Cerebral Lateralization and Functionality

In: Science

Submitted By quadiralexander
Words 353
Pages 2
Cerebral Lateralization and Functionality
PSY/240



Many studies have been conducted in cerebral lateralization revealing different functionalities of the left and right hemispheres. Cerebral lateralization is the process which the two hemispheres of the brain increasingly specialized in particular tasks. There are four methods of cerebral lateralization to study the functions of the right and left hemisphere of the brain. These methods include the sodium amytal test, the dichotic listing test, and functional brain imaging. The forth method of cerebral lateralization is comparing the effects of unilateral left and right hemisphere brain lesions.
The sodium amytal test is a language lateralization that is given to patients before neurosurgery. During this test the patient is injected with a small amount of sodium amytal into the carotid artery on one side of the neck. The injection anesthetizes the hemisphere on that side for a few minutes, thus allowing the capacities of the other hemisphere to be assessed (Pinel, 2011). The patients are then asked to recite things such as numbers or letters to see if they still have the ability to speak.
The dichotic listening test is a noninvasive test. This test can also be given to health people. In the standard dichotic listening test, three pairs of spoken numbers are presented through earphones; the numbers of each pair are presented simultaneously, one to each ear (Pinel, 2011). Then the individual is asked to repeat the numbers that they heard.
In functional brain imaging, an individual reads or performs some kind of activity and the brain is examined by positron emission tomography or functional magnetic resonance imaging.
The fourth method of studying cerebral lateralization of functioning is comparing the effects of unilateral left and right hemisphere brain lesions. This method studies where the lesions are…...

Similar Documents

Family Functionality

... person's brain causes loss of memory, and an injury occasioned to another part destroys the faculty of reflection and brings about unconsciousness. Similarly a convulsion of the brain muscle or a swelling or a hemorrhage or morbidity may be causing obstructions lead to insensibility, epilepsy, or cerebral apoplexy. Thus our experience teaches us definitely that the soul, divorced from the body, is utterly useless. It is entirely vain to imagine that our soul without its body can enjoy any kind of bliss. We might entertain such a fancy but reason lends it no support. We cannot conceive that our soul which is rendered helpless by minor upsets of the body could continue in a perfect condition when its relationship with the body comes to an end altogether. Does not our daily experience teach us that the health of the body is essential for the health of the soul? When one of us reaches extreme old age his soul also falls into dotage. Its store of knowledge is stolen by old age as is said by God, the Glorious. Another matter that must be kept in mind is that in His word God has described as dead those people who are involved in vice and error and has declared the virtuous as alive. The reason for this is that the function of the lives of those who die in a state of neglect of God, for instance, eating and drinking and indulgence of their passions are cut off, and they have no share of spiritual sustenance. They are truly dead and will be revived only for punishment. After Barzukh......

Words: 604 - Pages: 3

The Componence and Functionality of Attracted Resources of a Bank

...Theme4. THE COMPONENCE AND FUNCTIONALITY OF ATTRACTED RESOURCES OF A BANK 1. The structure of attracted resources, and their importance for the conducting banking activities; 2. The characteristics and typology of a bank deposit; 3. Non-deposit bank resources: types and means of attracting; 4. Banking resources acquired through the issuance of securities: bank certificates, bills (drafts), long-term bonds; 5. Banking resources acquired on the interbank market; -1- The structure of attracted resources, and their importance for the conducting banking activities; In the world of banking practice, the attracted resources of a bank can be: 1) Deposit - are formed on the initiative of clients who come to deposit money in the banks, 2) Non-deposit: - Resources arising from the issue of equity (bank certificates, bills of exchange, and bond); - Resources purchased from other banks (centralized bank credit (from National Bank) and decentralized (from other commercial banks)); In the total amount of banking resources attracted resources occupy the dominant position. Their share of different banks varies between 85 - 90%. -2- The characteristics and typology of a bank deposit; Deposit – the amount of money placed into a banking institution for safekeeping, through depositing money in a bank account. Deposits are classified according to: * Depositor’s category: 1. Individuals; 2. Legal entities; * The terms of the contract, which...

