Free Essay

Cell to Cell Communication

In: Other Topics

Submitted By kaisheawhite03
Words 369
Pages 2
Kaishea White
Period: 3
01.12.14
IB Biology

Cell To Cell Communication Unicellular and multicellular organisms need to sense their environment in order to survive. Unicellular organisms need to be able to differentiate between poisonous foods and to avoid predators. Cells release chemical messengers to communicate. They communicate either by paracrine signaling or gap junctions. Local signaling in animals is called paracrine signaling. While gap junction is the direct contact between cells. There are principles of cell signaling where the cells convert signals that carry information and then attach to one another. A target cell detects the signal that the cell releases during the communication of the cells. Animals have factors that contribute to their communication that include direct contact, growth factors, or neurotransmitters. The growth factors and neurotransmitters are what secrete the local regulators. Meaning that they separate the local regulators. There are 3 stages of cell signaling; reception, transduction, and response. In the first stage, reception, the target cell senses the signaling molecule in the exterior. During the second stage, transduction, the signal is converted and formed to do a specific function. The final stage, response, is where the specific function is carried out. In reception a signal molecule binds to a receptor protein and that causes it to change shape. The most important stage in the transduction of a signal is the conformational change. These receptors are found in two places, intracellular proteins and cell-surface proteins. Intracellular proteins are found I the plasma membrane of the cytoplasm or nucleus whereas the cell-surface proteins are embedded in the plasma membrane. Intracellular proteins are hydrophobic meaning that they don’t like water. In transduction the there is a signal between the receptors to the target molecule. Transduction has pathways, signal which involve a phosphorylation cascade. But the pathway has multiple steps, there are enzymes called protein kinases that help the proteins move up to another level. In response the cell signaling leads to the regulation of transcription and other things such as cytoplasmic activities. Signaling pathways interfere with protein synthesis. It can turn specific genes on or off. There are 5 different types of signaling. Multicellular organisms have four types whereas unicellular only has one.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Cell Communication

...ways cells communicate with each other. Cells are the smallest functional unit in an organism and they piece together to make the genetic build-up of that organism, as a result some organisms contain millions of cells which must all communicate together to ensure the correct functionality of the organism. This is done by sending and receiving signals from one cell to another. As cells vary in their structure and purpose, they must communicate in different ways, hence appropriate signalling is used to convey information, as a result cell signalling is important to cell biology (Hancock, 2010)1. The aim of cell communication is that the arrival of the signal or signal molecule into the cell should cause the cell to respond. This means that once the signal arrives at the plasma membrane of the cell it must be transported to the correct destination inside of the cell in order for the right action to take place (Hancock, 2010). To do this protein receptors in the plasma membrane of the cell receive the signal, then transmit the signal into the cell where the signal is directed by a cell signalling cascade to a specific destination. The signal then arrives at its destination and a result can then be generated. There are different types of signalling, therefore different factors must be taken into account when a signal is sent. An important factor in determining what signal to use is distance between the signalling cell and the target cell involved. For example, if the cells......

Words: 2154 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Pulse Code Modulation , Pulade Amplitude Modulation

...Topics in Communication Systems R. S. Kshetrimayum A.3 Cellular Concepts Topics: A.3.1 Frequency reuse A.3.2 Cluster and Capacity A.3.3 Reuse distance A.3.4 CCI and system capacity A.3.5 SIR Introduction: The design objective of early mobile radio systems was to achieve a large coverage area using a single, high powered transmitter with an antenna mounted on a tall tower The cellular concept is a system-level idea which calls for replacing a single, high power transmitter (large cell) with many low power transmitter (small cells) each providing a coverage to only a small portion of the service area While it might seem natural to choose a circle to represent the coverage of a BS, adjacent circles cannot be overlaid upon a map without leaving gaps or creating overlapping regions Thus when considering geometric shapes which cover an entire region without overlap and with equal area, there are three sensible choices – a square, an equilateral triangle and a hexagon The actual radio coverage of a cell is known as footprint and is determined from field measurements or propagation prediction models (a) (b) (c) Fig. A.3. 1 (a) Theoretical Coverage (b) Ideal Coverage (c) Real Coverage EC635 Advanced Topics in Communication Systems Why hexagon for theoretical coverage? R. S. Kshetrimayum For a given distance between the center of a polygon and its farthest perimeter points, the hexagon has the largest area of the three Thus by using hexagon geometry, the fewest number of......

