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Chacma Baboons

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SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR STUDY OF CHACMA BABOONS IN THE CAPE PENINSULA

Catherine Shutte – Student Number 350 795 92

Table of Contents
ABSTRACT: 2
INTRODUCTION: 3
STUDY AREA: 5
METHODS: 6
RESULTS: 8
DISCUSSION: 12
CONCLUSION: 16
REFERENCES: 18
TABLES: 19
APPENDICES: 21

ABSTRACT:

Behavioural activity data was gathered over a thirty hour period on two of the main Papio hamadryas (Chacma Baboon) troops on the Cape Peninsula. The first based on the Blackhill mountain slopes above Da Gama Park and the second on the slopes of the Swartkop Mountain range above Millers Point.

During the visual observations, the troops mostly exhibited “normal” diurnal mammal behaviour, the exception being that of the feeding habits of both troops, both relaying on their human neighbours for nutritional extras and feeding predominantly throughout the day.

The prevailing hot dry weather found in the Cape during the summer increased the resting activity of the baboons and reduced their foraging area. The Smits troop spent most of their day on the side of the main road.

INTRODUCTION:

Watching baboons interact with each other is addictive, their social behaviour within the troop provides a framework of inter-family relationships that cause fighting, playing, power struggles and tender care from a mother to her infant child. Their relationships, bonds and social behaviors resemble ours as humans so closely that perhaps if we spent more time learning about theirs, we could understand our own better.

The main purpose of this paper is to determine how the Papio hamadryas (Chacma Baboon) troops that reside in the far South of the Cape Peninsula have adapted their social behaviour to living in such close proximity to their human neighbours and then compare the two troops to a literature study of the characteristics of a “wild troop” of chacma baboons, to determine if the Cape Peninsula baboons have modified their behaviour in any other way.

Papio hamadryas (Chacma Baboon) is a member of the Order Primates, most primates show signs of the following characteristics, grasping hands with five digits, unique fingerprints, fingernails and toenails, large brains for learned behaviour, forward facing eyes and eye sockets that protect the eyeball.
According to Redmond (2008) primates have seven ages, the infant primate, the juvenile, the adolescent, the new parent, the experienced parent, the grandparent and finally old age.
For the purpose of this study four baboon ages have been specified, the infant, the juvenile, the adult female and the adult male.
Baboons have a complex social system and have the ability to learn from experience due to their large cerebral hemispheres (compared to other mammals) giving them a higher intelligence. They are able to adjust their behaviour according to their memory of their last encounter as well as pass on learned behaviour patterns from wise old grandparents, it is in this way that a baboon culture is formed.

Chacma baboons communicate through vocal communication, by using a series of barks, grunts, clicks and chattering baboons convey a sense of danger, feelings, thoughts and intentions.
Visual communication in baboons plays a large role in displaying gestures that demonstrate emotional behaviors such as fear, dominance, hostility, decreasing tension and reassurance.
Tactile communication is vital within a baboon troop, it is a way of greeting as well as social grooming, where one individual removes parasites from another individual with their hands, this functions not only as a means to stay parasite free but also as a way to form and strengthen social bonds between individuals, creating allies that can be called upon in times of need.

Chacma baboons are omnivores (they feed on both meat and plants) but they feed primarily on fruit, leaves, bulbs, grass and when available small mammals.
According to Hall (1963) Chacma baboons found in the Cape Peninsula feed on roughly 94 different plant species as well as the coastal baboons feeding on shellfish.
In an area where chacma baboons have been feeding, every stone will have been turned over in their search for insects and other tasty invertebrates.
Chacma baboons occupy a wide range of habitats throughout South Africa and are skilled at remembering the position and phonological factors of food and water.
According to Cheyney and Seyfarth (1990) chacma baboons that depend on fruit (which can be difficult to locate) as a dietary requirement, typically have larger brains and larger ranges than leaf foraging chacma baboons.
In the summer months the baboons will need to forage more as the availability of food is scarce as opposed to the winter months in the Cape where the winter rains encourage growth of new bulbs, shrubs and grasses.
In a previous study in the Cape of Good Hope Nature Reserve, De Vore and Hall (1965) found that the baboon’s home range size is related to the number of individuals in the troop. They indicated that in a troop of roughly 20 individuals, the home range would be 9.1km2.
The chacma baboon moves on the ground with ease, they run on all fours or quadrupedally and feed in the squatting position or a sitting position.

