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Prominent Painters and Painting from Song to Qing Dynasty Hee Dam Yoon (52775031)

Song Dynasty
The Song Dynasty was the golden age of landscape painting in Chinese history. Many artists developed landscape painting during Five Dynasties so, the development in the Song period was smoothly started. Especially emperor Song Huizong enjoyed contribution on art cultivation during the Song Dynasty, so, the soaring of Chinese landscape painting was possible (Hough, “Sung Dynasty (1960-1179)”). Features of this period are vision of nature and scholarly officials’ participation in the art field. These officials expressed their political view and cultivated themselves through natural images (Department of Asian Art). Guo-Xi was one of the prominent painters in this era. As a well educated court professional, he took a side with peasantry or poor people so, emperor Huizong wanted him to spread out the harmonious social atmosphere as a representative. Even though he was a high ranking official, he valued different perspectives from different people and classes. So, his painting style includes “angle of totality” which connotes different views that reflect his life belief (The Famous Artist).
Guo-Xi. Early Spring. 1072. Ink and color on silk. National Palace Museum. Taipei
This is a Guo-Xi’s most popular masterpiece called Early Spring. He expressed landscape of spring after winter by showing mountain surrounded by clouds. By using the floating perspective, another name of an angle of totality, Guo-Xi deepened the reality of the landscape.
Audience of this masterpiece may see rocks resembled cloud or Devil’s face textures stroke in this painting (China Online Museum). Guo-Xi thought mountain in the painting should not be constant even though it is a constant subject because people have different view toward it (The Famous Artist). Also, by using eyes of the viewer, Guo-Xi emphasized the spatiality of the mountain and clouds.
Additionally, this painting effectively involves Guo-Xi’s natural brushwork style that he developed and positively influenced on later art history in China.

These show the use of brushwork developed by Guo-Xi step by step. This technique gives a sense of liveliness and raises animation (Harris “The natural world: Early Spring”).
Right 1: Mountain
Right 2: Cloud Guo-Xi’s development of brushwork was very innovative. By drawing several layers with light and dark lines, Guo-Xi described incredibly detailed expression. The representative brushwork includes two subjects which are mountain and cloud.

Yuan Dynasty
After the Song Dynasty, the Yuan Dynasty was ruled under the Mongolians. So, may politicians from the Song Dynasty retired and spent their lives to collect ideal culture which was expressed through paintings and other art field. Some scholars said that this Yuan Dynasty was the era of creative and dramatic change in art in Chinese history (Yuan Dynasty Landscape Painting). Most important feature of landscape painting in this era was “mind landscape” which expressed painter’s inner spirit. Landscape painting was identifying and defining heart of painter which is individual’s feeling. Zhao Mengfu is the greatest artist who sought personal view through his work (Department of Asian Art). Zhao Mengfu was a descendant from the Song Dynasty. After the collapse of the Song Dynasty, Zhao devoted his entire life for art. When Song Dynasty’s artists used nature as an important factor, Zhao preferred his own expression to avoid external beauty (Bush, “The Chinese Literati on Painting”). Also, he used simple color and forms because he valued overall harmony of the painting and this simplified antique style influenced on other artists from the Song Dynasty who valued the old time (Department of Asian Art).
Zhao Mengfu’s simplified art style is well shown in the painting called Autumn Colors on the Que and Hua Mountains.