Words: 1677 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Sosial

...Computers And Cell Phones On People's Life Computers and cell phones is important in people's life. Computers and cell phones help people to do tasks and jobs fast and successfully. There are three negative effects of lack of computers and cell phones in people 's life which are reducing social communication, losing long time to finish tasks and jobs, and reducing fun. First, one of negative effects of lack of computers and cell phones is reducing reducing social communication between people. Lack of computers and cell phones will weaken communicate between people. Many people computer programs ,which work by internet, to make new friendships with other people .Also, people talk with their friends and relatives by cell phones almost everyday ,so lack of computers and cell phones reduces communication between people. Altogether, reducing social communication between people is one of negative effects of lack of computers and cell phones. Moreover, people without computers and cell phones will lose much time to accomplish small tasks. For example, if people do not have cell phones and want to take an appointment with dentist , they have to go to clinic and take an appointment which will take time .However, by using cell phones people could in a few minutes take call dental clinic and take an appointment. Eventually, if there are no phones and computers, people lose much time to do their jobs. Finally, life of people will be boring without computers and cell phones.......

Words: 353 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Englres

...television were born. Moving forward to the 20th century, ENIAC, the first possible computer was made. (Chatterjee, 2014) From there, the world tried to merge together these technology to serve as a source of information and mode of communication. Cellular phones, by definition of Merriam Webster, is a small, portable telephone that people can take with them and use outside their homes. Presently, cell phones are much more than that. To the point, individuals take them whenever or wherever. Due to the improvement and development of cell phones it has risen to popularity. Similar to everything else, it has its advantages and drawbacks. As cell phones continue to rise into fame and stay constantly into lives of individuals, it also continues to change the way of living, gradually. Comparing technology from two centuries before and technology today, drastic changes can be seen. Changes that includes the of impact cell phones to the society, which consists of both positive and negative sides. Initially cell phones were invented for the purpose of long distance and instant communication. Succeeding to that, cell phones were improved to be able to capture images and produce sounds of different music. Afterwards cell phones improved even more that it allows one to be able to surf the internet. And now an individual is just a touch towards the world or perhaps a touch away from the world. For instance, the reader of...

Words: 2299 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Cell Phones

...that your cell phone is slowly killing you every time you use it? Cell phones are a part of everyday life for many people across the world. To many their cell phone is considered the most important item they own. People use cell phones everyday for simple tasks. One example is going to the grocery store, when a person forgets what they were supposed to get for mom they simply call her and ask. Imagine thirty years ago? People could never do something like that. Society today relies a great deal on cell phones and their features, but do not realize the potential danger they are putting their health in. Many people around the world use cell phones every day but are unaware of the fatal outcomes linked to them. To understand how potentially harmful cell phones are society must consider the many people using them. There are three billion cell phone users worldwide and more than 260 million in the United States alone (Mead 422). It is shocking that so many people around the world and U.S are cell phone users and they all may not know how harmful cell phones can be. It is important to discover how this technology of cell phones was created and developed in order to look into how it is affecting humans. In 1974, in response to growing demand for a communication system that was more convenient than two- way radios, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) allocated a portion of the radio frequency spectrum in the 800 to 900 Megahertz (MHz) band for mobile communications (Barnes......