STUDY AREA:

The two main study areas that we focused on are in the far south of the Cape Peninsula, the first being Black Hill, where the named “Da Gama Troop” was observed, this site is accessed from the M6 Glencairn Expressway, the site was divided up into 3 points of observation. The first being a grass field at the base of the mountain, the second was on the low slopes of the mountain and the third was three quarters up the mountain under a forest of Pinus pinea (Pine tree) and in a rocky gully (offering a perfect playground for baboons). All three sites were on the south eastern facing slope of Blackhill and each had their own definitive vegetation. The lowest site of observation was a grassy field consisting mostly of kikuyu grass and small fynbos shrubs, the second site consisted of small fynbos shrubs such as the Leucasendron argenteum (Silver tree), Phylica ericoides, Metalasia muricata (Blombos) and Cape Granite rocks and the third site was within a pine tree forest on the edge of a rocky gully leading between the pine trees.
Observation site one was within close proximity to The Else River which flows from Blackhill through the valley to its mouth at Glencairn beach.
The second point of observation was Millers Point, where the named “Smits Troop” were observed, this site is accessed from Millers Point Road, roughly 8km’s from Simonstown in the direction of Cape Point. The site was divided up into 2 points of observation, the first was on the roadside above The Black Marlin Restaurant and the second was on the roadside above Castle Rock. Both sites were on east facing slopes and consist of similar fynbos vegetation, however site two had more of a variety of low lying shrubs and small trees such as Passerina corymbosa and Leucadendron conicum and was situated close to the residential area in Millers Point. Both of the Millers Point observation sites are situated on the Coastline and fall within a marine protected area. These two areas were chosen for the contrast they offer chacma baboon behaviour.

Both areas fall within the Cape Peninsula, which falls within a Mediterranean climatic region and is characterized by cold and wet winters and warm dry summers. This area of the coastline is also prone to hot dry berg winds and strong South Easter winds, which blow with force onto the Cape Peninsula often cooling down hot summer temperatures, throughout the summer.
East and south facing slopes receive more rain and less sunshine than north and west facing slopes. Daytime temperatures in summer average 28˚C, but can exceed 30˚C, in winter the average temperature is 14˚C, rarely dropping below 6˚C.

The Cape Peninsula is comprised of three easily distinguished rock types, the finely textured Malmesbury Shale, Cape Granite which dominates the southern coastline and Table Mountain Sandstone which is found extensively throughout the peninsula.

METHODS:

The recommended method for the purpose of determining the percentage of time that individuals in a group performed an activity is the scan sampling technique.
According to Altmann (1974) scan sampling can be used to obtain data from a large number of group members, if the sampling is done frequently data is obtained on the time distribution of the groups behavioural states. Altmann (1974) goes on to state that such data is almost impossible to obtain by most other sampling techniques.

The scan sampling technique consists of noting the instantaneous activity of each individual within the group at five minute intervals. A predetermined list of activities is focused on and the activity of each individual at the exact time is recorded.
The above mentioned method has successfully been used on yellow gelada monkeys (Chalmers 1968) and children (Cohen 1971).

For the purpose of this paper, five chacma baboon behavioural activity classes were used, they were grooming, foraging, resting, mating and playing. Data collection sheets were drawn up and taken into the field along with binoculars a camera, a pen and a notepad for noting down comments regarding the behaviour of the chacma baboons.
Each troop was monitored for an hour with five minute intervals on the days of observation and the sampling period would only begin once visual contact had been made with the troop. The troop was repeatedly scanned recording each individual’s behaviour in five minute intervals, by doing this the observer will be able to determine the percentage of time that the individuals spend doing each activity.
When the sampling begins each individual troop members activity will be noted, the observer should attempt to scan each troop member for the equivalent amount of time, it is for this reason that behavioural activities that are being recorded should be simply and swiftly distinguishable. This record can also be useful for noting down other information such as the date, the start and end time of each sample session, the habitat, the size of the group and the weather.
For the purpose of this study, observations were carried out in the field for both chacma baboon troops, both troops were visited on the same day for a pre-determined hour long observation period with five minute scanning intervals. Visual observations were carried out easily of the Smits troop as they can be found on the Millers Point Road on most days, however observations were more complex for the Da Gama troop as they spend more time up the Blackhill Mountain. When approaching the troops the observer should do so carefully and slowly so as not to aggravate the troop, observations should only begin once the troop has relaxed and begun to go about their normal activities to minimize variables such as aggressive or threatening behaviour towards the observer.
Once the observation period began, the behaviors were noted on the activity sheet and notes made under the “comments” column if need be. Once the scan was complete the observer waits for five minutes before performing another scan of the individuals. The data that is gathered during the field work was then captured onto the computer and later analysed, this presented the results of both troops behavioural activities as a percentage frequency. To simplify the data analysis, data has been grouped in four roughly 3hr periods and depicted graphically e.g. 06h40 – 09h35, 09h40 – 12h35, 12h40 – 15h35, 15h40 – 19h00.
The data was first compiled as four bar graphs showing the typical activity pattern during each 3hr period of both troops and was then converted to a percentage of time spent performing each activity over the 3hr period, showing the average proportionate amount of each activity.

