政策評估小組的一個報告指出,由於軍隊中大多數人是異性戀者,如果軍隊中有公開的同性戀者或被懷疑是同性戀者的人,軍隊會出現行為和情緒反應,軍隊士氣會因此受影響以至其戰鬥能力也會受到顯著和負面的影響。因此對英國政府來說,禁止同性戀者入伍的政策和採取干預私人生活的措施來執行這政策是合理的。

「歐洲人權法庭」在其判詞中表示,它相信英國政府的措施確是為了國家安全的目的和防止失去秩序等合理的原因,但認為該國在兩名申訴人承認是同性戀者後,仍然繼續調查他們的私人生活的做法違反了公約第8條。

至於英國政府的措施是否「一個民主社會所必須採取的做法」,英國政府以軍隊情況非常獨特為理由提出,公約締約國在這種情況下應享有較大的判別權。但兩名申訴人指出英國政府並未以同樣理由禁止女性或少數族裔的人士加入軍隊,而軍隊也從未因為同性戀者的存在或被懷疑是同性戀者的人的存在而出現過國防部所擔憂的情況,因此國防部的做法和政策是建基於偏見,國防部的做法和政策甚至製造和加深了這種偏見。兩名申訴人提出,對抗這種偏見的做法是推出必須嚴格執行的「行為守則」,就像軍隊在處理種族偏見和性騷擾問題上所採取的措施所做的一樣。

歐洲人權法庭在作出裁決時指出,在考慮一個國家在涉及國家安全的事情上應享有較大判別權的理據的同時,它也考慮到侵犯兩名申訴人享有的權利的理由是否有具說服力和具重量。法庭認為,即使承認軍隊內作為異性戀者的大多數人確對同性戀者的少數人存有偏見,但這些負面的態度不足以成為侵犯兩名申訴人的權利的合理理由。法庭同時感到改變國防部的政策會影響軍隊士氣的理由欠缺具體的證據。對於英國政府認為制定「行為守則」和採取其他制裁措施不足以解決軍隊中因為性傾向偏見引起的行為問題,法庭認為同樣是缺乏足夠證據的。因此法庭認為英國政府侵犯兩名申訴人的權利的理由欠缺說服力和欠缺重量,不能成為合理的理由。

「歐洲人權法庭」在史密斯和格雷地對大英聯合王國的另一宗同類訴訟中同樣裁定英國政府敗訴。

➢ 「歐洲人權法庭」判詞

澳洲人權及平等機會委員會:格列芬對天主教教育辦事處案 (1988)
Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission: Jacqui Griffin v.The Catholic Education Office (1988)

澳洲一名女性格列芬女士 (Jacqui Griffin) 在申請一間天主教學校的教師職位時遭天主教教會拒絕。教會的主要理由是她高調地在一個同志教師及學生組織中工作,並曾在聲明中公開討論同性戀。

校方引述「人權及平等機會委員會法案」第1部分第3(1)條的豁免條款,指格列芬女士不符合職位的基本要求,並指出法案讓宗教團體獲得豁免,因法例容許因真誠地避免傷害宗教或教條信奉者的宗教感情而作出區別的待遇。

「人權及平等機會委員會」委員調查個案後發表建議,認為此投訴個案屬法案中的性取向歧視,並作出以下的解釋:

■ 職位的基本要求

天主教教育辦事處指出,其職位申請表中已說明:「這所天主教學校不止是一所教育機構,是天主教傳教的重要一環。因此這所天主教學校的老師不只是僱員,他或她是以天主教教會之名而服務。」因此這間天主教學校的教師必須避免自己的言行或公開的生活模式與天主教教義相違,並因此影響學生。但委員會調查後指出,無證據顯示受屈人曾公開發表有違天主教教義的言論,以宣揚同性戀。作為同志組織的幹事,格列芬女士只從事支持受暴力對待的同志老師及學生的工作,受屈人仍符合天主教學校對教師的要求。該委員指校方之舉不受法案豁免條款所保護,因其行為是基於對受屈人行為未經證實的推測。

■ 公開的生活模式

根據天主教教育辦事處的主要論點,格列芬女士的同志組織幹事身份令她有一個「公開的生活模式」,而這生活模式跟天主教學校對同性戀的道德立場有着難以踰越的鴻溝。委員調查後指這並非必然,因為很多天主教教區也成立了對抗性傾向歧視和暴力的機構,而這些機構跟格列芬女士參與的同志組織性質相近。很多主教亦委任教士在這些機構工作。很明顯,單單與同志支援組織有聯繫並不足以構成「難以踰越的鴻溝」。

