Premium Essay

Cause Of Violence In Northern Ireland

Submitted By
Words 1475
Pages 6
INTRODUCTION
In 1969, violence erupted in Northern Ireland. The Northern Ireland Riots of August 1969 was quickly described as a civil disturbance, and was at first regarded as a nuisance more so than a significant problem. Not long after however, the situation had escalated into a full blown conflict, which forced the Northern Irish government Stormont to ask the British government in Westminster to deploy troops to the conflict area. By the end, thirty years later, the “civil disturbance” had amounted to almost 50,000 casualties. The conflict can be broken down into fighting between the Protestant Unionists and the Catholic Nationalists. The Troubles did have other parties fighting, such as communists and anarchists, however, their input
…show more content…
When violence broke out in 1969, the Northern Irish government quickly tried and failed to cover the situation up. Instead, images of bleeding people, destroyed buildings and burning neighbourhoods were publicly broadcasted on news outlets all over Europe and America (Savage). This essay will explore the causes that can be argued to have been fundamental in the eruption of violence in Northern Ireland. These fundamental causes have been divided into three main categories, the long term causes, the short term causes and the immediate causes. The aim is to examine these three categories, and to see which, if any, is more significant a cause than any other. Hopefully, it will also shed light on what happened in Northern Ireland, and why it is an important area of the history of modern Britain.
CHAPTER 1: The Long Term Causes
With regards to any conflict in history, if it is to be properly understood, one often has to look at the long term causes. In the case of the Troubles there are two fundamental long term causes which this essay will analyse. The first long term cause is the economic condition of Northern
…show more content…
This brings forth the second long term cause of the Troubles, the religious conflict. The Northern Irish population is predominantly Christian, with majority being Protestant and the minority being Catholics. (Coogan, 1916; The Morning After) This divide is one which had been in place since the formation of the Church of England during the Reformation in the 16th Century, when the Irish population remained faithful to the Roman Catholic Church (Sulutvedt ). Already at this stage in history, the majority of Ireland’s protestants were living in the northern counties, so when the partition occurred 1921 (Coogan, The Twelve Apostles) the South, which was populated mostly by Catholics, became the Republic of Ireland, wile the North became Northern Ireland. (Coogan, 1916; The Morning After) However, with the formation of Northern Ireland, the main religion went from being Catholic to Protestant. The Protestants had, shrewdly, been able to secure the area for themselves, and although there was a significant Catholic population, the Protestants managed to keep themselves firmly in power. (Wiepking) They did so through Northern Ireland’s outdated political system, in which only land owners were allowed to vote, and this meant that a large part of the Catholic community did not have the opportunity (Wiepking).

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Assess the Main Reasons for the Conflict in Northern Ireland and to What Extent Have These Been Resolved by the Agreement Brokered by the Government of the Uk and Ireland in 1998?

...reasons for the conflict in Northern Ireland and to what extent have these been resolved by the agreement brokered by the government of the UK and Ireland in 1998? "No person knows better than you do that the domination of England is the sole and blighting curse of this country. It is the incubus that sits on our energies, stops the pulsation of the nation’s heart and leaves to Ireland not gay vitality but horrid the convulsions of a troubled dream."Daniel O'Connell in an 1831 letter to Bishop Doyle The conflict in Northern Ireland started in the late 1960’s, and officially ended with the “Good Friday” Agreement, signed in Belfast in 1998. If this duration is not questioned, what remains at the root of the conflict generally is. Spreading over almost thirty years, “The Troubles” have been divided down many lines: ethnically, geographically, and religiously. Therefore, in order to understand the complexity of Irish nationalism, as well as the role played by the various actors (political parties, paramilitaries, security forces of the UK and Ireland etc…), it is necessary to go back in time, in search of the very core of “the Irish Question”. Ireland was England’s first colony in the late 12th century, and after it had been brought under the ascendancy of the English Crown in 1534, the Irish Parliament appointed Henri VIII “King of Ireland” in 1541[1]. At this stage of history, the first religious disagreement came to light. Whereas Ireland pledged......

Words: 3345 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

The Cranberries Pros And Cons

...Why Can’t We? In 2003, the band took a relatively short hiatus and reunited in 2009, beginning a North American tour. Dolores O’Riordan, the lead singer, wrote the award winning song “Zombie”. The word “zombie” in the song represents the unwavering acceptance by the people, in an almost zombie-like fashion, toward the notion of war and violence. It is inferred that the song reflects a universal opposition of violence and war between nations with little to no regard for the people that are directly affected. “Zombie” was written in 1993 and was released in September of 1994. It is considered...