The variables that were noted for the Da Gama troop was that on Bin Days, Wednesday mornings, the troop would move down off the mountain early in the morning and move through Welcome Glen and Da Gama Park searching through the bins for food, this would affect their normal morning behaviour. Another variable noted for this troop was that monitoring was taking place during the warmer, dryer months so the animals foraged more as food was scarce so there was less time for social grooming and bond forming.
Variables that were noted for the Smits troop was that there was an ever presence of baboon monitors along millers point road, they tended to herd the baboon troop along, moving them through the area quickly, not allowing them to perform their natural behaviors.

RESULTS:

It was noted during early field observations that both troops of chacma baboons perform different activities throughout the day, it was for this reason that a day of observations (roughly 12hrs) would be split into four roughly 3hr periods. This enabled the data to be processed in such a way as to depict the percentage of the average proportionate amount of time spent on each activity.

Da Gama Troop:
Figure 1 shows the percentage of time spent performing each activity during each 3hr time period. It is clear from the below graphs that the Da Gama troop of chacma baboons follow a typical diurnal primate pattern with most of the foraging being performed in the morning and afternoon. The troop however foraged throughout the day, but less time was spent foraging over midday, this was due to the heat as most baboons sought shade. There were smaller foraging peaks over midday. The bulk of the foraging took place just before midday and between 15h30 and 17h45.
Fig. 1. Proportionate percentage of each activity for the Da Gama Troop of Chacma Baboons.

The amount of time the Da Gama troop spent grooming was roughly the same percentage throughout the day, except for a peak during the first 3hr observation period in the early morning. The highest percentage of grooming was done in the morning, with a peak at 8am and thereafter there was a steady flow of social grooming. It seemed that the group had to reduce the amount of time spent on social grooming so as to have more time to forage. This was possibly due to the fact that food is scarce in the summer months and the troop had to move further and look harder for food.
Resting within the Da Gama troop peaked over midday between the hours of 12pm – 14h30 the troop would look for shade and retreat to that area to relax and stay cool. Resting periods seemed to peak after a peak in foraging or playing.
Playing occurred throughout the day, with both juveniles and adults joining in the fun, however a peak in playtime was noted in the early morning period around 08h30. Juveniles were responsible for random peaks of playing throughout the day as most of their days are spent playing.
Mating was sporadic, there were three females that were in estrus (noted by the large perineum that swells up and turns pink) these three females were sought after, the Alpha male had first option and the other higher ranking adult males the second option.

Table 1 depicts the Male to Female to Juvenile percentage of the proportionate amount of each activity carried out throughout the four observation periods.
It is clear from the table which group of individuals is responsible for the higher percentage of each activity.
In the early morning, females carry out the bulk of the foraging activity as well as sharing the resting activity with the males and the juveniles are prolific in both the playing and grooming activities.
In the late morning observation period the juveniles are mostly active by performing most of the playing grooming and foraging activities leaving the most rested baboons to the males.
Over the midday heat the females again resume the largest percentage of grooming and foraging, the juveniles for the bulk of the play and the males continue to rest.
During the late afternoon observation period the troop becomes alive as the temperatures drop and the males and juveniles perform the bulk of the foraging, with the females spending most of their time grooming. The juveniles again are the group that is playing the most and the males again the most rested.

