Premium Essay

Changing Identities in Iran

In: Social Issues

Submitted By ChrisP09
Words 2908
Pages 12
An Analysis of the Changing Identities Influencing Iran’s
Development

The multifaceted political and socio-cultural context of the Middle-East often leads to misunderstandings about the nature of its society. In order to be fully aware of the reasoning as to why states in the Middle-East do what they do, an in depth analysis linking both the past and present is necessary. The continuous disorder portrayed in the news has created a negative image of the Middle-East. In the case of Iran, this is especially true. Similarly to many other states in the Middle-East, Iran’s past can be characterized by perpetual ideological conflict, rivaling tribal factions and a difficulty in sustaining a lasting identity. In contrast, however, Iran was among several developing nations to escape direct colonialism.[1] Nevertheless, “economic domination and imperial manipulation describe Europe’s relationship with Iran for much of the century leading up to 1950.”[2] In understanding Iran’s flux of identities throughout the 20th century, several notions must be clarified. Firstly, Iran is not an Arab nation nor have they adopted Arabic language or culture. Secondly, the Shi’a minority in Iran, and their lingering divergence in beliefs compared to that of the Sunnis and the West has always been an issue with respect to their distinctiveness as a nation. That being said, Iran’s inability to sustain a lasting individuality is directly related to the differing identities proposed by Iranian leaders throughout the 20th century. In the following article, I will distinguish between the secularization and modernization proposed by Reza Shah Pahlavi; the period of ambiguity in political identity and subsequent authoritarianism adopted by his son; and the role of the Islamic revolution in revitalizing religious unity. Iran was fortunate enough to...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Iran Revolution

...Women in Revolutionary Iran The Quran, Sura 4, verse 38 states, “Men are the managers of the affairs of women for that God has preferred in bounty one of them over another…and those you fear may be rebellious admonish; banish them to their couches, and beat them”. To develop and understand social change, it is crucial to examine the central structures and organizations within a given society. Through examining family structure, the state, and religion, geared with a specific focus on gender, a basic set of followed societal governing rules and values become apparent. Each of these societal structures are interrelated, working together to permit as well as restrict the agency of women in revolutionary Iranian society. For the development of successful social change to take place, it must arise through gender conflict, class conflict, and political action. Each social structure such as, family structure, state relations, and religion, is located within the larger context of a national structure, meaning the examples previously mentioned are subject to larger regional and global influences and changes. Due to this reasoning, it is important to examine evolving economic development and political change to understand women’s status within Iranian revolutionary societies and furthermore, their changing roles within the traditional family structure, Islam, education, and the work force. Through an analysis of class location, policy restructuring, and changing gender roles, the......

Words: 3506 - Pages: 15

Free Essay

Terror on Social Media Precis

...Kellie Mairin Matack IRLS210 International Relations I Professor Laura Culbertson 25 April 2015 International Relations Theoretical Perspectives of Putin, Obama, and Rouhani Vladimir Putin The current president of the country of Russia, Vladimir Putin predominately exhibits realist tendencies on the international stage. While Putin may be motived by variables that inevitably fall under constructivism and other theories of international relations, he most recently has adopted a realist viewpoint of how his country fits in to the world as an international actor. The definition of the realist theory as described by Wilkinson, explains that the world of international politics is a constant struggle over power, motived by self-interest and primarily maintained through military power that is acquired by commerce and industry wealth (2007, 2). During Putin’s address to the Federal assembly, he exemplifies a realist view in his statement, “Every nation has an inalienable sovereign right to determine its own development path, choose allies and political regimes, create an economy and ensure its security… we will have to protect our legitimate interests unilaterally”(2014). It can be seen that President Putin justifies Russia’s actions on the international stage through purporting that every nation has it’s own interests and has the right to do whatever it takes to ensure those interests are secured. When President Putin was serving as the prime minister in Russia, he......

Words: 1448 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Is Aanteken

...International Security Lecture 1 March 30th, 2015 The politics of security knowledge What is international security? We could start thinking about the security council of the UN But also about the invasion of Afghanistan (chapter 7 UN in order to secure the international security) We can also think about security in terms of the invasion of Iraq in 2003. This was a unilateral act of war, but sure it can also mean other things We can think of the national security agency, the agency in charge of spying all the signals and communications to a certain extent. What’s interesting about the NSA, it is seen as a threat to the security of the privacy. Lately, with the reports of the UN development programme, we start talking about HUMAN security (not military security, but rather the security of individuals, having a livelihood that’s acceptable). Whether security is international or not, it can be a rather confusing word The protection of values we hold dear. We search for it, we pursue it, we achieve it, we deny it to others. * what is to be secured? Is it the security of states? Or individuals? * What is the actual threat that we’re facing? Primarily to be dealing with military threats, or are there other types of threats we are facing. Essentially contested concept A concept that ‘inevitably’ involves endless disputes about their proper uses on the part of their users – Walter Gallie There can be ambiguity (one persons freedom-fighter is the......