Words: 1101 - Pages: 5

Cerebral Lateralization and Functionality

...Cerebral Lateralization and Functionality PSY/240 Many studies have been conducted in cerebral lateralization revealing different functionalities of the left and right hemispheres. Cerebral lateralization is the process which the two hemispheres of the brain increasingly specialized in particular tasks. There are four methods of cerebral lateralization to study the functions of the right and left hemisphere of the brain. These methods include the sodium amytal test, the dichotic listing test, and functional brain imaging. The forth method of cerebral lateralization is comparing the effects of unilateral left and right hemisphere brain lesions. The sodium amytal test is a language lateralization that is given to patients before neurosurgery. During this test the patient is injected with a small amount of sodium amytal into the carotid artery on one side of the neck. The injection anesthetizes the hemisphere on that side for a few minutes, thus allowing the capacities of the other hemisphere to be assessed (Pinel, 2011). The patients are then asked to recite things such as numbers or letters to see if they still have the ability to speak. The dichotic listening test is a noninvasive test. This test can also be given to health people. In the standard dichotic listening test, three pairs of spoken numbers are presented through earphones; the numbers of each pair are presented simultaneously, one to each ear (Pinel, 2011). Then the individual is asked to repeat the...

Words: 353 - Pages: 2

Functionality Paper

...Functionality Paper Angela Ramsey HCS 433 Melinda Joyet July 2, 2012 Functionality Paper What is functionality? According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary, functionality is “the quality or state of being functional.” This definition is usually reserved for computers. What does functionality mean in medical terms? According to The Free Dictionary’s Medical dictionary, function is defined as “the special, normal, or proper physiological activity of an organ or part; to perform such activity.” What happens when someone loses functionality? This paper will address that question. The statement “often a loss of function will begin a so-called downward spiral in the life of an elderly person, affecting his or her independence and quality of life” will also be addressed. (Course materials, syllabus, U o P.) Significance of Loss of Function Young adults do not think twice about walking to the mailbox, reading the newspaper, or fixing a cold drink or hot meal. Many older adults may also take these for granted. However, for some adults aged 65 or older, even standing can be difficult. Some of the difficulty older adults have in performing daily activities can be attributed to “normal” losses of muscle strength and changes people go through as a part of aging. According to Greiner, et al, “loss of activities in daily living refers to the inability to perform a function within the range considered to be normal for independent living.” This can include bathing...

Words: 1221 - Pages: 5

Functionality of Programs

...Functionality of Programs University of Phoenix Java Programming IT/215 Functionality of Programs Consider a Java-based application example with file access and file-processing methods appropriate for e-business. Write a 200- to 300-word response that explains why that functionality is valuable for business. One of the biggest benefits of Java is that it facilitates the viewing of information from just about anywhere there is a computer. As long as that computer is compatible with Java that is. A business is able to view inventory, parts, drawings, employee dispatches, and any imaginable number of other desired items. With Java the ability to quickly add, and remove components makes it an extremely valuable tool for business. Java can allow a user to make changes to the data in the program without being physically onsite. Being able to make changes freely without being tied to the office allows for much more flexible work, and saves time and money. With a global economy, the ability to hire, and allows professionals to work in their home country without having to be tied to the office is a major benefit. It allows for companies to find the most experienced, and qualified individuals no matter where they are in the world. Java is amazing with the visuals that it provides a user. A business can use pictures to show products, zoom, rotate, and pan makes for a better user experience. It enhances the overall functionality of a program as well. It presents a......