Words: 1699 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Why Youngsters Become Addicted to Cell Phones

...Why youngsters become addicted to cell phones Name: Xiao Luo Date: Dec 6, 2013 Class: ESLN 412 Have you ever considered before that one day you would probably be addicted to something? Have you ever dreamed before that one day a little “box” called cell phone would change your lifestyle? Unfortunately those facts already happened, and they still influence especially youngsters. Choliz (2012) defined “addiction” as a term “refers to a relationship of dependence and a limitation on personal freedom”. Compared to elder adults, youngsters are not only less likely to resist the temptation, but also more easily to accept new conceptions and technologies. The rate of addiction among youngsters was almost two times higher than among adults (Nam, 2013). Hence, youngsters are considered as the main body of cell phone addiction. Although the consequence of cell phone addiction is not regarded as destructive as drug addiction, it is still of great severity. The symptoms of cell phone addiction are concluded by Choliz (2012) like the inability to control the usage, conflicts between family members, occupation of spare time and a sense of emptiness without cell phones. When dealing with the issue of cell phone addiction, it is ideal to analyze the reason behind the phenomenon. There are four main reasons why youngsters become addicted to cell phones: needs for social contacts, intrinsic attractions of cell phones, psychological factors and environmental......

Words: 1984 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Cell Phones Negatively Impact Society and Social Interactions

...Instructor's Name Course Title 7 July 2015 Cell phones negatively impact society and social interactions The cell phone is a revolutionary technology gadget that has transformed how people communicate in the society. Cell phones have closed the gap of time and place to allow people to communicate at anytime from any place. Contemporary society has become more reliant on technology with the gadget of preference as the cell phone. Cell phones have created the perception of a more social society as people are more connected in modern society than they were three decades ago. The increased number and availability of cell phones have subsequently increased the volume of social interactions as people are able to socialize through multiple cell phone applications. However, the increased numbers of social interactions through cell phones have diminished the quality of interactions in society. Etiquette skills have deteriorated, family members no longer have time for each other, people have become oblivious to their surroundings, and a majority of cell phone owners have become addicts. Therefore, this paper will argue how cell phones have negatively impacted society and social interactions. Cell phones have allowed for the convenience of communication and interactions from any place and at any time. As a result, contemporary society has developed a culture of instant gratification that is fueled by the convenience of the cell phone. People will answer calls,......

Words: 1401 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Cellphone

...Cell phone – The incredible invention The invention of something touch every aspect of our lives nowadays. Such devices changed the way we manage, work, and live. A machine that has done all this and more now exists in nearly every business over the world. This incredible invention is the mobile phone. Nowadays, almost everyone has cell phones. It makes communication faster and easier. You can just dial a person’s number and you are talking to them. You can be anywhere and doing anything and yet you can confirm a meeting to business partner, instruct your secretary to do some paperwork or whisper sweet nothings to your loved ones. Cell phones take the need of physically being with the person to be able to connect to them. But exactly how did these gadgets come about? Like any gadget, cell phones evolved over time, and each stage was very interesting. It keeps up with the ongoing changes and demands of the people who use it. The real story started with radio technology. These were used to communicate and are linked on a central data base. The first official cell phone was used by the Swedish police. This was in 1946. They did it by connecting a handheld phone to the telephone network. It was quite similar to the two way radio. During that decade, cell phones were simply not practical. People can make six phone calls and the battery was already dead. The electronics used in cell phones that we see now were first developed in the 1960s. During this time, the technology...

Words: 880 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Cell Phones

...CELL PHONES AND SOCIALIZATION Shawn Powell Strayer University ABSTRACT Cellular phones have come a long way from the exclusive use for important people. Now, the use of cell phones has gone global. People across the global can be seen using cell phones in many ways that fit their life style. This wireless device is used by both the young and the old. The use is a combination of fashion, work and social outlet. Socialization has linked its existence to the invention of the cell phone. CELL PHONES AND SOCIALIZATION The world as we know it has become technology depended on a hand held device called the cellular phone. Martin Cooper was the person who invented the first handheld cellular device in April, 1973. Ever since, the cellular device now commonly known as a cell phone has taken off to a level no one knew it could reach. Today, cell phones have grown to be a new way of everyday life. Additionally, cell phone usage has fallen into the number one category on the charts in the area of mobile communication and/or social interaction as it has multiple uses such as text messaging and surfing the internet. Cell phone conversations take place in public places causing people to interact whether it is for business or pleasure therefore maintaining the balance of social support (Khattab, 2009). However, questions have also been raised as to whether it is proper behavior depending on where a cell phone is being used (Khattab, 2009). Not only are people highly depended......