Smits Troop:
Figure 2 shows the percentage of time spent performing each activity during each 3hr time period. It is clear from the below graphs that the Smits troop of chacma baboons follow a typical diurnal primate pattern with most of the foraging being performed in the morning and afternoon. It is also interesting to note that foraging plays the major role in the Smits troop activities, however in comparison to the Da Gama troop, the Smits troop forage less and groom more. The troop foraged for food all day, the only period that the foraging intensity died down was from 12h40 – 14h30. It was noted that the Smits troop did not have to move far to forage as there was a steady flow of tourist cars and houses for them to raid in order to find food.
Fig. 2. Proportionate percentage of each activity for the Smits Troop of Chacma Baboons.

The majority of the troops grooming occurred early in the morning and over the midday heat, there was an early morning peak at 07h45 which lasted until 08h15 and then remained the same for the rest of the day. There seemed to be a trend of a peak in grooming after a peak in foraging within the Smits troop.
Resting played a large part in the Smits troop behaviour, the bulk of their resting time occurred over midday where they relaxed and lay down on the side of the road, some moved off the road and lay in the long grass, but they were still visible from the road. They didn’t seem to mind the heat and only went to lie in the shade if there was some on the mountain side of the road. There were peaks in the troops resting behaviour after a peak in the foraging behaviour and the least amount of resting was done first thing in the morning as the troop was busy foraging and grooming.
The bulk of the troop’s playtime occurred during the early morning observation and in the late afternoon once the temperature had cooled down, there were however sporadic bouts of playtime throughout the day, but they didn’t last long.
There were five females in estrus, but only four of them had the large swollen perineum, the fifth females perineum was red and only slightly swollen. The Alpha male had first choice of who he wanted to mate with, he was only observed twice mating with a female. The other males would start mating with the females and then look to see where the Alpha male was.

Table 2 depicts the Male to Female to Juvenile percentage of the proportionate amount of each activity carried out throughout the four observation periods.
It is clear from the table which group of individuals is responsible for the higher percentage of each activity throughout the day.
Females are the most active during the early morning observation period, they perform the bulk of the grooming as well as the foraging which are the two main activities within this period. The juveniles spend most of their early morning playing.
The late morning activity period is dominated by the foraging activity and the adult males are responsible for this, they are however also the individuals who rest the most.
Juveniles again spend most of their time playing leaving the grooming to the adult females.
The midday period sees the adults of the troop resting, leaving the bulk of the activities to the juveniles of the troop. They are the more active individuals and are responsible for the highest percentage of grooming, foraging and playing, leaving the adult males again to have the highest resting percentage.
The late afternoon period is again dominated by foraging and again the adult males are responsible for this, the females again spend most of their time grooming and the juveniles once again concentrate on playing.

DISCUSSION:

It was the purpose of this paper to determine if there were any differences in behaviour between two chacma baboon troops in the Cape Peninsula and then compare their behaviour to that of a wild troop of baboons to determine how the Cape Peninsula chacma baboons have evolved and adapted their behaviour to benefit from their human neighbours.
In order to achieve this two troops were monitored for a period of fifteen hours each, the data analysed and composed into graphs as seen in the results section of this paper. Information then needed to be gathered regarding the common behaviour of “wild chacma baboons” to be able to quantify our findings.

