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Change Management Best

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By mugiman
Words 1822
Pages 8
Change Management Best
Practices for ERP Applications,
An Internal Auditor's
Perspective
Jeffrey T. Hare, CPA CISA CIA
ERP Risk Advisors

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Ask questions throughout the presentation using the chat dialog Questions will be reviewed and answered at the end of the presentation 3

© 2012 ERPRA

Presentation Agenda
Overview:
•Introduction
•GTAG 2: What is it?
•Internal Auditor Expectations
•Common Change Management Challenges
•Wrap Up / Q&A
Note: CPE will be offered for those that answer at least 4 (of the 5) polls presented during the webinar.

4

© 2012 ERPRA

Introductions
Jeffrey T. Hare, CPA CISA CIA:
•Founder of ERP Risk Advisors / Oracle User Best Practices Board
•Written various white papers on Internal Controls and Security
Best Practices in an Oracle Applications environment
•Frequent contributor to OAUG’s Insight magazine
•Experience includes Big 4 audit, 6 years in CFO/Controller roles – both as auditor and auditee
•In Oracle applications space since 1998 – as client and consultant
•Founder of Internal Controls Repository
•Author Oracle E-Business Suite Controls: Application Security
Best Practices
•Contributing author Best Practices in Financial Risk Management
•Published in ISACA’s Control Journal and ACFE’s Fraud Magazine
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© 2012 ERPRA

Poll 1: Will you be needing a CPE
Certificate?
• Yes
• No
• Not Sure

6

© 2012 ERPRA

GTAG 2 – What is it?
•Global Technology Audit Guide: Change and Patch
Management Controls: Critical for Organizational
Success

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© 2012 ERPRA

Poll 2: How would you rate your Change
Management maturity on a scale of 1 to 5 with 1 being not mature and 5 being very mature? • Answer 1 - 5

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© 2012 ERPRA

Change Management Metrics
Metric and Indicators

Guidelines

Number of changes authorized per week, as measured by the change management log of authorized changes.

In general, more changes indicate more change productivity, as long as the change success rate remains high. The trend (up, down or steady) should make sense in the business context.
High-performing organizations can sustain over 1,000 successful changes per week.8

Number of actual changes made per The number of changes actually implemented week, as measured by for the week should not exceed the number of detective controls such as monitoring authorized changes. software. 9

© 2012 ERPRA

Change Management Metrics
Metric and Indicators

Guidelines

Number of unauthorized changes.
These are changes that circumvented the change process.

Lower is better, but typically the only acceptable number of unauthorized change is zero; one rogue change can kill an entire operation or create material risk.

This is measured by taking the number of actual changes made and subtracting the number of authorized changes.
Where detective controls are not present, no reliable measurement of actual changes can be made. In this case, the number of unplanned outages can be used as a substitute measure. 10

Large numbers of unauthorized changes indicate that “the real way to make changes” is to circumvent the change management process. High-performing organizations have a culture of change management and consequently state that they do not tolerate any unauthorized changes.

© 2012 ERPRA

Change Management Metrics
Metric and Indicators

Guidelines

Number of emergency changes
(including patches), determined by counting the number of changes that required an urgent approval during the week using the change review board or emergency change process. Lower is typically better. Many emergency changes indicate that the “real way to make changes” is to use the emergency change process either for convenience or speed.
Emergency changes typically have a higher failure rate and generate unplanned work or rework. An increase in emergency changes may indicate that there are other change management problems causing this increase.
ITPI benchmarking found that when emergency changes comprise more than 10 percent of total changes, the organization is almost certainly a low performer. In particular, two organizations that had catastrophic “front page news” IT failures were typically expediting more than 25 percent of their change requests

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© 2012 ERPRA

Change Management Metrics
Metric and Indicators

Guidelines

Change success rate, defined as successfully implemented changes (those that did not cause an outage, service impairment, or an episode of unplanned work) as a percentage of actual changes made.

Higher is better. When changes are not managed and not adequately tested, change success rates typically are around
70 percent.

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High-performing organizations not only regularly achieve change success rates of 99 percent, but failed changes rarely cause service interruptions or unplanned work.

© 2012 ERPRA

Internal Auditor Expectations
Segregation of Duties – do your policies and procedures clearly spell these out?
• Requestor shall be independent of Approver
• Preparer shall be independent of Requestor,
Tester and Verifier
• Peer Reviewer shall be independent of
Preparer and Implementer
• Implementer shall be independent of
Requestor, Tester and Verifier

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© 2012 ERPRA

Internal Auditor Expectations
There is sufficient detail in the policies and procedures – are these types of changes delineated with enough detail. There are differences by the types of changes:
• Patching – at all levels
• Security – at all levels
• Configurations – at all levels, but particularly at the application level
• Objects / development
For each type of change, the roles are different.