該委員同時亦引述天主教會的教義 (Catechism of the Catholic Church),當中提到須以尊重、同情及接納的態度對待同性戀男女,並應避免任何形式的不公平的歧視。因此,該委員認為校方的行為不符合法案,甚至違反天主教教會的教義。
>「人權及平等機會委員會」報告

歐洲人權法庭:卡爾內爾對奧地利 (2003)
The European Court of Human Rights: Karner v Austria (2003)

奧地利一名男性卡爾內爾 (Siegmund Karner) 自1989年起跟他的同性伴侶在後者租住的一所房子同居。1994年卡爾內爾的伴侶因病去世。1995至1996年間業主先後向Favoriten地方法院和維也納地區民事法庭申請終止租約,但均遭到法院否決,原因是根據奧地利的「租務條例」,一名租客的配偶或終生伴侶有權在伴侶去世後繼續租住原來的居所。但奧地利最高法院於1996年12月判決業主得直,所持的理由是「租務條例」於1974年制訂時,立法者無意將同性伴侶包括在終生伴侶的定義內。

1997年卡爾內爾向「歐洲人權法庭」 (The European Court of Human Rights) 投訴奧地利違反了「歐洲人權公約」 (European Convention on Human Rights),指奧地利最高法院的判決是基於性傾向的歧視,違反了「歐洲人權公約」第14 條和第8條。卡爾內爾於2000年去世,奧地利政府要求「歐洲人權法庭」 頒令撤銷此宗訴訟,但法庭考慮到這宗有關奧地利「租務條例」 對同性戀者繼承租約的差別待遇的訴訟不單只影響奧地利,也影響其他公約簽署國,並且相信繼續這宗訴訟有助闡明、維護和發展公約的保障標準,因此拒絕奧地利政府的要求,繼續對訴訟進行聆訊和裁決。

「歐洲人權公約」 第14 條保障所有人都享有公約中訂明的所有權利和自由,「不因其性別、種族、膚色、語言、宗教、政治或其他觀點、國籍或社會出身、屬少數族裔、財產、出生或其他地位而受到歧視」。公約第8條則聲明,「每個人享有私人和家庭生活以及家居的權利都應受到尊重,任何公共機關都不能侵犯個人這方面的權利,除非是為了維護國家安全、公眾安全或國家的經濟利益,或者為了防止失去秩序或罪案,或者為了維護衛生或道德,或者為了保障其他人的權利和自由。」

「歐洲人權法庭」 認為投訴人在伴侶去世前一直住在同一房子中,如果不是因為他的性別(更準確的說是他的性傾向),他作為死者的終生伴侶的地位是不會受到質疑的,而他會因此而有權根據「租務條例」 繼承租約。因此在這宗訴訟中,「歐洲人權公約」第14 條是適用的。奧地利政府承認卡爾內爾是因為他的性傾向而不能得到「租務條例」 的保障,並表示這種差別待遇是有客觀和合理的理由,因為「租務條例」 的目的是保障傳統的家庭。

「歐洲人權法庭」 接納保障傳統的家庭原則上可以是實施差別待遇的一個重大和合法的理由,但在這宗案件中,所實施的差別待遇是否適度則有疑問。法庭認為,保障傳統的家庭的目標是相當抽象的,具體的措施可以很多。在基於性或性傾向所實施的差別待遇中,其是否適度的問題不單涉及措施是否一個有助達到目標的合適做法,有關國家還必須顯示要達到目標,就必須排除某類人,而在這宗訴訟中要排除的是在同性關係中的人。「歐洲人權法庭」 認為奧地利政府並未提供具說服力和有足夠份量的理據對「租務條例」 作出如此狹隘的解釋,令一對同性伴侶中的在生者不能享有「租務條例」 的保障。為此,「歐洲人權法庭」 裁決奧地利同時違反了「歐洲人權公約」第14條和第8條,即觸犯了私人生活應獲得到尊重和法律面前人人平等兩項基本人權。

> 法庭判詞

瑞典最高法院:檢查總長辦事處對格連 (2003)

The Supreme Court of Sweden: Office of the Prosecutor-General v Ake Green (2003)