Words: 1491 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Meaning Behind The Cranberries

...of war and violence. It is inferred that the song reflects a universal opposition of violence and war between nations with little to no regard for the people that are directly affected. “Zombie” was written in 1993 and was released in September of 1994. It is...

Words: 1220 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Ireland’s Conflicted Ethno Nationalist History

...Socio-evolutionary identity plays a fundamental role in the building of the character of any nation, with Northern Ireland being no different. The constellation of discursive issues that demarcate Irelands conflicted history, are complex and multifarious. The conflict is steeped in the historical context of religious conviction, monarchical dispossession of territory and rights, a distrust of government and the impact of socio-economics on its people. Scholars, politicians and men of the cloth, from all sides of the political floor and religious faiths have assessed and reviewed the Irish ‘troubles’ and all remain convinced that they have the answer, the defining commitment or the epiphany that will or would have restored the island to peace and unity. However like all protracted conflicts the original catalyst is often lost or manifests into a raft of idiosyncratic reasons to fight. When we dissect the conflict down to base elements, there remains two strategic themes, the first being the alignment of faith between the Protestant minority and the Catholic majority and the second base element is the alignment of allegiance of country. The Catholic Nationalist desire for a unified Irish nation and the Unionist commitment to a fractured island with a northern annex, controlled by the United Kingdom is at the essence of the conflict. Whilst this might seem a myopic view of the struggle, it is difficult to reframe the conflict beyond its ethno-nationalist agenda and......

Words: 1608 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Irish Republican Army

...pro-Irish-separatist Fenian Brotherhood. A policeman was killed and three members of group were executed after a controversial trial. The armed Fenian rebellion of 1867 was quickly put down by the British and turned out to be a dismal failure. Most of Ireland's revolutionaries were not from the embittered working classes or rural poor. Rather they were landowners, members of Parliament, and middle class professionals. Some were educated at Cambridge and Oxford. Belfast mural The Irish Republican Army (the I.R.A.) is Catholic-based paramilitary group whose objectives were to drive the British out of Northern Ireland and reunify Northern Ireland with Ireland. The I.R.A. was committed to the use of the violence to achieve these goals. The logic seemed to be that if they blow up enough buildings and killed enough people, the British and the their supporters would give up and leave Northern Ireland. I.R.A. was led by a seven-member military council. At its peak it only had 400 or so armed members who were supported by a network of runners, financiers, bombmakers and thousands of sympathizers. For obvious reasons, the I.R.A. was highly secretive. No one on the outside ever saw them at work and no outsider ever knew where or when they worked. "When you have been elevated to the leadership...

Words: 2286 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Bogside Massacre In Ireland

...PART I A Brief History of Ireland – Gaining Perspective Bloody Sunday, also known as the Bogside Massacre, occurred on January 30, 1972 in Derry, North Ireland. It could be argued that the causes were many, but what really triggered the tragic event, was the North Ireland and British governments, and the British military troops, instituting Operation Demetrius and internment, in response to increasing civil rights marches influenced by the equal rights movement of African Americans in the United States, and their outcry for equality and fair treatment. In 1969, when British troops were told to suppress nationalist activity by both the Irish Republican Army (IRA), and local citizens participating in marches or protests, they did so by internment,...

Words: 3116 - Pages: 13

Free Essay

Irish Life and Cultures

...process can help these other conflicts. - Saeed Faghihi "The Troubles" refers to a point of conflict in Irish history from late 60's to the late 90's. It was characterized by military violence particularly in Northern Ireland but also to a less prominent extent in England, Scotland, and The Republic of Ireland. The violence was rooted in the different ethnicity of the Northern Irish people. The Unionist Protestant majority wanted to remain as part of The United kingdom while the Nationalist republican minority wished to cede ties with The United Kingdom and join The Republic of Ireland. Catholics and Protestants were largely segregated in Northern Ireland. Catholics were generally discriminated against and not given high power jobs. In 1969 a predominantly catholic civil rights protest marched against these issues. The protest was attacked by The Royal Ulster Constabulary. This sparked the beginning of the period in Northern Irish history known as The Troubles. After the protest a new paramilitary origination, the provisional IRA, was formed. They called themselves the Provisional IRA to differentiate themselves from the old IRA which had become somewhat inactive. Thereafter, Clashes between Catholics and Protestants became commonplace. Throughout this period the majority of the violence was perpetuated by Paramilitary groups such as The Provisional IRA, The Ulster Defense Association and The Ulster Volunteer Force British security forces were also heavily involved in......