Words: 303 - Pages: 2

Functionality of Smartboards

...Functionality of Smart Boards Abstract Smart boards are an up and coming tool that is being used not only in classrooms around the world, but also during business meetings. This device allows the users to interact with the board manually on the board while displaying all actions clearing to the room. This paper will outline the benefits and set-backs of Smart board devices, as well as the creation and technology used to manufacture the Smart board itself. Functionality of Smart Boards A Smart Board is an interactive device that uses a projector to transmit the image from a computer onto the board. The image and content can then manipulated by a finger, a hand, or a stylus; acting as a traditional blackboard used in schools. The board also has the ability to connect to the internet where the user can control what’s on the screen using the computer or the board itself because the screen is touch-sensitive and can therefore control the computer as well. The board is used mainly in classrooms as a learning tool for children to learn from and interact with themselves. Businesses also use the board in meetings to display work-related objectives, collaborate on ideas, and then share the work with others digitally. The Smart Board was established in the United States by Smart Technologies Inc. in 1991, and proves to be the biggest producer of the Smart Board today. There are many benefits of the Smart board that could enrich the lives of children, as well as the way in...

Words: 1087 - Pages: 5

Cerebral Atrophy

...Cerebral Atrophy Blood vessels carry oxygen and nutrients to the brain. When these blood vessels are blocked by a clot strokes occur. Symptoms of cerebral atrophy include dementia, seizures, loss of motor control, and difficulty with speaking, comprehension or reading Diagnosing cerebral atrophy can be achieved by use of a CT scan , MRI scan , PET scan , or a Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Because there is no cure for cerebral atrophy, treating the symptoms become more of the focus. Treatment includes medications, physical therapy and psychological counseling and support. If no treatment occurs then a person may not be able to participate in normal activities, lose their independence or become depressed. Cardiac Hypertrophy When there is increased stress on the heart, hypertrophy of the heart muscle occurs. There are two ventricles of the heart; the right ventricle and the left ventricle. The right ventricle is responsible for pumping blood to the lungs and the left ventricle is responsible for pumping blood to the body. When there is an increase in blood pressure to either the lungs or body, overtime the ventricle thickens, resulting in hypertrophy. Symptoms may include shortness of breath, chest pain, palpitations, dizziness or fainting Doctors use electrodiagrams which records electrical signals as they travel through a patient’s heart. Patterns of these signals are observed for indication of abnormal heart muscle. Echocardiogram and EKGs...

Words: 572 - Pages: 3

Functionality

...(Department header) University of Cambridge Part-time Research Degrees PROGRESS LOG Name of Student: Course: Course dates: Name of Supervisor: Name of Adviser (if any): Name of Local Co-ordinator: Your Progress Log is for you and your supervisor to complete over the period of your course to show that all requirements have been met. The Log will record attendance at supervisions, skills training etc. It will also be a vehicle for Personal Development Planning*. This document belongs to you and you must keep it up to date, but it will routinely be seen by your supervisor. Please add pages to the Log as required. At the end of each twelve months, you will have a formal meeting with your supervisor and a joint report of your progress will be entered in the Log. The Local Co-ordinator will also ask to see the Log at this time to check that attendance requirements have been met. The Progress Log should also be an up to date record of your training needs and requirements as a Graduate Student. It will help you to plan your own training (Section 2) and to record the outcomes (Sections 3 and 4). The information accumulated will prove helpful when you come to rewriting your CV and applying for jobs, and will form part of your own Personal Development Plan*. *A Personal Development Plan is “a means by which students can monitor, build and reflect upon their personal development” (National Committee of Inquiry in Higher Education...

Words: 1225 - Pages: 5

Children with Cerebral Palsy

...Various Treatments for Children with Cerebral Palsy Grand Canyon University: NRS-433V Introduction to Nursing Research Dr. Diana Naser Various Treatments for Children with Cerebral Palsy First Quantitative Study Honkavaara, M., Rintala, P., (2010), The influence of short term, intensive hippotherapy on gait in children with cerebral palsy. European Journal of Adapted Physical Activity, 3(2), 29- 36. Retrieved from: http://eds.b.ebscohost.com/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=a73e5036- 0d8e-4cc4-97c5-ec0c3cbd1e4a%40sessionmgr115&vid=32&hid=104 Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of short term hippotherapy on functional gait changes in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Participants were two boys (ages 12 and 13) with spastic diplegia and a girl (14 yrs) with athetoid CP. Single-subject (ABA) design was used to determine quantitative changes in functional gait parameters (velocity, stride length, and cadence) following three weeks of hippotherapy. The two boys demonstrated improvement in stride length and gait velocity without sustained improvement in cadence. There was increase in stride length and cadence, but most noticeable improvements in velocity for the girl. The results indicated that it is possible that short-term hippotherapy may improve functional gait in children with cerebral palsy Second Quantitative Study Galli, M., Cimolin, V., Valente, E., Crivellini, M., Ialongo, T., Albertini, G. (2006). Computerized gait...