Words: 1568 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Biology

... all cells are surrounded by a cell membrane, are called the plasma membrane. Our current understanding of the structure of biological membranes is summarized in the fluid-mosaic model. It describes both the "mosaic" arrangement of proteins embedded throughout the lipid bilayer and also the "fluid" movement of lipids and proteins alike. Structure of membranes Biological membranes are sheet-like structures composed mainly of lipids and proteins. Membrane lipids are organized in a bilayer that is approximately 60 to 100 Angstrom thick. On the other hand, the proteins are scattered throughout the bilayer and perform most of the membrane functions. Where can we find membranes? Eukaryotic cells possesses additional internal membranes that surround organelles such as the nucleus, the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi apparatus, mitochondria, and lysosomes. It keeps a cell intact by holding all the cellular components inside and keeps all the unwanted substances outside the cell. Internal membranes are vital in creating micro-environments containing sequestered enzymes or high concentrations of hydrogen ions. Signalling Membranes respond to external signals, trasmitting them into the cell. Signalling Membranes respond to external signals, trasmitting them into the cell. Cell-to-cell communication Provide contact between cells and mediate direct cell to cell communication. Cell-to-cell communication Provide contact between cells and mediate direct cell to cell......

Words: 320 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

The Problem with Cell Phones in Today's Society

...11 Nov. 2014 Outline Thesis: The usage of cell phones in modern day society has caused quite the problem for citizens in this generation by being a major distraction, causing addictions, and has sadly became the main resource of communication. I. Introduction: What if every cell phone in the world crashed? How would society communicate? How would one know when someone’s birthday is without getting a notification for it? Some people wouldn’t even know when to get up each morning. Thirty years ago, these questions would be easily answered, but it would have taken separate resources to solve each issue. Most tasks nowadays, however, are done by using this single device. The overuse of cell phones in modern day society has caused quite the problem for citizens in this generation by being a major distraction, causing addictions, and, sadly, becoming the main resource of communication. (Tip: 1. Ask a provocative question or disturbing question.) II. One problem with cell phones in today’s society is that they have become major distractions. A. Cell phones are distracting employees in the workplace and leaving them with their jobs halfway done. B. Not only are cell phones a distraction in the workplace, they are also a distraction and disruptive in school districts, causing students attention to be elsewhere. C. In addition to cell phones being distracting, people often like to multi-task by walking or driving while texting. These things case......

Words: 1390 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Mobile

...cherished work of mine. I had heard the potential hazards of cell phones, and after spending an extended amount of time doing the research, the findings negating cell phone safety was irrefutable. I think that since cell phones are such a highly debated topic, it was an awesome subject to tackle, and I hope this paper can help people think twice about cell phone safety. Unseen Dangers: The Reality of Cell Phones The Industrial Revolution marked the beginning of modern technology, creating fruitful moments in history that paved the groundwork for the Information Age. The advancement of computer chip technology allowed us to create the modern day cell phones, revolutionizing the concept of communication. Today our lives depend on these mobile phones, which have advanced into mobile-computers. Despite the beneficial uses and entertaining characteristics of the mobile phone, the devices are highly debated over their potential health risks. As the device becomes pervasive in modern society, it is important to more fully understand the potential health hazards that growing evidence suggests, and to ultimately reevaluate the information that industry funded and tailored studies supply for the public in the United States. Are cell phones the pinnacle of wireless communication, or what if these contemporary devices increase the risk of life-threatening illnesses for billions of people worldwide? The rapid development of communication technology has created extraordinary......