簡介

瑞典於2003年首次引用刑法第16章第8條,起訴牧師格連(Ake Green),指他在佈道會上的演說攻擊同性戀者,他因而於2004年被法院判處入獄一個月。格連不服提出上訴,2005年2月上訴庭推翻原判,格連獲判無罪釋放。司法部再向最高法院提出司法覆核,2005年11月最高法院作出審結,判格連無罪。

最高法院認為格連發表了對同性戀者蔑視的言論,但如果判處他入獄,而格連向「歐洲人權法庭」提出上訴的話,該判決最終將會被「歐洲人權法庭」推翻,原因是「歐洲人權法庭」對「煽動仇恨罪」有較約束性的演繹。瑞典最高法院為了跟隨「歐洲人權法庭」的做法,故也對該刑法採用較約束性的演繹。

格連一案引起很大的爭議,特別是對宗教自由及言論自由的討論,美國的一些教會一直積極為格連爭取洗脫罪名。2005年香港討論應否就性傾向歧視立法時,本地的宗教團體明光社也以這個案例提出立法對宗教自由的威脅。究竟有關的法例對言論自由與宗教自由的影響是怎樣的?格連的案例有助我們作進一步的探討。以下是依據瑞典最高法院的判辭整理的法律思辯。

事件始末

2003年牧師格連在教堂向50名信眾佈道,發表一篇題為「同性戀是自然本能還是邪惡力量的把戲?」的演說。他指出讓同性戀者合法結婚,會為社會帶來災難,就如愛滋病的傳播一樣。他認為反常的性行為是社會的癌腫瘤,性變態者甚至會向動物施暴,同性戀是病態的行為。

瑞典司法部以格連的佈道企圖散播對同性戀者的蔑視,根據刑法第16章第8條對他提出起訴。2004年6月,法院作出裁決,認為格連的言論構成對同性戀者的蔑視,並判格連入獄一個月。格連不服,提出上訴。2004年2月上訴庭推翻原判,上訴庭認為格連的言論是以聖經內容為依據,並非煽動對同性戀者的仇恨。司法部再就上訴庭的判決向最高法院提出司法覆核,2005年11月,最高法院判格連勝訴,格連無罪獲釋。

瑞典刑法第16章第8條

瑞典刑法第16章第8條禁止對一群人發放引申自種族、膚色、國籍、族裔、信條或性傾向的威嚇或蔑視。法例並沒有為宗教言論提供豁免。

瑞典政府於2003年修訂刑法第16章第8條,加入禁止煽動對同性戀的仇恨時,指出修例的意圖並非阻止對同性戀議題進行開放自由的討論與批評。只要討論是基於客觀事實及以負責任的態度進行,即使含有對同性戀的貶斥,也不一定犯法。瑞典政府指出,自由開放的討論與批評是必須的,它可以令同性戀者及其他人士有機會對有關的言論作出回應,糾正社會的錯誤觀念及偏見。

執行刑法第16章第8條時,司法機構亦必須同時考慮言論的意圖,它必須清楚顯示發表人的意圖是要針對一群人散播對他們具威嚇性及蔑視的言論。宗教佈道的言論同樣受這刑法所規範,但一般來說,引述經文來規勸信眾追隨經文的教義,應不屬違法。

瑞典法庭的裁決

格連的言論構成對同性戀者的蔑視

格連的自辯稱,他只是表達聖經的內容,他並非針對同性戀者,而只是針對聖經所禁止的罪行。但法院認為格連的言論構成對同性戀者的蔑視。

最高法院的判辭指出,格連把同性戀與愛滋病的出現和傳播扯在一起,暗示同性戀是社會的癌腫瘤,他們會向動物施暴,又以戀童癖來形容同性戀者等等。格連並非直接表達聖經的內容,其言論也超越了「基於客觀事實及以負責任的態度進行討論」的界線。同時,他任意地當著信眾發表這些言論,有意識地冒犯他人,因此他的言論構成刑法第16章第8條所指的對同性戀者的蔑視。

判處格連違法並不違反憲法對宗教自由的保障

最高法院認為判決格連違反刑法第16章第8條,不會抵觸憲法對宗教自由的保障。憲法保障狹義的宗教自由,即公民有信奉宗教的自由。除此以外,宗教一樣須受法律制束;某些公民自由如須受到制約的話,在宗教範疇裡不會獲得特別豁免。