According to Slater (1986) Hamadryas baboons discover their own place within their troop by exploring new relationships with other individuals through the following activities, infants playing, juveniles exploring, females grooming males, foraging as part of a group and aggressive encounters between males. By carrying out this type of behaviour chacma baboons are learning through experience e.g. if a juvenile baboon tries to play and form a bond with an unknown adult male baboon in the same troop and this adult male baboon grabs the juvenile and twists and pinches its skin as a way of saying “I’m not playing with you”, the juvenile will remember this occurrence of aggressive behaviour and won’t bother the adult male again. This is an example of learned behaviour through experience and this type of behaviour forms the backbone of any chacma baboon troop.
In a troop of wild chacma baboons mutual grooming or social grooming is vital and can have a variety of reasons behind it. First and foremost grooming helps remove ectoparasites from other baboons, a possible life threatening parasite. Social grooming is also used among baboon troops to form social bonds and allies that can be called upon in times of need. However according to Barrett et al (1999) there is new evidence that suggests that female chacma baboons in the Drakensberg use grooming as a form of “currency” within their troop with which to trade, either for itself when there is no competition for food, or for tolerance at feeding sites when there is.
Another form of grooming occurs between a mother and her infant, the purpose of this form of grooming is to encourage independence. The mother will get up and move a short distance away from her infant and then once the infant begins moving towards the mother, she will walk in front of it moving a few steps with the infant. She will then turn around to encourage the small baboon.
Baboons are omnivores, meaning they eat both meat and plant matter, and generally have peaks in their foraging times, the early morning and the early afternoon. Chacma baboons feed mainly on fruit, leaves, seeds, roots, flowers, bark, grass and bulbs. In the drier months when there is little to no water chacma baboons rely on grass and bulbs for the moisture they contain. According to De Vore & Washburn (1963) chacma baboons will dig as much as 350mm below the surface to uproot a bulb. It is normal to find every stone, log and stump turned over in an area that chacma baboons have foraged for food.
Chacma baboons are also known to forge mutualistic relationships with other browsing or grazing mammals. When the chacma baboons are feeding high in the tree tops they dislodge fruits that fall to the ground, thus becoming available to other non tree climbing mammals and in turn, when foraging on the ground together an antelope may become aware of a predator before a chacma baboon and sound the alarm.
Chacma baboons generally rest over the midday heat, lowering their body temperatures and relaxing. This is a time when new relationships may form and tolerance of other individuals can be tested by relaxing in close proximity to each other.
Within the troop hierarchy there is an Alpha Male, a dominant female, dominant younger males and females and lastly the lower members of the troop. The alpha male has first choice to mate with the dominant female and the dominant younger males have preference, over the lower ranked males, of the females. The higher ranked females have more of a chance of being mated with and therefore having babies.
Females become sexually active at about 4 or 5 years of age and begin to show the pink sexual swellings that advertise their receptivity to potential mates. Mills et al (1997) states that females menstruate in 36 day cycles and there is no definite breeding season.
Mating within a baboon troop is sporadic and doesn’t last for very long, the female generally backs into the male, who will then mount her.
Playtime within a troop of chacma baboons is vital to the development of a young chacma baboon’s fine motor skills. The younger individuals of the troop generally play more often than the adult members, however adults can be seen playing with juveniles teaching them certain behaviors that they learn through play. It is an opportunity for the young members to practice and perfect social skills and movement patterns that will prove vital in their adult life, as their playful encounters will play a role in the development of normal adult behaviour. Play could be either running, chasing or climbing and is generally pleasurable for everyone involved. There will generally be an urging from one individual to another to initiate a playful game.

Looking at the two different troops of the Cape Peninsula that this paper is based on, the more rugged Da Gama troop and the more road wise Smits troop, similarities can be seen from looking at Figure 1 and Figure 2. Both troops had a high percentage of foraging in the morning and afternoon, however a difference can be noted between the Da Gama Troop and the Smits troop in that the Da Gama troop spent more time foraging. The reason for this is that as the monitoring study took place in the drier summer months, the troop had to forage more due to the scarcity of food. Whereas the Smits troop relied heavily on the tourist traffic between Simonstown and Cape Point (a busy tourist stretch of road) for their “foraging”. The Smits spent most of their day sitting (resting) on the side of the road begging (foraging) for food. Unfortunately this stretch of road is known for a high baboon presence and although there are numerous signs in place asking the public not to feed the baboons, people still throw food items out of their car windows to get a better picture.
The Smits troop also have access to The Black Marlin Restaurant at the bottom of the grass bank at site 1, the restaurant employs its own baboon monitor, but the foraging males generally pry open windows early in the morning making off with whatever they can find.
The Da Gama troops foraging activities are close to those of “wild” baboons as the troop spends most of its time up the mountain, only moving down on Wednesday mornings as it is bin day. The baboons move through the area tipping over bins and opportunistically trying to break into houses to grab a morsel of food, however they do not relay on human feeding.
It can seen clearly that the Smits troop spends more time grooming than the Da Gama troop, a reason for this is that the Smits troop don’t have to forage as much as the Da Gama troop and therefore have more time to perform social grooming. This could in turn mean that social bonds and relationships are therefore stronger within the Smits troop than the Da Gama troop making them internally stronger. It can be noted that within the Smits troop the adult females are responsible for 75% of the grooming activity within the troop as opposed to the Da Gama troop where females only contribute 50% to the grooming activity.
Within the Smits troop the dominant resting group is that of the adult males, as stated in the results section there was generally a peak in the resting percentage after foraging. The highest percentage of resting in both troops can be seen over the midday period, this is similar to “wild” baboons as per the above information.
Mating in both of the Smits and Da Gama troops was sporadic and no trigger could be determined, there were adult females in both troops that were in estrus. This behaviour falls along the same lines as that of “wild” baboons.
Playing within a chacma baboon’s troop is vital, this was clearly evident from the field observations, both troops engaged in a high percentage of play throughout the day. The Smits troop seemed to play more, the reason for this could be that juvenile baboons are cute to look at and even more cute when they are running around playing games so people have begun to feed them as a reward, as baboons function on learned behaviour, they now play for food.
It was seen on many occasions during the field observations how the form of playing was a teaching tool used by the adult baboons, both as a discipline and a way to prepare them for the many situations that they could face in their adult lives.
Playtime in the Da Gama troop was very different to the Smits troop, the home range of the Da Gama troop was one massive playground for a baboon troop. Site 3 on the mountain, under the pine forest, offered trees to climb, rocky gorges to jump around and climb and stumps to jump over and bounce on.
It was also noted that both troops used a large vocabulary of communicative grunts, barks, clicks and chatters. This is also evident in “wild” chacma baboon behaviour as a way of communicating with other members in the troop and to convey thoughts and feelings.