Zhao Mengfu. Autumn Colors on the Que and Hua Mountain. 1295. Ink and Colors on paper. National Palace Museum. Taipei Actually, these mountains are quite far part in real life, but Zhao reduced the distance in the painting to express the simplicity. Also, he used Blue and Green coloring style from the Tang Dynasty. As a traditionalist, Zhao used Tang’s feature in a revival meaning. Besides the simplified style, he successfully described beauty of this region by giving a sense of classical elegance and calmness (Autumn Colors on the Que and Hua Mountains). The impression that I got from this painting is beauty of the simplicity. Compare to previous and later Chinese landscape painting, Zhao’s simple brushwork makes me to approach easily and appreciate the overall painting. Also, not just drawing the overall mountain included by numerous trees, I like how Zhao described each tree’s feature like its leaves, brunches or color. Zhao painted the mountain with color blue instead of green and I think this is creative and beautiful at the same time. He had an innovative choice which makes him more special. The reason why this painting is so popular and unique is because of Zhao’s innovation using calligraphy in landscape painting. The use of calligraphy is also shown well in other paintings by Zhao. We can see several written calligraphy around mountains and trees. For example, Four Anecdotes from the Life of Wang Xizhi is a great example of Zhao’s devotion on Calligraphy in Chinese art History.
Zhao Mengfu. Four Anecdotes from the Life of Wang Xizhi. 1310. Ink on paper. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York. Zhao claimed to follow old style like the Tang or Jin Dynasty’s art style. This calligraphy is devoted to Wang Xi-Zhi, the leader of calligraphy back in the Jin Dynasty. Wang was praised as the greatest calligrapher of entire Chinese history so, by dedicating to Wang, Zhao reminded the importance of Calligraphy to other artists. Zhao Mengfu’s writing style shown in this work influenced on later calligraphers as a basis (Zhao Mengfu: Four Anecdotes from the Life of Wang Xizhi). As a descendant of the Song Dynasty’s royal family, Zhao had to suffer by suspicions and questioned by society in his life time. Mongolian government kept suspecting him because he was from the Song’s imperial family even though Zhao worked for them. Additionally, Zhao’s loyalty to the Song Dynasty was always questioned because of his attitude toward the Yuan Dynasty ruled by Mongolian. For example, Zhao enjoyed drawing a horse and during this era, horse was a symbol of government official. Judging horse meant collecting government official who is from the Song and can work for the Yuan Dynasty.

Zhao Mengfu. Man and Horse. 1296
Ink and colors on paper, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Like the statement mentioned above, horse symbolized government officials from Song Dynasty. So, it is possible to derive the meaning of the man which is ‘Yuan government.’ However, if you look at this painting closely, you will realize the same ground level of horse and the man. Thus, this art piece may describe Zhao as a man with integrity (Man and Horse). Zhao lived his life being suspected and questioned, but he expressed his rectitude through his painting and that makes him more great and respectable.

Ming Dynasty
The Ming Dynasty was ruled by native Dynasty and China regained power through this restoration. However, because of new political party, artists in this era were victimized. Many artists lost their lives because the Ming Dynasty’s emperors did not respect them and sent them to the court to criticize and accuse them. So, even though they kept the Song Dynasty’s painting style, the Ming Dynasty did not respect it and almost neglect it. One of the victimized artists in this period was Wang Meng who was a grandson of the great artist Zhao Mengfu (Chinese painting).
Generally, artists in the Ming Dynasty followed the Yuan Dynasty’s style to express themselves, but Wang was more interested in his own unique and private styles. For example, his grandpa Zhao Mengfu used the simplified style, like drawing subjects without overlapping. However, Wang used many overlapping brushworks to describe textures with density and patterns (Wang Meng- Yuan Dynasty).

Wang Meng. The Simple Retreat. 1370. Ink and color on paper. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Instead of drawing external beauty, Wang Meng valued interior ideality or feelings. His masterpiece called The Simple Retreat effectively shows what he pursued through his paintings.
If you look at this painting closely, you can see the old man sitting comfortably and watching those servants working. This was Wang’s internal feelings about ideal world. Lived the persecuted life, Wang Meng valued calm and leisurely world and the old man in this painting may connote himself in ideal world.
The Simple Retreat contains mass textures with dots, colors and unique texture with calligraphy to describe dynamic feature of nature (The Simple Retreat).

Using dots to describe an object in painting is one of my favorite art skills. So, at first glance of this painting, I was very pleased. In my artistic perspective, forming certain shape with small dots implies the painter’s effort till the completion. I used to paint a lot and always felt great after finishing one art piece. Especially, dot painting made me feel wonderful because the completed painting directly show my passion toward art. I have to admire Wang Meng’s passion and express respect to him.