Words: 1943 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

History of the Cell Phone

...during the same period (According to "Number of Cellphones Exceeds U.S. Population: Ctia Trade Group" (2011). Often dismissed in this age of technology is the birth of the cellular phone. Who is accredited with the invention of the cellular phone? Have you ever looked at your cell phone and thought, “HMM I wonder who thought of this?” Hundreds of thousands of people have wondered that very question. Sure several people thought of the idea of being able to walk around with a phone to their ear while they were out shopping, or stranded on the side of the road out of gas, or had a flat tire. There were several companies working on cellular technology at the same time. ”While the technology had been developed, it was not until 1971 that AT&T submitted a request to the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) for cellular service. It took more than 10 years for an approval ("Martin Cooper - History of Cell Phone", 2012).” Dr. Martin Cooper, who is accredited with the invention of the cellular phone, placed the first cellular phone call on April 3, 1973, while he was the general manager of Motorola's Communications Systems Division. It was the incarnation of his vision for personal wireless communications. That first call, placed to Cooper's rival at AT&T's Bell Labs from the streets of New York City,...

Words: 1415 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Optimal Power Allocation and Scheduling for Two-Cell Capacity Maximization

...Optimal Power Allocation and Scheduling for Two-Cell Capacity Maximization ∗ Dept. Anders Gjendemsjø∗, David Gesbert†, Geir E. Øien∗ , and Saad G. Kiani† of Electronics and Telecom., Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim, Norway, Email: {gjendems, oien}@iet.ntnu.no † Mobile Communications Department, Institute Eur´ com, e 06560 Sophia-Antipolis, France, Email: {gesbert, kiani}@eurecom.fr maximize the network capacity for the case of individual link power constraints [8] and a sum power constraint [9]. In [10] it is assumed that each base station, when it transmits, transmits with maximum power Pmax . Which base stations that should be active at each time slot is decided according to a rate maximization objective. However, no proof of optimality is given for the on/off power allocation. In [11] transmit power allocation for a downlink two-user interference channel is studied under a sum transmit power constraint and the assumption of symmetric interference. The derived power allocation depends on the level of interference; when the inference is above a certain threshold the total power is allocated to the best user. For interference less than the threshold, the available power is divided among the two users according to a water-filling principle. However, due to the sum power constraint and symmetry of interference assumption these results are not readily applicable for two-cell power allocation, where it is more reasonable to assume individual power......

Words: 4991 - Pages: 20

Premium Essay

Cell Phone Usage

...CELL PHONE USAGE THESIS STATEMENT: Cell Phone usage while driving has proven over and over again to be the leading cause in traffic accidents. It has also been a key factor in the communication skills in receiving and delivering urgent message before reaching your destination. I. INFLUENCES OF CELL PHONE DRIVING AND COMMUNICATION A. Using cell phone make drivers have less control of vehicle 1. Talking on the phone decreases awareness of road 2. Talking on the phone requires division of attention on the conversation and driving B. The need for communication 1. Delivering of important message 2. Receive urgent phone calls II. BANNING THE USE OF CELL PHONES WOULD DECREASE ACCIDENTS A. Different state laws regarding cell phone/Statistics 1. No talking on the phone unless it is on speaker 2. Have no restriction 3. Cell Phone have made our lives more convenient 4. Reflexes of a person that talk on cell phones while driving B. Safety Suggestion 1. Pull off the road for extended phone calls 2. Tell the person you are talking to on the phone that you are driving 3. Ask passengers accompany to do the talking 4. Keep calls short 5. Only use the phone when you need to CONCLUSION: Even though we offer safety suggestion when using a cell phone while driving, it is not enough to keep the safe cell phone drivers away from the dangerous ones. We as citizen need to be collective voice that lets our government......

Words: 352 - Pages: 2