Words: 16869 - Pages: 68

Premium Essay

Women and Higher Education in Iran

...Women and Higher Education in Iran Iranian women hold a high regard for education and they believe that obtaining a higher education will lead to financial independence and a higher social status. While the pursuit of a degree may appear to be the driving force behind their choice to attend college, there are other contributing factors. College provides an opportunity for young women to experience a limited form of independence and to intermingle with members of the opposite sex. College is the first public place where women come into contact with members of the opposite sex. “College in one place in Iran’s Islamic society that enables young men and women to interact, albeit surreptitiously.” (Shavarini 341) Relationships between men and women are highly guarded in Iran. Their society is heavily segregated by gender. Men and women who are not related may not have any contact. Young men and women are often stopped in public and asked to show proof that they are related. Those that have broken this rule may be detained, fined, and even punished. Because of this segregation many women feel that it is suffocating them. Girls have few choices after high school they are often forced to marry or go to college. Going to college will delay marriage for young girls by another four years. Attending a college or university allows them to escape their restrictive home environments and gives them a chance to be away from the scrutiny of their family and neighbors. “Young women were......

Words: 1572 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Secularisation

...------------------------------------------------- Religion in a Global Context For secularisation theory, modernisation undermines religion. The importance of science and technology in economic development, and the rational worldview on which they depend, are seen as destroying belief in the supernatural. On the other hand, religion may contribute to development, as Weber argued in the case of the protestant ethic (AO2 – Gordon Marshall and Peter Berger). More recently, sociologists have examined what role religion may play in development in today’s globalising world. Religion and Development Meera Nanda - God and Globalisation in India Globalisation has brought rising prosperity to India’s new middle class. Nanda’s book ‘God and Globalisation’ examines the role of Hinduism, the religion of 85% of the population, in legitimating both the rise of a new Hindu ‘ultra-nationalism’ and the prosperity of the Indian middle class. Hindusim and Consumerism Globalisation has created a huge and prosperous, scientifically educated, urban middle class in India, working in IT, Pharmaceuticals and Biotechnology sectors closely tied into the global economy. According to Inglehart and Norris, these are precisely the people whom secularisation theory predicts will be the first to abandon religion in favour of a Secular View (AO2). Yet as Nanda Observes, a vast majority of this class continue to believe in the supernatural. A survey by the ‘Centre for the Study of developing......

Words: 2375 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Double Faces

...Double Faces A compare/Contrast Essay Ayman Mohammad Writing Studies 101 Ms. Sana Sayed March 12 2014 Double Faces “There is a deep inside each one of us, one ‘belonging’ that matters, our profound truth, in a way, our essence’ (Amin Maalouf, 2012, p. 66). These were some few words explaining what every ones true identities are and how Maalouf strongly believes that each and every one of us must scout deep down inside of ourselves to seek for our true uniqueness and for our pure individualities. This is not an easy task for anyone. Firoozeh Dumas, another author had to face the consequences of her actions when she impersonated dual identities. Although Amin Maalouf and Firoozeh Dumas are similar in having dual identities, they differ becuase Firoozeh moved to America while Amin flew off to France, and because Firoozeh changed her name while Amin kept his. Amin and Firoozeh had to impersonate dual identities in order to fit into their new society. Dumas had to embody another identity for her to be able to meet the requirements of the American society. Trouble was around the corner waiting for her to show up and neither she, nor her family expected that they would ever face problems concerning their names, raise, and origin. For instance, Dumas had to deal with the consisting mockery regarding her awkward name, as the kids in her fifth grade used to call her “Ferocious” instead of Firoozeh. Furthermore, Dumas’s brothers Farshid......

Words: 1013 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Arab-Israeli Relations

...The Arab-Israeli Relations Student’s Name Institutional Affiliation The Arab-Israeli Relations Part 1: The Conflict The Arab-Israeli conflict started way back after the end of the Second World War. Since then, it has become one the most violent regions when viewed in a global scope. The conflict has been characterized by some catastrophic inter-state wars within the region, and it has been a matter of concern for most global powers. The conflict is one of the most profound and prolonged conflicts in the recent times and has been the major cause of wars in the Middle East. Though most people view it as an Arab-Israeli conflict, others see it in two dimensions namely; the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, and the Arab-Israeli conflict. The conflict can be traced back to that time in history when the Zionist movement came up with the idea to build a home for the Israelis in Palestine (Bickerton, 2012). The idea was met with opposition on the part of the Arab population in Palestine. The conflict attracted the neighboring Arab countries who took the Palestinian Arab side. In 1948, the state of Israel was established, and the existing conflict between Arabs in Palestine and the Israeli shifted from the local context to the inter-state level (Bickerton, 2012). Since then, the Israeli relations with the Arab world has taken different directions. The shifting process has been based on new and broken relationships between single Arab states and Israel. It has......