Qing Dynasty

In 1644 the Ming Dynasty was conquered by Manchu who built the Qing Dynasty. So, during Qing Dynasty, many scholars gave up their job not to serve the new government. One of the scholar painters in this era was Wang Shi-min (International Cultural Corporation for Australia Limited). After self-retirement, Ming loyalists spent their lives drawing nature’s beauty and scenery. For example, Wang Shi-min enjoyed painting landscapes but not a realistic visual (Department of Asian Art).
Wang Shi-min grew up in scholarly and artist environment. His family collected many paintings which inspired Wang to be a great artist. So, after his retirement, Wang actually started to concentrate in art field and painted numerous paintings. He preferred painting inner spirit than capturing a realistic appearance. Also, Wang followed the Tang Dynasty’s representative art style which is Blue-Green Coloring (China Online Museum).
After enjoying Wang Wei’s painting, I think the original Snow over Rivers and Mountains should be more respected and admired because Wang Wei opened new door to later artists and art development. I agree that pursuing and respecting old style to keep traditional is very important. However, innovation always write new chapter in history just like Wang Wei’s new try. Also, this painting is just too beautiful because of perfect description of ‘white’ snow. Through researching and studying many Chinese Landscape painting, I had to see numerous dark mountains and dark clouds on paper. However, this white expression is too intense and unique that it made a deep impression on my mind.

This is Wang Wei’s Snow over Rivers and Mountains which inspired Wang Shi-min to reproduce another masterpiece.
Many later scholars defined Wang Wei as the first person who started to paint based on personal feelings. In his life time, Wei stated that “to paint a mountain, one must first know its spiritual form” (Snow over Rivers and Mountains).

This painting is called Snow over Rivers and Mountains by Wang Shi-min. Grew up from artistic environment, Wang Shi-min had a chance to see Wang Wei’s art work called ‘Snow over Rivers and Mountains.’ Inspired by Wang Wei’s art piece, Wang Shi-min recreated this painting with elegant and harmonious style. During the Qing Dynasty, some artists used to imitate ancient style with their own spirit and this is one of the paintings. This painting describes a sense of energy because those mountains are leaning to same side. Also, this painting has very sophisticated lines instead of rough brushworks. Overall, it has warm feeling, but Wang Shi-min effectively described the existence of snow (painting).

Wang Shi-Min. Snow over Rivers and Mountain.1668. Ink and color on paper. National Palace Museum. Taipei.

Snow over Rivers and Mountains by Wang Shi-min looks more dynamic and lively if Wang Wei’s piece seems calm, quite and relaxed. I think Wang Shi-min effectively dedicated his work and showed off his ability based on different choice of coloring. I like how Wang Shi-min painted more trees compare to original works because I feel reality as an admiring position. Also, overall shape of the mountain is more round and clear. I can say there are many mountains in the original work, but there is one huge and solid mountain in dedicated piece. So, I am very impressed how Wang Shi-min recreated the work with his own style and description. Also, from the solid mountain, I can feel energy even though it is covered with cold snow. The mountain as a whole in Wang Shi-min’s work looks very powerful to me.