Words: 2164 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Norther Ireland Troubles

...1. Make short notes on the role of history: ethnicity and religion, colonization and conquest that relate to the Irish controversy. 2. List the factors that came together to support the Good Friday Agreement. What were the 'sticking points'? 1. Ulster/Ireland: Identity Blur Ireland is an island to the northwest of continental Europe. It is the third-largest island in Europe and the twentieth-largest island on Earth. To its east is the larger island of Great Britain, from which it is separated by the Irish Sea. Politically, Ireland is divided between the Republic of Ireland, which covers just under five-sixths of the island, and Northern Ireland, a part of the United Kingdom, which covers the remainder and is located in the northeast of the island. The population of Ireland is approximately 6.4 million. Just under 4.6 million live in the Republic of Ireland and just under 1.8 million live in Northern Ireland. (Wikepedia) In 1171, following permission from the Pope Adrian IV; Henry II landed in Ireland on an expansionist expedition. For the church, the ‘bull’ (papal order) encouraged Henry to take control in Ireland in order to oversee the financial and administrative reorganization of the Irish Church and its integration into the Roman Church system. For Britain, this represented an expansion of the empire and their European influence. In the subsequent centuries, Irish and English cultures were deeply intertwined, under the canopy of the Catholic Church. During......

Words: 1408 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Ku Klux Klan History

...Terrorism has been defined as ‘the use of violence or intimidation to achieve a desired end.’ (Donohoe, 2004). Terrorists have used these methods over time to change the political sphere of a country, sometimes for the greater good, and other times to advocate minor causes or causes that do not align with the values of broader society. Although terrorism had existed as a concept before the 1970s, it was at this time that terrorists began to act outside of their home territory, either singularly (known as acting as a ‘lone wolf’) or as part of a terrorist group. The first known example of this occurred in 1972 when a group of Arabian terrorists launched an attack on Israeli athletes at the Munich Olympics, killing eleven people. Since this time,...

Words: 1323 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Sos-440 Final Paper

...SOS-440 Final Paper According to Author Rex A. Hudson, “Terrorists are motivated not only by psychological factors but also very real political, social, religious, and economic factors, among others. These factors vary widely”. Accordingly, the motivations, goals, and ideologies of ethnic separatist, anarchist, social revolutionary, religious fundamentalist, and new religious terrorist groups differ significantly. (Hudson, 1999) Therefore, each terrorist group must be examined within its own cultural, economic, political, and social context in order to better understand the motivations of its individual members and leaders and their particular ideologies. (Federal Research Division, Library of Congress, 1999, para. 54) I will use Hudson’s assertion as my theoretical framework to analyze if my findings are compatible with a plausible assertion that terrorism is based off social and political views of the people who see their current state as unjust. The National Liberation Army (Ejército de Liberación Nacional or ELN) is a revolutionary guerrilla army; who have fought in the Colombian Civil War since it began in 1964. The ELN advocate a composite Communist ideology of Marxism and Liberation Theology. The ELN was founded by Fabio Vásquez Castaño and other Colombian rebels trained in Communist Cuba; upon the Vásquez Castaño death, the ELN was headed by a series of Roman Catholic priests, exponents of Liberation Theology. (Brittain, 2010) Most notable was the Priest......

Words: 1930 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Religion and Rights

...person is completely wrong, secondly states have a duty to defend their citizens, and thirdly to defend justice by protecting innocent human life and defending important moral values which sometimes requires the will to use force and violence to stop any breach of the above. Normally states use the theory of a ‘just war’ before entering a conflict however individual Christians use it to decide whether it is morally right or wrong to get involved or support such a conflict. The Bible states that if violence is used as an act of defence from an attacker then war can sometimes be justified Numbers 31:1-3 ‘The LORD said to Moses, "Take vengeance on the Midianites for the Israelites. After that, you will be gathered to your people." So Moses said to the people, "Arm some of your men to go to war against the Midianites and to carry out the LORD's vengeance on them.’ In addition there is no actual commandment against killing, against murder yes Commandment 6 so one could argue there is perhaps more evidence supporting war as being just. In the old days of knights and Holy wars the pope would order a Holy crusade in order to retake religious places Nations such as France, England, Germany and Spain would put aside their differences and crusade for the Holy cause in reward they would have their sins removed via the Pope one such place more infamous than others Jerusalem, In 1076, the Muslims had captured Jerusalem which at the time was the most holy of holy places for Christians.......