「歐洲人權公約」的準則與實踐

瑞典是「歐洲人權公約」的締約國,並且立法訂明可以在法庭上直接應用「歐洲人權公約」,因此最高法院在審判過程中也參照了「歐洲人權公約」的有關準則及實踐。

瑞典最高法院認為,瑞典刑法第16章第8條對言論自由的規範,與「歐洲人權公約」的精神與準則是一致的。但「歐洲人權法庭」落實公約時,會依據三大因素考慮是否需要採取限制言論自由的措施,包括:

□ 是否存在迫切的社會需要; □ 限制的手段是否合乎要達致的目的; □ 政府能否提出恰當而充分的理由。

「歐洲人權法庭」認為有必要懲治甚至制止煽動仇恨的言論;煽動仇恨的言論是指散佈、煽動、鼓勵、以至合理化仇恨的言論。作出裁決時法庭需要對言論的內容以及背景作出整體的考慮,以衡量合理與適度的制約。

對煽動仇恨言論應採用較約束性的演繹

在參照「歐洲人權法庭」的有關案例後,瑞典最高法院認為,瑞典刑法第16章第8條對言論自由的規範,雖然與「歐洲人權公約」的精神與準則一致,但「歐洲人權法庭」在落實它的法律時,對「煽動仇恨罪」有較約束性的演繹。根據「歐洲人權法庭」的慣例,格連的言論雖然蔑視同性戀,但並不構成煽動仇恨的言論,故此瑞典法庭判處格連入獄一個月,是不適度的刑罰。

瑞典最高法院認為,瑞典應跟隨「歐洲人權法庭」的準則,故對刑法第16章第8條也採用較約束性的演繹,格連因而獲判無罪釋放。

延伸閱讀

The Supreme Court Judgment – Case No. Handed Down in Stockholm on 29 November 2005 B 1050-05.

Breaking News (November 29, 2005). In the Ake Green Website.

Ake Green. In the Wikipedia Web site.

Free Speech in Sweden. In the Brussels Journal Web site.

Hate Speech Legislation in Sweden. In the Religious Tolerance.org Web site.

Sweden: Hate Speech Law Condemned at UN Human Rights Commission. In The Becket Fund for Religious Liberty Web site.

Swedish Court Reviews ‘Hate’ Case. In BBC News.

Ake Green Cleared Over Gay Sermon. In the Local – Sweden’s News in English Web site.

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...Income-tax has stated a case for our opinion on the four questions of law submitted in para 15. Question (4) deals with the genuineness of the alleged loans, but in para 33 the Commissioner explains the basis on which he has submitted this question, although in one sense it may be said to be a question of fact. Turning to the facts it appears that in the year 1921 the assessee formed four private companies which I will call family companies for convenience of reference, although in fact no other member of his family took any direct benefit thereunder. The names of these four companies were Petit Limited: The Bombay Investment Company Limited: The Miscellaneous Investment Company: and the Safe Securities Limited: Each of these companies took over a particular block of investments belonging to the assessee. But as the modus operandi was substantially the same in each case it will suffice to follow out the fortunes of Petit Limited. Taking then Petit Limited as an example, this family company was incorporated about April 12, 1921, with a nominal capital of rupees ten millions divided ultimately into 9,99,900 ordinary shares of Rs. 10 each and one hundred preference shares of Rs. 10 each carrying a fixed cumulative preferential dividend of six per cent. Its issued and subscribed capital consists of 3,48,604 fully paid ordinary shares all held by the assessee, and three fully paid preference shares held by three persons who are alleged in para 24 of the case to be his......

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...Rules on Criminal Procedure, to wit: “Sec. 5. Arrest without warrant; when lawful. — A peace officer or a private person may, without a warrant, arrest a person: (a) When, in his presence, the person to be arrested has committed, is actually committing, or is attempting to commit an offense; (b) When an offense has in fact just been committed, and he has personal knowledge of facts indicating that the person to be arrested has committed it; and (c)When the person to be arrested is a prisoner who escaped from a penal establishment or place where he is serving final judgment or temporarily confined while his case is pending, or has escaped while being transferred from one confinement to another. Under Section 5 (a), as above-quoted, a person may be arrested without a warrant if he “has committed, is actually committing, or is attempting to commit an offense.” In the case at bar, Appellant Doria was caught in the act of committing an offense. When an accused is apprehended in flagrante delicto as a result of a buy-bust operation, the police are not only authorized but duty-bound to arrest him even without a warrant. There is no rule of law which requires that in "buy-bust" operations there must be a simultaneous exchange of the marked money and the prohibited drug between the poseur-buyer and the pusher. Again, the decisive fact is that the poseur-buyer received the marijuana from the accused-appellant. 2. The warrantless arrest of appellant Gaddao, the search of......