“Autumn Colors on the Que and Hua Mountains,” China Online Museum, <> [Access date: 20 November 2013]
Bush, Susan. The Chinese literati on painting: Su Shih (1037-1101) to Tung Ch'i-ch'ang (1555-1636). Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1998. Harvard-Yenching institue Studies ⅩⅩⅤⅡ
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China Online Museum, “Wang Shimin-Painting,” <> [Access date: 22 November 19, 2013]
"Chinese painting." Encyclopaedia Britannica. Encyclopaedia Britannica Online Academic Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2013. Web. 20 Nov. 2013.
Department of Asian Art, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Hilburunn Timeline of Art History,<> [Access date: 19 November 19, 2013]
Department of Asian Art, . N.p.. Web. 20 Nov 2013. <> [Access date: 20 November 2013]
Harris, Rober E, “The natural world: Early Spring,” Annenberg Learner (2013), <> [Access date: 19 November 19, 2013]
Hough, Joshua, “Sung Dynasty (960-1179)”,
<> [Access date: 19 November 19, 2013]
International Cultural Corporation for Australia Limited. Chinese Paintings of the Ming and Qing Dynasties. Victoria: Random, 1981. Print. “Man and Horse,” China Online Museum, <> [20 November 2013]
"Painting." National Palace Museum-Collection Selections After Wang Wei's "Snow Over Rivers and Mountains" N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Nov. 2013.
"Snow Over Rivers and Mountains." Snow Over Rivers and Mountains. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Nov. 2013.
The Famous Artist, “Biography of Guo-Xi”, <> [Access date: 19 November 19, 2013]
“The Simple Retreat,” Cultural China, Calligraphy and Painting, <> [Access date: 21 November 19, 2013]
“Wang Meng- Yuan Dynasty,” <>. [Access date: 21 November 19, 2013] “Yuan Dynasty Landscape Painting,” Traditional Chinese Painting, Art realization, <> [Access date: 20 November 2013]
"Zhao Mengfu." Encyclopaedia Britannica. Encyclopaedia Britannica Online Academic Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2013. Web. 20 Nov. 2013.
"Zhao Mengfu: Four Anecdotes from the Life of Wang Xizhi" (1989.363.30) In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. (September 2010) [Access date: 20 November 2013]

Chinese landscape painting can also be called as “mountain and water/ stream painting” (山水畫)since Chinese people put the most emphasis on mountain and water, for they believe that the way they understand the mountains represents an individuals virtue cultivation as water represents moral. Chinese landscape painting is mostly about praising the nature that they are seeking to exceed another levels of evaluating and they take painting and precious landscape paintings as a way of elevating their cultivation. In another word, people can rarely see the element of western theories in Chinese paintings such as Modern art or Abstractism while the former focus on only reality and the latter only esteem the emotions and put the observed form aside. To sum up, being represented in a relatively spiritual way is one of the main features of Chinese landscape painting and it embodies the practical human viewpoint of nature.

In Chinese history, from “the debate over heaven and man”, “nature unity” to “all in one”, is has been deeply believed that a certain balance is braced between human and nature and that people should be respectful and appreciated. Furthermore, theories like this has been widely praised and illustrated by many poets and philosophers that it became the main aesthetic conception Chinese painters follow. In this essay, I am going to introduce Chinese landscape painting from the angle of the main influences throughout the dynasties, including famous poets and philosophers.

Wei and Jin Dynasty: Xie Lingyun

Xie Lingyun and Tao Yuanming are two influential poets and landscape painters in this period. Xie is one of the earliest artists who brought the view of mountain and stream to the next level and made it wildly loved by the society. As what people say, Xie takes a special position on mountain and stream poetry for that they believe it is Xie’s outstanding works made mountain and stream poetry became one of the majorities. Furthermore, Xie became not only the pioneer but also an important indicator of art and self-cultivation from his masterpieces. People from all fields fell over each other to try to practice Xie’s conception; among it includes landscape painting.

From the way Xie construct his poems we can also have a peek of the future development of Chinese landscape painting. Firstly, when writing poems of a landscape, Xie is used to display a view in panoramic picture. He was described to include massive landscape of sky and ocean to give people the feeling of being free from the society and become the part of the nature. Secondly, he is famous of his shifting technique to bring people into the magnificent sceneries. People can seldom see a fixed point be described on his poems. Instead, it is according to the whole journey that he chose the best views from the best angles at the best moments to write about. As a result, people can experience the whole enjoyable journey with Xie from the poems he wrote and it is exactly why Chinese landscape painters put so much affords on choosing the best angle that includes the whole view from the bottom of the mountain to the sky. Lastly is the symmetric skill that Xie lingyun often use. He loves to put objects like mountain and stream, top and bottom, far and close…etc together to show the whole and the beauty of balance, which can also be commonly found in Chinese landscape painting. Despite the features of Xie’s poems, he himself set no specific rules when composing. In another word, he allows the readers to appreciate the poems and the view form diverse ways, to feel the beauty of nature by heart; the metaphysical relationship between objects and human.