Words: 835 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Outline Of The Irish Republican Army (IRA)

...Christopher Deion Smith 900751868 History 1112K Keywords Report #2 Irish Republican Army (IRA) The Irish Republican Army (IRA), also known as the Provisional Irish Republican Army was a paramilitary organization. It was created in 1919 with the purpose of using an armed force to remove British rule in order to create an independent republic and the unification of Ireland. During its time of operation it acted independently of political control and in some instances gained the advantage in the independence movement. During the Irish War of Independence (1919-1921) under the leadership of Michal Collins the IRA made used of guerrilla tactics in order to force the British government to negotiate the Anglo-Irish Treaty which resulted in the...

Words: 517 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Analysing Thematic Opposition in Two Films

...The debate about political violence and nonviolence is a major theme in the discussion about the struggle for independence in Northern Ireland. This conflict is dramatized in the two films in context in the form of the Ireland Republic army (IRA) where two main characters are portrayed as a protagonist and an antagonist to bring out the theme in the films. The Wind that Shakes the Barley is a film featured in the nineteenth century, by Ken Loach. Basing its storyline between the years 1920 and 1922, the film is founded on historical events. The film also employs a fictional cast of characters drawn from experiences of real-life participants. The rebellion involved between the Irish people and the British remains a painful event in the books of history, but that has not prevented it from undergoing intense public discussions. The film involves two characters who join an Irish army to fight for independence. The main themes that are drawn from the film mainly revolve around events related to independence. The film is set in a rural setting. The next film is Michael Collins, by Neil Jordan. This film is more accurate in the way it examines its information compared to the Wind that Shakes the Barley (McLoone 226). It is a historical biopic. The film may in fact base its storyline on an accurate follow up of events, but it contains some historical alterations. Many found the film as a rich representative of the Irish way of life while others found it more of a Hollywood......

Words: 1751 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Cultural Context

...deliver their respective tales. The setting is easily comparable in all texts. IP was set in a small island off the coast of Italy around the 1950’s. Communism was the main political headline in this text, where a famous Italian poet, Pablo Neruda, was exiled from his own country and forced to live elsewhere for a short while due to the fact he was a communist. During this time also, Europe was struggling to cope from World War II. PS was set in Dublin, 1916. The Easter Rising was at stake. We receive an insight into the lives of the Irish people during The Troubles. There was also a feud between Socialism and Republicanism. LS is set in Belfast in the 1950’s when the Northern Troubles were at its climax. The setting in this text is dominated by the deep-rooted political and religious conflict in the North of Ireland. The roles of women in all texts have their equal comparisons and similarities. In IP, it had come to my mind that Mario and Beatrice’s marriage had little true strength. I got the impression that Mario seemed more keen on the Italian poet, Neruda, than for his unborn child. However, the women are strongly independent...

Words: 1880 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

What Is the Connection Between Religion and Terrorism?

...What is the Connection Between Religion and Terrorism? Recalling the last twenty years, what is observed is the resurfacing of the drive for terrorism all due to one’s religious belief. One can accept that there is a logical link between religion and terrorism. The link being complicated in nature, aims attention to the role religion plays in violence being legitimized. Religious terrorism is considered to be a type of political violence that is driven by the outright faith that a deity has authorized the act of terrorism for a much greater triumph in that faith. Gus Martin defines religious terrorism as a religion legalizing violence as long as such violence is the desire of an individual’s deity. In today’s society, religion has become the dominant cause of political violence. However, nationalism and ideology aren’t the only great stimulants for extremist behavior. For the first time, dominating the international community are religious extremists. There is acceleration in the repetitiveness, magnitude and the far-reaching spectrum of religious terrorist acts which is encouraged by globalization. One's religious belief can be used as the main reason behind terrorism, whether it may be a primary or a secondary motive. The fine points of the political and the cultural environment are the main factors which these motives can be relied upon, significant to a particular terrorist act. Religion can be seen as the main motive behind a terrorist behavior; on the other hand, it......

Words: 1914 - Pages: 8