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© 2012 ERPRA

Change Management Role Examples
Configurations

Objects /
SDLC

Security

Patch

Process owner

Process owner

Applications owner Requester

Process owner

Preparer

Business Analyst Development

Security
Administrator

DBAs

Peer
Reviewer

N/A

Development
Peer

N/A

N/A

Approver

Process owner

Process owner

Process owner

All Process
Owners

Tester

Process owner

Process owner

Process owner

All Process
Owners

Implementer

Business Analyst DBAs

Security
Administrator

DBAs

Verifier

Process owner

Process owner

All Process
Owners

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Process owner
© 2012 ERPRA

Poll 3: We currently have these activities in place (multiple answers allowed)
• We have a system-based audit trail using logs or triggers. • We have done a risk assmt re: configs going through
CM
• We have a QA process that looks for unapproved changes. • We have separate procedures for all 4 types of changes. • We have limited access to those authorized to make changes. 16

© 2012 ERPRA

Internal Auditor Expectations
Exceptions to policies and procedures are approved by management and documented accordingly • For example – when can generic accounts be used to apply patches or do other maintenance in the application.
• SYSADMIN should be called out as an exception if being used as is called for in some Oracle patches

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© 2012 ERPRA

Internal Auditor Expectations
Role Design – are your roles designed with this in mind?
• Only those employees that are authorized to make changes have access to make changes – DBAs, developers, Business Analysts, End
Users

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© 2012 ERPRA

Common Change Management Challenges
• Profile Options not being considered
• Changes to security not being considered
• Failure to take into account access to sensitive data in security process changes
• Failure to take into account request groups access in design of security
• Forms-based setups not being considered

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© 2012 ERPRA

Common Change Management Challenges
• Failure to identify and document which configuration are subject to the change management process, based on risk
• Then, failure to restrict access only those that are authorized to make such changes
• Security (Responsibilities, Menus, Functions)
• Configurations related to key controls (Line
Types, Document Types, AME)
• Foundational configurations (DFF, KFF, Objects)
• Configurations subject to fraud (Locations, Remit
To Addresses)
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© 2012 ERPRA

Common Change Management Challenges
Account Generation Processes
Accounting Setup Manager
Applications
Approvals Management (AME)

Forms
Functions
Key Flexfield Setups
Document Sequences

Special Information Types
Extra Information Types
Fast Formulas
Data Access Sets

AutoAccounting Rules (PA)
Bank Statement Mapping
Bank Statement Transaction Codes
All forms that accept SQL statements Concurrent Program Executables

Hold and Release Names
Tolerances
Write Formula
Concurrent Programs (System
Administrator Mode)
Subledger Accounting Setups

Definition Access Sets
Journal Sources
System Parameters (CE)
Maintain Security Profiles / Assign
Security Profiles
Fast Formulas

Book Controls (Assets)
Data Groups
Define Query Objects
Descriptive Flexfield Setups
Dynamic Trigger Maintenance
Forms Configurator
Contexts
Transaction Status
Request Groups
Responsibilities
Profile Options

Task Flow Nodes
Task Flow Definitions
Task Flow Units
Global Organization Hierarchy
Security Profiles
Global Security Profile
Information Types Security
Form Customization
Value Sets
Locations
Accounting Setup Manager

Maintain Elements
Payables Options
Financials Options
Payables System Setup
Lookups
Alerts
Profile Option Values
Menus
Organizations
User Management Roles

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© 2012 ERPRA

Common Change Management Challenges
• Changes made in various forms that allow SQL statements embedded in them are not required to go through change management process – Alerts,
Collection Plans, Deletion Statements, etc
• Excessive access to forms requiring change management • Failure to clearly document who is responsible for implementing change
• Failure to test for unauthorized changes

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© 2012 ERPRA

Common Change Management Challenges
• Failure to properly QA change management process f
• Lack of technology to build before / after value changes so Change Management audits have a population of changes from which to pull
• Failure to remediate issues that cause for unauthorized changes – root cause analysis
• Failure to maintain documentation – SoD matrix, list of customization, changes to process documentation, training documentation

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© 2012 ERPRA

Common Change Management Challenges
• Poor impact analysis leading to a poor testing process because impact of changes not properly evaluated • Relying on Read Me file
• Failure to identify the impact of patches
• Objects
• Data
• Security – Applications / Database
• Configuration
• Failure to re-harden the application after patches are applied
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© 2012 ERPRA

Poll 4: These activities through the forms are subjects to Change Management
(multiple answers allowed)
• All security changes (menus, resps, rqst groups, functions) • All development changes (objects, workflow)
• Configurations related to key controls
• Foundational configurations
• Forms that allow SQL statements embedded in them

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© 2012 ERPRA

Questions and
Answers
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© 2012 ERPRA

Poll 5: Will you be needing a CPE
Certificate?
• Yes
• No

27

© 2012 ERPRA

Resources
• Jeffrey Hare’s book “Oracle E-Business Suite
Controls: Application Security Best Practices” – available at Collaborate bookstore; online

• www.erpra.net

28

© 2012 ERPRA

Oracle Apps Internal Controls Repository
Internal Controls and Security Public Domain Repository
Sample of content:
•White papers
•Sample development specs
•Sample forms personalizations
•Sample policies and procedures
•SQL Training Docs
•Forms that Allow SQL Statements
•List of Generic Application Users

29

© 2012 ERPRA

Best Practices Caveat
Best Practices Caveat
The Best Practices cited in this presentation have not been validated with your external auditors nor has there been any systematic study of industry practices to determine they are ‘in fact’ Best Practices for a representative sample of companies attempting to comply with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 or other corporate governance initiatives mentioned. The Best
Practice examples given here should not substitute for accounting or legal advice for your organization and provide no indemnification from fraud or material misstatements in your financial statements or control deficiencies. 30

© 2012 ERPRA

ERP Risk Advisors
Contact Information:
 Cell for Jeff: 970-324-1450
 E-mail: jhare@erpra.net
 Website: www.erpra.net
 Website: www.oubpb.com
 Skype: jhareaz
 LinkedIn: http://www.linkedin.com/in/jeffreythare
 Twitter: http://twitter.com/jeffreythare
 LI Groups: Oracle GRC, Oracle ERP Auditors

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© 2012 ERPRA

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