Words: 1557 - Pages: 7

It 220 Week 2 Exercise Email Functionality and Use

...This document comprises IT 220 Week 2 Exercise Email Functionality and Use Deadline: ( ), Computer Science - General Computer Science Group Project: MiniQuest Database Objective | Overview | Case Project Overview | Needed Reports | Sample Data | Some Known Assumptions | What Your Team will be Required to Do | Task 1 (Due at the end of Week 3) | Task 2 (Due at the end of Week 4) | Task 3 (Due at the end of Week 5) | Task 4 (Due at the end of Week 6) | Task 5 (Due at the end of Week 7) | Submission of Tasks | Team Member Responsibilities | Assessment | Grading Rubrics Objective The project for CIS336 is designed to touch all aspects of the fundamental concepts of database design and logical data modeling covered during the class. The project is team centered and each team will be responsible for designing, developing, and demonstrating the functionality of a database created based on a defined set of business specifications. At the end of the session, each project team will submit the database designed by the team and demonstrate the database's ability to deliver the required information as outlined in the project specifications. All aspects of the project will be covered first during the week or weeks prior to a deliverable, and each task deliverable in the project will be supported through the exercises and labs done in the course. Overview The first thing you need...

Words: 383 - Pages: 2

Local Cerebral Glucose Utilisation in Chronic Alcoholics: a Positron Tomographic Study

...Downloaded from http://jnnp.bmj.com/ on November 18, 2015 - Published by group.bmj.com Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 1986;49:1165-1170 Local cerebral glucose utilisation in chronic alcoholics: a positron tomographic study YVES SAMSON,* JEAN-CLAUDE BARON,*t ANDRE FELINE,: JACQUES BORIES,§ CHRISTIAN CROUZEL* From Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot CEA, Departement de Biologie (Orsay),* Clinique des Maladies du Systeme Nerveux, La Salp&triere,t Service de Psychiatrie, H6pital Kremlin Bicetre,t Service de Neuroradiologie, La Salpetriere,§ Paris, France SUMMARY Using positron tomography, a study of regional cerebral glucose utilisation was performed prospectively in a highly selected group of six neurologically unaffected primary chronic alcoholics. In this group, neuropsychological, behavioural and CT scan anomalies were comparable with those previously reported in more extensive studies. With respect to age-matched control values, cerebral metabolic rate was not significantly modified in the selected cortical, subcortical and cerebellar regions of interest. However, the metabolic regional distribution index, which reflects the distribution pattern of glucose utilisation, was selectively and significantly decreased in the mediofrontal area, pointing to a limbic metabolic dysfunction apparently linked to chronic alcoholism. Even in apparently neurologically unaffected subjects, chronic alcohol abuse may be associated with some degree...

Words: 1788 - Pages: 8

Brain Lateralization and Language

...Brain Lateralization and Language Reflection Paper PSY/340 9/14/15 University of Phoenix The brain is divided into two hemispheres with the corpus callosum connecting them. Each side of the brain is responsible for different functions. Most mental functions are distributed across both hemispheres, but there are explicit processes that are specialized to one hemisphere or the other. For example, both sides of the brain perform functions related to language. But in most people, grammar and vocabulary are localized to the left side of the brain, while understanding the emotional content of language is a function of the right hemisphere. Most of what we know about the organization of language functions in the adult human brain comes from the study of patients with focal brain lesions (DeVilliers, 2015). Damage to the left hemisphere is more likely to cause language disturbances, especially in right handed people (but not exclusively). The two areas of the brain that are best known for language functions are Broca’s area and Wernicke’s area. Researchers are divided as to the exact role these two areas play in language processing and production. Damage to Broca’s area causes problems with language fluency such as using shorter sentences, impaired flow of speech, poor control of rhythm and intonation (prosody), and telegraphic style with missing inflections and function words (DeVilliers, 2015). We often see rapid, yet fluent speech in damage to Wernicke’s area, but...