Words: 2169 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Azerbaijan Essay

...is the largest country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Western Asia and Eastern Europe, it is bounded by the Caspian Sea to the east, Russia to the north, Georgia to the northwest, Armenia to the west, and Iran to the south. The exclave of Nakhchivan is bounded by Armenia to the north and east, Iran to the south and west, while having a short borderline with Turkey to the northwest. Azerbaijan has an ancient and historic cultural heritage. The country was among the birthplaces of mankind and is located at the heart of ancient civilizations. Furthermore the country is known to be among the most progressive and secular Islamic societies. Aside from having been the first Muslim country to have operas, theater plays, and a democratic republic, Azerbaijan today is among the Muslim countries where support for secularism and tolerance is the highest. The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, the first democratic and secular republic in the Muslim world, was established in 1918, but was incorporated into the Soviet Union in 1920. Azerbaijan regained independence in 1991. The Constitution of Azerbaijan does not declare an official religion but the majority of people adhere to the Shia branch of Islam, although Muslim identity tends to be based more on culture and ethnicity rather than religion and Azerbaijan remains as one of the most liberal majority-Muslim nations. The pre-Turkic Azerbaijani population spoke an Iranian language called the Old Azeri......

Words: 1556 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

1945-Present

...spirituality   Provides a link to the dreaming and ancestral spirits. Marks key moments in people's lives.   By keeping obligations to the land and people the inextricable link will be kept | Issues for Aboriginal spiritualities in relation to:  | discuss the continuing effect of dispossession on Aboriginal spiritualities in relation to: / separation from the land * Loss of culture - loss of dignity * "Like a tree without it's roots" - "Buckskin"  * Lost law & lore * Lost purposeseparation from kinship groups * Lost identity * Loss of heritage * Loss of parents/ family * Loss of connectionthe Stolen Generations * Unable to connect with kinship groups and land * Not able to have full spirituality * Lost family ties * Unable to connect with country |    Not able to continue teaching spiritualityLost dreaming stories and part of identityLost traditional ways of life  Loss of LanguageLoss of identityLoss of spirituality  Lost identity, LanguageLost purposeUnable to connect with spirituality and ancestor spirits  |...

Words: 704 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

New Era in Turkish Foreign Policy

...THE TURKISH REPUBLIC CAG UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ECONOMIC AND ADMINISTRATIVE SCIENCES THE DEPARTMENT OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS THE NEW ERA IN TURKISH FOREIG POLICY: A MULTI- DIMENSIONAL TURKISH FOREIGN POLICY Erhan KAYA SEMINARY THESIS ADVISER PROF. DR. ALI ENGIN OBA YENICE-MERSIN/2011 Approval of the Graduate School of Economic and Administrative Sciences ________________ Prof. Dr. Ali Engin Oba Adviser I certify that this thesis satisfies all the requirements as a thesis for the degree of Master of Science. ________________ Prof. Dr. Esat Arslan Head of Department This is to certify that we have read this thesis and that in our opinion it is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a thesis for the degree of Master of Science. Examining Committee Members Prof. Dr. Esat Arslan ________________ Prof. Dr. Ali Engin Oba ________________ I hereby declare that all information in this document has been obtained and presented in accordance with academic rules and ethical conduct. I also declare that, as required by these rules and conduct, I have fully cited and referenced all materials and results that are not original to this work. Name, Last Name: Erhan Kaya Signature: I would like to thank......

Words: 8038 - Pages: 33

Premium Essay

Women Before and After the Pahlavi Period in Iran

...and After the Pahlavi Period In Iran Hashem Alshakhas December 11 2013 Table of Contents Section Page Introduction………………………………………………………….……………………..1 Rise of Reza and Muhammad Shah………………………………………….…….1 The first Pahlavi period- Reza Shah…...…………………………………….…….5 Modernization, unveiling and clash with the citizens…………………………5 The second Pahlavi period- Muhammad Shah…………………………..10 After The Islamic Revolution …………………………………………….14 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………..19 References…………………………………………………………………..21 Introduction It has been more than 30 years since the victorious Islamic revolution transpired and sought the citizen supported and the forceful death of the Pahlavi dynasty which was ruled, with a denied democracy, under Mohammed shah and his father, Reza shah who were both put forth by the British. Due to the controversial media’s coverage, its western influence and lack of justice, there remains a bitter taste in the mouth of feminists in regards to women’s rights under the newly born Islamic state. In this paper, I will be examining and shedding light on these issues, as well as comparing the current and past roles of women, the differences between the Islamic and Pahlavi imposed laws on these women all within the confines of the diverse domains of Iran, while taking into......