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...add-on. Initial paper work took some time, so the new patients were asked to come earlier so that the work could be completed on time. Also informing the new patients to adhere to appointment timings was a usual practice to avoid delays. What procedures were followed to keep the appointment system flexible enough to accommodate the emergency cases, and yet be able to keep up with the other patients’ appointments? It is often observed that doctors misuse the time and often emergency cases are taken as excuses for not adhering to the schedule. It was important to make the system flexible to adjust the emergency cases as well as to adhere to the timelines and get back to schedule. In case of real emergencies like fractures or caesarean section etc., all other appointments could be dropped; however in case of small issues, the doctor was expected to come back on track as early as possible and give the patient a choice to wait or reschedule the appointment. Also the assistant of the doctors were ordered to keep some open slots throughout the day for the patients suffering acutely. This time was also used to look into the emergency cases....

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...Siyu Zhang Case 2 Feb.22 Paperback writer The professor’s book title, Criminal Intent, does not have any kind of legal protection. In order for literary or artistic expression to be protected from copying it must meet three requirements by law. The requirements for obtaining legal protection on this kind of material include the following: it must be original, it must be fixed in a durable medium, and it must show some level of creativity. In this case, Criminal Intent was obviously published in a durable medium; however its level of originality and creativity are minor at best. On the other hand, the titles of the Rolling Stones songs are entitled to legal protection. First of all, titles such as Honky Tonk Woman and 19th Nervous Breakdown would probably be considered more creative and original than in the case with Criminal Intent. Therefore, the Rolling Stones song titles meet all three requirements for protection of artistic expression. Also, this protection would be largely due to the popularity the songs achieved when they were released. The Federal Trademark Dilution Act of 1995 aims to protect trademarks from unauthorized uses even when it is unlikely to confuse consumers. Under Trademark law, an expression may be given protection if it acquires a secondary meaning, meaning that the term or expression has become closely associated with a particular company (in this case, these specific song titles being associated with Rolling Stones). For these......

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...Assignment Questions for Harvard Cases 3. Hilton Manufacturing Company In Exhibit 3 of the case, change the description for estimating variable portion of "Compensation" and use 5% of direct labor cost rather than 5% of direct labor and indirect labor cost as indicated in that Exhibit 3. Again, DO NOT USE 5% of DL and IDL costs. A product cost is itself a product of a cost accounting system. To use product cost information in decision making, a manager must understand the nature of the cost measurement system that has been used to estimate a product cost and be able to evaluate whether or not the product cost at hand is appropriate for the decision which is about to be made. A second objective is to provide practice in considering whether or not assumptions about cost behavior are critical to decisions and to expand the notion of contribution beyond the simple idea of price minus variable cost per unit. A third objective introduces the concept of breakeven analysis, not by focusing on the point where no profit is earned but rather as a tool to consider whether or not one of two price points might be preferred. Finally, the last assignment question invites you to consider factors that lead to profitability. You begin your analysis by focusing on two issues raised in the assigned questions. The first is whether the decision not to drop Product 103 as of January 1, 2004 was wise. In addition, you are asked to analyze what would have been the impact on......

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...A few tips from Bain & Company: • • • • • Don't get thrown by the interviewer's questions. The interviewer is your ally and uses questions to get a better understanding of your thought process--not to stump you. Be concise. If asked for the top two issues, confine your response to two items. Provide logical back-up for your answers. Be sure to explain what case facts led you to a conclusion, and how you reasoned from those facts to your conclusion. Don't be afraid to ask clarifying questions. If you don't understand the case facts, it will be tough to ace the interview. Relax and have fun. You should learn a lot about yourself through the case interview process. A few tips from Mercer Management: • • • • There is no "right" answer. We are not looking for a specific answer. We are trying to gain some insight on your thought process. Ask questions. We do not expect you to know anything about the industry presented in your case. We do expect you to ask good questions. Think out loud. The point of the case interview is to understand how you think. Structure your answer. We're looking for an organized pattern of thought to attack the problem, not a disparate set of ideas. Help us see how you order your thoughts and ideas, moving from one to the next in order to address the question. While use of a framework may be helpful in this area, be careful if you use one. We want to understand your thought process, not see that you've memorized someone else's framework. (And never use a......

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