Words: 511 - Pages: 3

The Walt Disney Concert Hall: Functionality Meets Aesthetics

... built. However, compared to the façade and the exterior shapes and forms of Walt Disney Concert Hall, this building is more representative of an office building. Rendered in Roman bricks of terracotta and brownstone, the exterior of the building represents a harmonious, rigid structure with many linear components and restricted flexibility in those lines. When visitors look up from outside the concert hall, they will be overwhelmed by the sixty stories of the Carnegie Hall Tower, its seemingly endless number of windows, and the overly narrow gaps between each window. Not only are the viewers automatically encouraged to think of most concert halls as this traditional one, but also they are discouraged to use their imagination. This is because they are intimidated by such monumental structure, which limits the inspiration they could potentially get from the music performances. This very limitation of inspiration is characteristic of many traditional concert halls; despite this fact, the concert halls still had excellent functionality in preserving the sounds of the performance. However, as history progressed, cultural changes influenced changes in the nature of art. Performances were no longer defined by the sounds that instruments produced. In addition to the music itself, presentation of the musicians and the environment that submerged the audience became equally important. The Walt Disney Concert Hall was one of the most inventive approaches to design a concert hall that......

Words: 1279 - Pages: 6

Family Functionality and Academic Performance

...OUTPUT #3 Research Design Research Question: The Relationship of Family Functionality and the Academic Performance of Students at the De La Salle Health Sciences Institute, College of Medicine in the First Semester of the School Year 2012-2013 General Objectives: To determine the effect of Family Functionality in the Academic Performance of Students at the De La Salle Health Sciences Institute, College of Medicine in the First Semester of the School Year 2012-2013 Specific Objectives: 1. To determine the proportion of students who has a Functional family and students with a Dysfunctional family based on the Family APGAR scale. 2. To determine the proportion of students with High and Low Academic Performance for the First Semester of the School Year 2012-2013. 3. To compare the proportion of students with a Functional Family APGAR score to High and Low Academic Performance. 4. To compare the proportion of students with Dysfunctional Family APGAR score to High and Low Academic Performance. Research Hypothesis: There is a relationship between family functionality and the academic performance of students of the De La Salle Health Sciences Institute, College of Medicine for the First Semester of the School Year 2012-2013. Conceptual Framework: Dependent Variable Academic Performance Independent Variable Family Functionality Confounders Age Gender Family Income Operational Definition of Variables...

Words: 2637 - Pages: 11

Cerebral Palsy

...Carlos Aguilar Instructor: Mrs. Burt Academic Writing 5 & 6 10/06/2010 Cerebral Palsy Cerebral Palsy Cerebral palsy is a physical disability, and it occurs when a child born. However, the parents do not know about this disability because the child does not show any symptom of cerebral palsy in the first six months. The consequences are great when a child has this disability, but the principal causes are bad medical practice, missing of oxygen during labor and birth trauma during labor and delivery such as the umbilical cord comes into of the neck. Also, cerebral palsy has different types; for instance the most frequent is spastic and mixed types while athetoid and ataxic are less common. These types are common through the world, but there are others types that the people rarely hear about. However, there are treatments for the cerebral palsy. For instance, the most important are oral medication, botox injections, physical rehabilitation, speech rehabilitation, and hands rehabilitation, yet these kinds of treatments might be a help for the child, he or she cannot be a normal person. First, the spastic cerebral palsy is a type very frequent at this time. It is a type where the child has one or more light muscle groups which limit movement. In addition, the child has a hard time moving from one position to another. Moreover, these children may have a hard time holding and letting go of objects. Second, the mixed cerebral palsy, it is a combination of the three kinds of...

Words: 551 - Pages: 3