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Cellphones

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МБОУ СОШ села Шеми Дзун-Хемчикского кожууна РТ.

Доклад на тему: «Развитие физической культуры и спорта в условиях ФГОС»

Шеми 2013г.
Физическая культура - обязательный учебный курс в общеобразовательных учреждениях.
Главная цель развития отечественной системы школьного образования определяется как формирование личности, готовой к активной творческой самореализации в пространстве общечеловеческой культуры. Физическая культура, как любой другой предмет, включенный в Базисный учебный план, так же ориентирована на достижение этой цели. В свою очередь, специфической целью школьного физического воспитания является формирование разносторонне физически развитой личности, способной активно использовать ценности физической культуры для укрепления и длительного сохранения собственного здоровья, оптимизации трудовой деятельности и организации активного отдыха.
Понятийная база и содержание курса основаны на положениях нормативно-правовых актов Российской Федерации, в том числе:
Требований к результатам освоения образовательной программы начального общего образования, представленной в Федеральном государственном стандарте начального общего образования;
Концепции духовно-нравственного развития и воспитания личности гражданина;
Закона « Об образовании»;
Федерального закона « О физической культуре и спорте»;
Стратегии национальной безопасности Российской Федерации до 2020г.;
Примерной программы начального общего образования; приказа Минобрнауки от 30 августа 2010 г. № 889. Ориентируясь на решение задач образования школьников , учебный предмет «Физическая культура» в своем предметном содержании направлен на реализацию принципа вариативности, который лежит в основе планирования учебного материала в соответствии с половозрастными особенностями учащихся, материально-технической оснащенностью учебного процесса, региональными климатическими условиями и видом учебного учреждения.
Перемены, происходящие в современном обществе, требуют ускоренного совершенствования образовательного пространства, определения целей образования, учитывающих государственные, социальные и личностные потребности и интересы. В связи с этим приоритетным направлением становится обеспечение развивающего потенциала новых образовательных стандартов. В истории образования выделены три конкурирующих подхода к разработке стандартов. Наиболее разработанный, традиционный подход может быть назван "ЗУНовским". Он сводит образование к знаниям, умениям и навыкам. Все предшествующие поколения стандартов основаны на ЗУНовском подходе. Второй подход называется компетентностным. Третий - системно-деятельностный подход в образовании.
Системно-деятельностный подход основывается на теоретических положениях концепции Л.С.Выготского, А.Н.Леонтьева, Д.Б.Эльконина, П.Я.Гальперина, раскрывающих основные психологические закономерности процесса обучения и воспитания, структуру образовательной деятельности учащихся с учетом общих закономерностей онтогенетического возрастного развития детей и подростков. Деятельностный подход исходит из положения о том, что психологические способности человека есть результат преобразования внешней предметной деятельности во внутреннюю психическую деятельность путем последовательных преобразований. Таким образом, личностное, социальное, познавательное развитие учащихся определяется характером организации их деятельности, в первую очередь учебной. В деятельностном подходе обосновано положение, согласно которому содержание образования проектирует определенный тип мышления - эмпирический или теоретический. По мнению авторов, именно содержание обучения позволяет "вести за собой" умственное развитие. Системно-деятельностный подход – это переход к построению стандартов нового поколения с ориентацией на итоговые результаты образования как системообразующий компонент конструкции стандартов. Стандарт образования фиксирует не само содержание образования, хотя с ним связано, а результаты образования, результаты деятельности и требования к этим результатам.
В системно - деятельностном подходе категория "деятельности" занимает одно из ключевых мест, а деятельность сама рассматривается как своего рода система. "Любая деятельность, осуществляемая её субъектом, включает в себя цель, средство, сам процесс преобразования и его результат". Согласно современным взглядам, цель деятельности возникает у человека как образ предвидимого результата созидания. Деятельность это всегда целеустремлённая система, система, нацеленная на результат. Результат может быть достигнут только в том случае, если есть обратная связь. При определении результатов необходимо учитывать психолого-возрастные, индивидуальные особенности развития личности ребёнка и присущи этим особенностям формы деятельности. Школа выполняет заказ, сформулированный в стандартах. Стандарты - социальная конвенциональная норма, общественный договор между семьей, обществом и государством:
- семья предъявляет требования к созданию условий для успешности личностной, социальной, профессиональной;
-общество - к безопасности и здоровью, свободе и ответственности, социальной справедливости, благосостоянию;
- государство – к сохранению национального единства, безопасности, развитию человеческого потенциала, конкурентоспособности. В связи с этим задача системы образования состоит не в передаче объёма знаний, а в том, чтобы научить учиться. При этом становление учебной деятельности означает становление духовного развития личности. Школам поставлена основная педагогическая задача:
Чему учить? (Обновление содержания)
Ради чего учить? (Ценности образования)