CONCLUSION:

The chacma baboon troops in the Cape Peninsula have smaller numbers than some of the “wild” baboon troops. The Smits troop for instance consists of 23 Individuals of which 6 are adult males, 11 are adult females, 5 are juveniles and 1 is an infant. The Da Gama troop consists of 25 individuals of which 5 are adult males, 12 are adult females, 6 are juveniles and 2 are infants. These two troops do not have room to grow, with the ever increasing demand for housing in the Cap Peninsula more land is being used up for houses, shops and roads and the chacma baboons habitat is being reduced at an alarming rate. There is nowhere for bachelor troops to go to so adult males don’t leave the troop as there is no more land for them to claim as their own.
As opposed to “wild” baboon troops living in vast areas of land, their troop sizes can number up to 100 Individuals and their home range can be up to 40km2, they don’t feel the ever increasing pressure of baboon / human conflict.

Chacma baboon troop conflict, when two neighboring troops clash, ending in a fight for territory, food, water and possibly females can occur among “wild” baboons. During the field observations of the two troops there wasn’t an occurrence of troop fighting, the main reason for this is that there is another troop that falls between the Smits troop and the Da Gama troop known as the Plateau troop and no observations were made of them at any time.
According to Redmond (2008) chacma baboons feed on small mammals, during the field observations there was no indication of feeding on mammal meat, both troops of chacma baboons fed on leaves, bulbs, roots, bark and other food that was passed to them from the human hand.

There is an endless opportunity for chacma baboon studies to take place in the Cape Peninsula, the threat of habit destruction and chacma baboon invasion to residential areas is a main cause for concern. These chacma baboons have already adapted their behaviour to the point of being able to open a car door, a window or even a house door, there is definitely an opportunity to follow on from this research and perform a follow up study to determine if there have been any further changes within these two troops.

REFERENCES:

ALTMANN, JEANNE. 1973. Observational study of behaviour sampling methods. Allee Laboratory of Animal Behaviour, Chicago. 42 pp

BIRKHEAD, T., DUNBAR, R., EVANS, P., GATTI, ANNE., HELTON, D., JAMESON, C., O’CONNELL S. 1994. Exploring the secrets of nature. The readers digest association limited, London. 432pp

MILLS, G., & HES, L. 1997. The complete book of Southern African mammals. Struik, Cape Town. 356 pp

PERRIN, M.R. 2012. South African Journal of Wildlife Research. Southern African Wildlife Management Association. Available on the Internet at: http://www.sawma.co.za (10 March 2012).

Primata Homepage [online]. 2012. Primata. Available on the Internet at http://www.theprimata.com (08 March 2012).

