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Changes in Londinium City

In: Historical Events

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Introduction Londinium is an ancient city, currently called London, founded by romans in the United Kingdom hundreds of years ago .This city served as an administrative center especially during the advent of the Roman Empire Alongside this, the city has been a tourist attraction site comprising of Heritage sites, palaces, towers, bridges such as the Tower Bridge, Museums, galleries and theatres .The city is also a cultural and recreation center. It has grown over decades, of course with the aid of industrialization and Agrarian Revolution, to the current level of great World class cities(Dennis & Freer, 1986). These changes in various aspects have been seen as discussed below. Transportation in Londinium Development of transport in London has over time developed substantially .Early in 1830s, omnibuses that were drawn by horses were the basic transport vectors. They were later replaced by motor driven omnibuses in 1902 that were regulated by a series of companies which later joined and formed a unified bus service company. It is in the same year that there emerged underground railway runaways which greatly changed the phase of transport for the time. (Inwood, 1998) The railway transport system was regulated by the London passenger transport board. Well-developed underground trails as well as over ground trails currently exist in London with a large and extensive stretch to London’s suburbs. The railway forms a radial network in the city and suburbs to the peripherals.
Fig 1. Courtesy of London Railway Network (The radial network of the railway system)
Cycling has been used since ancient times with about a million people owning bicycles. There is a Bicycle Hire Company which rents about 6,000 bicycles a day. There are taxis, black cabs as well as cars for hire, and passenger buses that serve the city as well as heavy commercial transit systems .Pedi-cabs are used by tourists in most cases. Air transport has also been developed in this city with eight busy operating international airports namely London City, Lydd, Luton airport, Southend, Gatwick, Oxford, Heathrow and Stansted airport.

Fig 2.Courtesy of UK road Maps (Major airports in London)
Population and Migration in Londinium
This city is inhabited by about three hundred ethnic groups with different languages. There exist black Africans, White British, black Caribbean, Arabs, Asian Pakistan, Asian Indian, White, and White Irish among other white groups. Migration into London has increased from 3000 in 1947 inhabitants per year to about 100,000 inhabitants per year. This is due to tourist attraction features that are well spread in the city, Educational facilities such as Institutions of Higher learning, recreation centers and administrative headquarters. The migration involves people from both within and without .Labor people, refugees, those seeking for jobs, new inhabitants, students and family reuniting members form part and parcel of the immigrants. (Maloney, 1982)
Londinium Culture This city remains outstanding among the rest in the world due to its versatile cultures. The city has about 170 museums in which archaeological artefacts such as the Rosetta stone are kept. Numerous festivals tale place in this city per year .These include the Thames Celebrations, Notting Hill Festival among others. Major World Heritage attraction sites such as Palaces, Botanic Gardens and Towers are found in this city. An important cultural aspect is on the numerous ethnic groups with virtually different sub-cultures and speaking different languages. There are music performances and theatre arts done in London’s music halls such as Wilton’s Music Hall.
Geography of Londinium This city occupies 1,579 square kilometers with about 4,550 people per square kilometer. The city is located on River Thames but on the Northern part of Thames. This city is flat but to another vicinity, there are three hills namely, Tower, Corn and Ludgate Hills and is divided to North and southern London. The London suburbs are the main supportive areas of the city on different scales such as farm products and labor. Quantitative analysis shows that the city and suburb size greatly changed with maximum immigration to the city for better service and job seeking. However, the current situation is a contrast since the suburbs are getting much more populated. This is as a result of establishment of Educational facilities to the suburbs, good healthcare and urban congestion (Smith, 1935). A common perception of peaceful life in suburbs has also made people migrate and of course with the good transport and communication networks. The city is also expanding to the suburbs thus the shape is undergoing conformational change due to residential estate establishment and industrial development in the outskirts.
Fig 3. Coutesy of Google maps (the map of london and its suburbs)
The Londinium Government The Londinium government has developed through ages and despite its efficiency, it has never had a written constitution. Rather, a precedent one is used. In 700-1066 AD, the Anglo-Saxon local government was existent which was replaced with the Norman Conquest in 1066 AD. In this period, the feudal system of administration was employed however declined in 1300AD during the late medieval period. Parishes established governance in 1500AD and formed the local government. Well established reforms were employed later to establish the current government. (Wells, 2008)
Trade in Londinium The city sells banking services and electronic trading services, transport services, shareholding firm services and governmental maintenance services. The city has very sophisticated shopping malls and automobile deports and distribution units that serve the entire region of The United Kingdom. The city buys and imports cotton for their textile industries as well as some brands of vehicles from Britain and Ireland. The city sells and distributes domestic appliances, spare parts and other accessories. Medical equipment are also major supplies since the city has pharmaceutical plants such as Ranbaxy Pharmaceuticals. Computers and smartphones are the most current international distributions especially to African and Asian countries with which the trade links are well established.

References
Dennis, P., & Freer, R. (1986). Kinetics and mass transport in silicate and oxide systems. Aedermannsdorf, Switzerland: Trans Tech Publications.
International Migration. (1948). Population Index, 14(2), 97. doi:10.2307/2730524
Inwood, S. (1998). A history of London. London: Macmillan.
Maloney, J. (1982). Londinium: A Descriptive Map and Guide to Roman London. Britannia, 13, 439. doi:10.2307/526528
Smith, R. (1935). Relics of Londinium. The British Museum Quarterly, 9(3), 95. doi:10.2307/4421722
Swanston, A. (2012). The Historical Atlas of the British Isles. Havertown: Pen and Sword.

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