Wei and Jin Dynasty: Tao Yuanming

In ancient China, not everyone can study and take exams for governmental spots. Therefore, “Chinese intellectuals” or “Chinese scholars” (士大夫)is usually called for those elites and they are highly respected by the society. However, during Wei and Jin Dynasty, feudal separatism, tangled warfare and nonstop factions led to social instability that a lot of the elites chose to separate themselves far from the political center in order not to be effected and forced to do things against their will or their moral line; as the famous saying of “come into office if appointed and seclude oneself if not ”. One of the most famous Chinese intelligence that decided to escape and become a hermit will be Tao Yuanming. Ch’ien Mu, one of the most well known historians and philosophers in 20th-century China once spoke of Tao in this way:

“His poems can also affect the upper political society…. During Western Jin Dynasty and the Southern and Northern dynasties, Tao’s poems itself can already compete with all the Further dynasties back to Xia Dynasty and all the way to the Qing Dynasty; becoming the new page of the Chinese cultural history. ”

Knowledgeable yet not subtle like Tao is hard to survive with the ancient Chinese government. It can be said that he has little contribution in terms of the policy but his landscape poetry, attitude of living, his spirit and his personality is the role model of ancient Chinese people; it's the lofty ideals of all the Chinese literates. Therefore with his reputation, his love of nature makes it became even better known and widely studied and learned. The attitude of taking ones personally and cultivation more important than everything, despising wealth and position has deeply influenced the painters and the whole society.
To be more specific, Tao turns all of his perceiving into the nature: mountain, water, trees, and grass. Nature has feelings to Tao. It stands aloof from the society; it’s free from vulgarity, its spiritual, it's the supreme realm of aesthetic ideal.

Tang, Song, Yuan Dynasty and onward: Daoism

Went through the Dynasty Tang to Yuan, Chinese landscape painting is highly influenced by Daoism. According to Lao Tzu Tao Te Ching, “Man models himself on earth, earth on tian, tian on Dao , and Dao on that natural”, we can see the understanding of Dao between Human and nature. A lot of Dao influenced poetries like “In empty mountains not a soul in sight, yet I hear echoes of people talking on site.” Nature is respectful, and it is usually used to represent the philosophic understanding of an individual. Therefore, Chinese landscape painting seldom portrait the real scene; it portraits the person’s state of mind, and his self-cultivation. In the case of Daoism which prays Wu-Wei(non-actions) and Pu (simple and unadorned), Chinese landscape paintings features massive space of “blanks” to accentuate the state of mind.

Furthermore, lots of Daoism priests will demonstrate their believes in landscape painting. Fang Congyi, for example, once went to the Shangqing Temple on Mount Longhu, Jiangxi province and painted one of his famous pieces Cloudy Mountains with Daoist mysticism” gave shape to things that have no shape and returned things that have shape to the shapeless”. In order to demonstrate the weightless and dematerialized, Fang charges the mountains with an expressive liveliness brushwork that defies their physical structure that made the mountains resembles a dragon ascending into the clouds.

In spite of the value Daoism brought to Chinese art, there are indeed some passive influences made by Daoism. For example, the center concept of Dao, Wu Wei and Pu is highly admired by the elites. Therefore when they feel frustrated or when their official careers wasn't going smooth, they would choose to live in seclusion that when a bunch of those kind of elites gathering together they added the sense of aloofness into their paintings that eventually dominant the developing direction of the Chinese landscape paintings. Towards the life attitude they are relatively negative that they give little devotion to the society and they pursue the restoration of Zhou Dynasty. Undoubtedly, arts should include various elements that admiring the ancients can be a part of it. However, arts still require improvements and visions to be brought to the next level and Daoism, in some way, slow this pace down.