Как учить? (Обновление средств обучения) Цель физического воспитания в школе: содействовать всестороннему развитию личности посредством формирования физической культуры личности школьника. Решение задач физического воспитания направленно на: * содействие гармоническому физическому развитию, закрепление навыков правильной осанки, развитие устойчивости организма к неблагоприятным условиям внешней среды, воспитание ценностей ориентаций на здоровый образ жизни и привычки соблюдения личной гигиены; * обучение основам базовых видов двигательных действий; * дальнейшее развитие координационных и кондиционных способностей. * формирование основ знаний о личной гигиене, о влиянии занятий физическими упражнениями на основные системы организма, развитие волевых и нравственных качеств; * выработку представлений о физической культуре личности и приемах самоконтроля; * углубление представлений об основных видах спорта, соревнованиях, снарядах и инвентаре, соблюдение правил техники безопасности во время занятий, оказание первой помощи при травмах; * воспитание привычки к самостоятельным занятиям физическими упражнениями, избранными видами спорта в свободное время; * выработку организаторских навыков проведения занятий в качестве командира отделения, капитана команды, судьи; * формирование адекватной оценки собственных физических возможностей; * воспитание инициативности, самостоятельности, взаимопомощи, дисциплинированности, чувства ответственности; * содействие развитию психических процессов и обучение основам психической саморегуляции.
К формам организации занятий по физической культуре в школе относятся разнообразные уроки физической культуры. Для более полной реализации цели и задач по физической культуре в нашей школе уроки физической культуры дополняются внеклассными формами занятий (физкультурно-оздоровительные мероприятия в режиме учебного дня, физкультминутки, подвижные перемены, спортивные кружки т. д.)
Для более качественного освоения предметного содержания уроки физической культуры подразделяются на три типа: с образовательно-познавательной, образовательно-предметной и образовательно-тренировочной направленностью: * уроки образовательно-познавательной направленности знакомят с учебными знаниями, обучают навыкам и умениям по организации и проведению самостоятельных занятий, с использованием ранее разученного учебного материала; * уроки образовательно-предметной направленности используются для формирования обучения практическому материалу разделов гимнастики, легкой атлетики, подвижных игр, лыжной подготовки; * уроки образовательно-тренировочной направленности используются для преимущественного развития физических качеств и решения соответствующих задач на этих уроках, формируют представления о физической подготовке и физических качествах, обучают способам регулирования физической нагрузки, способам контроля ее и влиянии на развитие систем организма. В процессе обучения применяются методы физического воспитания: * словесный метод (объяснение, указания, команда, убеждение); * наглядный метод (демонстрация, наглядные пособия, и т.д.); * метод разучивания нового материала (в целом и по частям); * методы развития двигательных качеств (повторный, равномерный, соревновательный, игровой и т.д.) Используются современные образовательные технологии: * здоровьесберегающие технологии - привитие гигиенических навыков, навыков правильного дыхания, приемов массажа, игр на свежем воздухе в целях закаливания, использование физических упражнений имеющих лечебно-воспитательный эффект, корригирующих и коррекционных упражнений; * личностно-ориентированное и дифференцированное обучение - применение тестов и заданий с учетом уровня физической подготовленности и группы здоровья. * информационно-коммуникационные технологии - показ презентаций для улучшения мотивации к занятиям физическими упражнениями и в приобретении знаний основ физической культуры, создание спортивных сайтов, сайта учителя физической культуры, занятия научно- исследовательской работой; Важной особенностью образовательного процесса физического воспитания является оценивание учащихся. Оценивание учащихся предусмотрено как по окончанию изучения раздела, так и по мере текущего освоения умений и навыков. В начале и конце учебного года учащиеся сдают шесть зачетных упражнений (тесты) для определения уровня физического развития и физических способностей. Тесты принимаются в виде зачетов по плану на уроках легкой атлетики (сентябрь,май). Кроме зачетов по уровню физического развития, в каждой четверти принимаются контрольные упражнения по пройденным разделам программы. Контрольные испытания. Сдача контрольных нормативов по общей, специальной физической и технической подготовленности. Физическое развитие и физическая подготовленность по волейболу № п/п | Содержание требований (вид испытаний) | девочки | мальчики | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. | Бег 30 м с высокого старта (с)Бег 30 м (6х5) (с)Прыжок в длину с места (см)Прыжок вверх, отталкиваясь двумя ногами с разбега (см)Метание набивного мяча массой 1 кг из-за головы двумя руками:сидя (м) в прыжке с места (м) | 5,011,9150355,07,5 | 4,911,2170456,09,5 | Контрольные тесты (требования к учащимся) по баскетболу

Литература: Айропетянц Л.Р., Гадик М.А. Спортивные игры. — Ташкент. 2005. Баскетбол: Учебник для вузов физической культуры. Под.ред. Ю.М. Портнова. — М., Ф и С, 2004. Белов С. Броски по кольцу. Физкультура в школе. 2000. Гомельский А.Я. Секреты мастера. 1000 баскетбольных упражнений. — М., "ФАИР"/ 1997. Каинов А.Н. Организация работы спортивных секций в школе.-Волгоград, 2011. Матвеев Л.П. Теория и методика физической культуры. — М., Ф и с. 2001. Шмелева О.А. Организация образовательного процесса по предмету « Физическая культура» в условиях реализации ФГОС нового поколения» статья, 09.12.2012.

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