REDMOND, I. 2008. The Primate Family Tree. Struik, Cape Town. 176 pp
SLATER, J.B. 1986. The Collins Encyclopedia of Animal Behaviour. William Collins Sons & Co Ltd, London. 152 pp

SKINNER, J.D., CHIMIMBA C.T. 2005. The Mammals of the Southern African Subregion. Cambridge University Press, Cape Town. 814 pp

TABLES:

Table 1. Da Gama Troop, depicting Individual group responsibility for the percentage of each activity.
| |Highest % Grooming |Highest % Foraging |Highest % Resting |Highest % Playing |
|06h30-09h25 |Juveniles 20% |Females 67% |Males & Females 13% |Juveniles 20% |
|09h30-12h25 |Juveniles 20% |Juveniles 45% |Males 42% |Juveniles 18% |
|12h30-15h25 |Females 16% |Females 30% |Males 63% |Juveniles 18% |
|15h30-18h00 |Females 19% |Males & Juveniles 61% |Males 27% |Juveniles 22% |

Table 2. Smits Troop, depicting Individual group responsibility for the percentage of each activity.
| |Highest % Grooming |Highest % Foraging |Highest % Resting |Highest % Playing |
|06h40-09h35 |Females 39% |Females 47% |Males & Females 10% |Juveniles 39% |
|09h40-12h35 |Females 27% |Males 50% |Males 30% |Juveniles 22% |
|12h40-15h35 |Juveniles 24% |Juveniles 38% |Males 47% |Juveniles 23% |
|15h40-19h00 |Females 27% |Males 50% |Males 23% |Juveniles 24% |

APPENDICES:

Appendix 1: Example of Sample data sheet for both Smits and Da Gama Troops.
|Date: |31-Mar-12 | |Weather: Sunny 28° | | | |
|GPS: |S 34° 08' 57,8" | |Elevation: 106m | | | |
| |E 018° 24' 23,3" | | | | | |
|Species: |Papio hamadryas | | | | | |
|GPS: |S 34° 13' 47,8" | |Elevation: 31m | | | |
| |E 018° 28' 13,5" | | | | | |

Species: |Papio hamadryas | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Troop: |Time: |Grooming: |Foraging: |Resting: |Mating: |Playing: |Total: |Comments: | |Smits |14h15 |2AF |2AM, 1Juv |2AM, 3AF, 1Juv | |2Juv |13 | | | |14h20 | |2AM, 2AF, 2Juv, 1Inf |1AM, 3AF | |1AM, 2Juv |14 | | | |14h25 |3AF, 2Juv |2AM, 3AF, 3Juv |2AM, 1AF, 1Inf | | |17 |Adult males took 3 older juveniles down towards the Black Marlin restaurant. | | |14h30 |1AF, 1AM, 2Juv |3AM, 4AF, 2Juv, 1Inf |2AF | |1AM, 1Juv |18 | | | |14h35 | |2AM, 3AM, 5AF, 1Inf |3Juv | |2AF, 2Juv |18 |Two adult females were playing, running past each other then freezing making eye contact and staring, then running away. | | |14h40 |1AM, 2AF, 1Juv |4AM, 3AF, 4Juv |2AF, 1Inf | | |18 | | | |14h45 |1AM, 2AF, 3Juv |2AM, 5AF, 2Juv, 1Inf |1AM | | |17 | | | |14h50 |3AF, 1Inf |4AM, 4AF, 5Juv | | | |17 |Alpha male manages to open a car door & ran away with a packet of chips & a scarf. Tourists were out of their car taking pictures of the baboon | | |14h55 |2AF, 1Juv |3AM, 3AF, 2Juv, 1Inf |1AM, 2AF | |1AM, 2Juv |18 | | | |15h00 |2AF, 3Juv |4AM, 5AF, 2Juv, 1Inf |1AM | | |18 | | | |15h05 |1AF, 3Juv |3AM, 5AF |2AM, 1AF | |1AM, 2Juv |18 | | | |15h10 |1AM, 3AF |4AM, 4AF, 3Juv |1AF, 1Inf | |1AM, 1Juv |19 |The adult baboons teaching the juveniles how to open car doors to get into a car, if the car door isn’t looked the baboons can get in every time. | | |15h15 |1AF, 2Juv, 1Inf |5AM, 4AF |3AF, 3Juv | | |19 |Baboons start moving off to the beach | |

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