Tang, Song, Yuan Dynasty and onward: Buddhism

The first book about painting theory in the six dynasties of a Buddhism believer has this saying, “ learn from the nature exteriorly, and comprehend by one’s own heart interiorly… Landscape embody the truth of life with beautiful visualize”. And another famous Buddhism believer, as well as the pioneer of Chinese Ink landscape painting, poet Wang Wei also has a famous poem that corresponds with the spirit of Chinese landscape painting: “In empty mountains not a soul in sight, yet I hear echoes of people talking on site.” From these sentences we can see that besides Daoism, Buddhism also has some influences on Chinese landscape painting. Furthermore, some scholars believe that the massive Buddhism murals left from Wei, Jin, Northern and Southern dynasties, which have the backgrounds of mountains and forests, take an important place of the development of Chinese landscape painting.

Frankly speaking, Buddhism and Daoism can never be clearly separated since they were both blended in to the ancient Chinese popular culture that influenced Chinese history in all ways and become the source of spiritual support. One of the fare ways to demonstrate their relationships with Chinese landscape painting can be found in a Harvard research:

“The conviction that the landscape possesses a spiritual force or essence (Tao or Ch’i) came fron Daoism. The idea of retreat into the mountains to pursue self-cultivation was present in alchemy and came to fruition in Neo- Taoism. The idea that an image can transmit this essence came from Buddhism.”

Despite that Buddhism isn’t originated from China, its influence to china can never emphasize more. From the imitation of Buddhist spirit or elements, it all leads people to the love and respect to the nature, that make landscape painting became the majority of all the Chinese paintings.


Besides a type of art or skill, I do believe that Chinese landscape painting is more of a illustration of Chinese culture and it represents the ideology and the pursuit of Chinese people. For example, besides Daoism and Buddhism, Confucianism also has the saying to proof that nature is more than just a view, but the tool of measuring ones’ character and cultivation: “The wise find joy in water; the benevolent find joy in mountains.” Furthermore Qian, one of the greatest Chinese literary scholars and writers, has a paragraph to support that art reflects the current society:” When an artist is creating their art works, he or she can never avoid being effected by the social atmosphere”.

To understand deeper of Chinese landscape painting and learn how to admire Chinese arts, I’d like to introduce a theory of appreciating from the famous Shi Tao, one of the four most influential Buddhist monk/painters in the early Qing Dynasty: “From yourself”(知有我). To illustrate, he believe that in order to create a great piece of art, the painter has to reach the state of “from your self” which includes “feel the world from yourself”, “express the feelings from yourself”, and “handle your own painting from yourself”. He believe that the painters should reach the “clear” state of mind, put the technics of painting away and focusing on the inner feeling to the scene in order to create an extraordinary piece. In which we can find the similarity for the belief of Taoism and Buddhism that painting isn’t about the object itself, but the perceiving of an individual; its spiritual.
To conclude, nurtured by common Chinese belief and philosophies including Taoism and Buddhism, we can say that it's the creature of the ancient Chinese culture and atmosphere; especially the common attitude of the elites that have more chances to produce arts. It represents the unique way of Chinese lifestyle, attitude, spiritual pursuit, and value orientation. And it is because of all these bearings that give Chinese landscape paintings an irreplaceable position, and become the leading figure of Asian arts.


Bai Juyi
Read Xie’s poetry. Tang Dynasty.

Chang Hai Ming 1997 Grace under the tree. Jilin Wenshi Chubanshe. pp. 70

Ch’ien Mu
1981 Chinese intelligence in ancient china. (September 1981, Taiwan News)

Confucius The Analects of Confucius. Chapter Shu Er

Confucius The Analects of Confucius. Chapter Yong Ye

Guangzhou University Songtian College, department of art, 2012

Daoism’s Influences toward Chinese Landscape painting. (March, 2012) < > [Access date: 10 November, 2013]

Ho Di Quen,
Talk about the influences of Chinese intelligence to Chinese landscape painting. (August 2011) <> [Access date: 27 November, 2013]

Liu Ming Chung
Exploring the Aesthetics hidden in the Scenery Poems of Xie lingyun. pp. 169.