Words: 5508 - Pages: 23

Premium Essay

The Clash of Civilizations?

...The Clash of Civilizations? by Samuel P. Huntington (SAMUEL P. HUNTINGTON is the Eaton Professor of the Science of Government and Director of the John M. Olin Institute for Strategic Studies at Harvard University. This article is the product of the Olin Institute's project on "The Changing Security Environment and American National Interests”. THE NEXT PATTERN OF CONFLICT WORLD POLITICS IS entering a new phase, and intellectuals have not hesitated to proliferate visions of what it will be -- the end of history, the return of traditional rivalries between nation states, and the decline of the nation state from the conflicting pulls of tribalism and globalism, among others. Each of these visions catches aspects of the emerging reality. Yet they all miss a crucial, indeed a central, aspect of what global politics is likely to be in the coming years. It is my hypothesis that the fundamental source of conflict in this new world will not be primarily ideological or primarily economic. The great divisions among humankind and the dominating source of conflict will be cultural. Nation states will remain the most powerful actors in world affairs, but the principal conflicts of global politics will occur between nations and groups of different civilizations. The clash of civilizations will be the battle lines of the future. Conflict between civilizations will be the latest phase of the evolution of conflict in the modern world. For a century and a half after the emergence of the...

Words: 9742 - Pages: 39

Premium Essay

Significance of Pak-Russia Relations

...bilateral ties. The history of their bilateral relations is simply a tale of misperception and misunderstandings. Both the nations despite having convergence of interests on various bilateral, regional and international issues and immense potentials in cooperation have never availed opportunities. In fact both, Pakistan and Russia had viewed each other through the prism of other states and with wrong perceptions. The changing international environment and internal and regional political dynamics of both the states have now provided another chance their elites to revisit their bilateral relations and lay down a foundation for a prosperous future. SECTION-1 INTRODUCTION Background 1. On 26 December 1991 the world witnessed the collapse of the first and the largest communist country - the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR). This most historic event of the 21st century marked the end of Cold War and emergence of fifteen independent states. Ever since the Soviet flag lowered from Kremlin, the Russian with their tricolour flag are in search of their identity and new role in the world politics. The academia and policymaking machinery of the country has been indicating various...

Words: 6917 - Pages: 28

Free Essay

Lebanon the Israel Hamas Hezbollah Conflict

...Lebanon The Israel Hamas Hezbollah Conflict The United States and the Israel-Hezbollah War Prof. Jeremy Pressman Although American soldiers were not involved in the fighting in Lebanon and Israel this past summer, the United States was nonetheless a central player in the war. U.S. policy was defined by staunch American support for Israel and repeated calls by U.S. officials to use the crisis as a means to get at the root causes of violence in the region. What were the American objectives in this war? Does a preliminary assessment suggest that Washington took steps toward achieving them? How does U.S. policy on the Arab-Israeli conflict look moving forward? American Objectives in the Israel-Hezbollah War Two global foreign policy commitments informed the United States view of the Israel-Hezbollah confrontation this past summer; the war on terror and the democratization of the Middle East. Since September 11, 2001, the American war on terror has been defined to include several different international actors. In his speech of September 20, 2001, President George W. Bush stated that the war would “not end until every terrorist group of global reach has been found, stopped and defeated,” and that “any nation that continues to harbor or support terrorism will be regarded by the United States as a hostile regime.” In addition, he warned, terrorists could not be accommodated but instead must be met by force. This approach has most directly been applied to al-Qaeda and its......

Words: 6445 - Pages: 26

Premium Essay

Beliefs in Society

...New Religious Movements and typologies of NRMs eg world rejecting/accommodating/affirming; millenarian beliefs, with examples of each * New Age movements and spirituality, with examples * The relationship of these organisations to religious and spiritual belief and practice. The relationship between different social groups and religious/spiritual organisations and movements, beliefs and practices * Reasons why people join NRMs, NAMs and other organisations * Gender and religion: women: women’s greater participation, women in religious organisations including NRMs; men’s participation and organisational roles in religions; sexuality and religion; images of gender in religions * Ethnicity and religion: religion and ethnic identity; religion in migrant...

Words: 23270 - Pages: 94