Maxwell K. Hearn,
How to read Chinese paintings. New York: The Metropolitan museum of Art, 110.

Miranda Shaw,
Buddhist and Taoist influences on Chinese landscape Painting. University of Pennsylvania Press.

Qian Zhongshu, 1985 Chinese poems and Chinese Paintings from A Collection of Seven Essays. Shanghai: 
Shanghai Guji. Shi Tao, Words on Art. Qing Dynasty
Song Shiao Fong,
The influences of Chinese painting by the spreading of Buddhism. Education Department of Shaanxi Province Publication. <> [Access date: 20 November, 2013]

Wang Wei,
Deer Enclosure. Tang dynasty

Preface of painting landscape. Northern and Southern Dynasties

[ 1 ]. Chang Hai Ming “Grace under the tree,” (Jilin Wenshi Chubanshe, Jan 1997), pp. 70
[ 2 ]. Bai Juyi. “Read Xie’s poetry,” Tang Dynasty.
[ 3 ]. Liu Ming Chung, “Exploring the Aesthetics hidden in the Scenery Poems of Xie lingyun,” (2007), pp. 169.
[ 4 ]. Ho Di Quen, “Talk about the influences of Chinese intelligence to Chinese landscape painting”’ (August 2011)
[ 5 ]. Confucius, “The Analects of Confucius,” Chapter Shu Er.
[ 6 ]. Ch’ien Mu, “Chinese intelligence in ancient china,” (September 1981), Taiwan News.
[ 7 ]. Wang Wei, “Deer Enclosure,” Tang dynasty.
[ 8 ]. Maxwell K. Hearn, “How to read Chinese paintings,”(2008), New York: The Metropolitan museum of Art, pp.110.
[ 9 ]. Guangzhou University Songtian College, department of art, “Daoism’s Influences toward Chinese Landscape painting,” (March, 2012).
[ 10 ]. Zongbing, “Preface of painting landscape,” Northern and Southern Dynasties.
[ 11 ]. Song Shiao Fong, ”The influences of Chinese painting by the spreading of Buddhism,” (2012), Education Department of Shaanxi Province Publication.
[ 12 ]. Miranda Shaw, “Buddhist and Taoist influences on Chinese landscape Painting,” University of Pennsylvania Press.
[ 13 ]. Confucius, “The Analects of Confucius,” Chapter Yong Ye.
[ 14 ]. Qian Zhongshu, Chinese poems and Chinese Paintings from “A Collection of Seven Essays,”(1985), Shanghai: 
Shanghai Guji.
[ 15 ]. Shi Tao, “Words on Art,” Qing Dynasty.

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...Hindus  in  South  Asia  and  the  Diaspora:   A  Survey  of  Human  Rights   2011          March  12,  2012                   “All  human  beings  are  born  free  and  equal  in  dignity  and  rights.”   “One  should  never  do  that  to  another  which  one  regards  as  injurious  to   one’s  own  self.    This,  in  brief,  is  the  rule  of  dharma.    Yielding  to  desire  and   acting  differently,  one  becomes  guilty  of  adharma.”   “Thus,  trampling  on  every  privilege  and  everything  in  us  that  works  for   privilege,  let  us  work  for  that  knowledge  which  will  bring  the  feeling  of   sameness  towards  all  mankind.”   Swami  Vivekananda,  “The  Complete  works  of  Swam  Vivekananda,”  Vol  1,  p.  429     Mahabharata  XII:  113,  8     Universal  Declaration  of  Human  Rights,  1948,  Article  1     "All  men  are  brothers;  no  one  is  big,  no  one  is  small.  All  are  equal."   Rig  Veda,  5:60:5     ......

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