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Chap 1

In: Business and Management

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McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

CHAPTER EIGHT
Influence

Influence in Negotiation
The actual strategies and messages that individuals deploy to bring about desired attitudinal or behavioral change
• People differ widely in their ability to use influence effectively • Persuasion is as much a science as a native ability
• Everyone can improve persuasive skills

8-3

Two Routes to Influence
• Central route
– Occurs consciously and involves integrating the message into the individual’s previously existing cognitive structures (thoughts, frameworks, etc.).

• Peripheral route
– Characterized by subtle cues and context, with less cognitive processing of the message and is thought to occur automatically.

8-4

8-5

The Central Route to Influence:
The Message and Its Delivery
There are three major issues to consider when constructing a message:
• The content of the message
– Facts and topics that should be covered

• The structure of the message
– Arrangement and organization of the topics and facts

• The delivery style
– How the message should be presented
8-6

The Central Route to Influence:
The Message and Its Delivery
• Message Content
– Make the offer attractive to the other party
– Frame the message so the other party will say “yes”
– Make the message normative – by following a course of action he will be acting in accordance with both his values and some higher code of conduct (e.g. “buy American”,
“save a tree”)
– Suggest an “agreement in principle”

8-7

The Central Route to Influence:
The Message and Its Delivery
• Message Structure
– One-sided messages: ignore arguments and opinions that might support the other party’s position
– Two-sided messages: mention and describe the opposing point of view and show how and why it is less desirable
– Message components
• Negotiators can help the other party understand and accept their arguments by breaking them into smaller, more understandable pieces
8-8

The Central Route to Influence:
The Message and Its Delivery
• Message Structure (cont.)
– Repetition
• Enhances the likelihood that the message will be understood – Conclusions
• With people who are very intelligent, or have not yet made up their minds, leave the conclusion open • For people whose ideas are already wellformulated and strong, state the conclusion
8-9

The Central Route to Influence:
The Message and Its Delivery


Persuasive style: how to pitch the message
– Encourage active participation
– Use vivid language and metaphors
– Incite the receiver’s fears
– Violate the receiver’s expectations

8-10

Peripheral Routes to Influence
The receiver attends less to the substance of persuasive arguments and is instead susceptible to more “automatic” influence through subtle cues
• Usually occurs when the target of influence is either unmotivated or unable to attend carefully to the substance contained within a persuasive message 8-11

Aspects of Messages that
Foster Peripheral Influence
• Message order
– Important points should be made early exposing the receiver to the primacy effect

• Format
– Arguments may be more or less effective depending on the channel in use or the presentation format

• Distractions
– When receivers are distracted, they are less able to engage in issue-relevant thinking
8-12

Source Characteristics that
Foster Peripheral Influence
• Source credibility









Qualification and expertise
Reputation for trustworthiness and integrity
Self-presentation
First impressions
Status differences
Intent to persuade
Associates
Persistence and tenacity

8-13

Source Characteristics that
Foster Peripheral Influence
• Source/Personal attractiveness







Friendliness
Ingratiation
Likeability
Helping the other party
Perceived similarity
Emotion

• Authority
– People with authority have more influence than those without authority

8-14

Aspects of Context that
Foster Peripheral Influence
• Reciprocity
– When you receive something from another, you should respond in the future with a favor in return

• Commitment
– Once people have decided something, they can be remarkably persistent in their beliefs

• Social Proof
– People often behave in certain ways because everyone else is doing so
8-15

Aspects of Context that
Foster Peripheral Influence
• Scarcity
– When things are less available, they will have more influence • Use of reward and punishment
– Exchange relies on resources as the power base: “If I do X for you, will you do Y for me?”
– Threat of punishment

8-16

The Role of Receivers—
Targets of Influence
• Understanding the other’s perspective
– Exploring or ignoring the other’s position
– Selectively paraphrase
– Reinforce points you like in the other party’s proposals

• Resisting the other’s influence
– Have a BATNA and know how to use it
– Make a public commitment
– Inoculate yourself against the other party’s arguments

8-17

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...Mr. Weidenboerner Period 7 Purpose: To explore sensors and use them to knock down a box filled with bean bags without going over the edge of a precipice. Hypothesis: I think that designs with a high point of impact and and sensor placed out in front of the robot will have the best results. Group 2 | Trial | Distance from the Egde | 1 | 28 mm | 2 | 32 mm | 3 | 35 mm | 4 | 22 mm | 5 | fail | Average | 32 mm | Competion | Group | Average | 1 | 23 mm | 2 | 32 mm | 3 | fail | 4 | 7 mm | Program Flow: 1. #Include “Main.h” 2. 3. void main (void) 4. { 5. int limitswitch; 6. 7. // 0 is pressed 8. // 1 is not pressed 9. Wait (5000) 10. while (1==1) 11. { 12. limitswitch = Get DigitalInput (1); 13. if (limitswitch==1) 14. { 15. Set Motor (1.0); 16. Set Motor (10.0); 17. Wait (200) 18. } 19. else 20. } 21. Set Motor (1.-40); 22. Set Motor (10.40); 23. } 24. } 25. } Results: Group 1 cam in second place with an average of 23 mm from 5 trials. Group 2 (my group), came in third place with an average of 32 mm from the edge of the table. Group 3 came in last place with one fail and not having completed the rest of the trials yet. Group 4 came in first place with an average of 7 mm from the edge of the table. Conclusion: I think......

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...@; do rep=1 to 3; do s1=1 to 3; do s2=1 to 2; input y @@; output; end;end;end; datalines; 1 1 12 13 14 15 23 22 15 16 17 18 24 15 26 25 18 19 20 21 1 2 23 10 23 20 15 33 26 13 26 23 16 12 18 36 29 16 29 26 1 3 21 15 34 23 16 19 24 18 37 26 17 17 19 22 27 21 40 29 2 1 13 18 23 14 18 21 16 21 26 17 19 20 21 24 19 24 29 20 2 2 16 16 13 25 19 21 19 19 16 28 20 18 22 24 22 22 19 31 2 3 17 24 15 17 19 21 20 27 18 20 20 26 22 24 23 30 21 23 ; proc print; run; /* lets consider A and B are random, and of course rep, samoplings ( s1 and s2 ) all are random */ proc glm; class a b rep s1 s2; model y=a b a*b rep(a*b) s1(rep*a*b); random a b a*b rep(a*b) s1(rep*a*b); run; proc varcomp method=type1; class a b rep s1 s2; model y=a b a*b rep(a*b) s1(rep*a*b); run; output: The SAS System 10:46 Wednesday, November 16, 2011 21 Obs a b rep s1 s2 y 1 1 1 1 1 1 12 2 1 1 1 1 2 13 3 1 1 1 2 1 14 4 1 1 1 2 2 15 5 1 1 1 3 1 23 6 1 1 1 3 2 22 7 1 1 2 1 1 15 8 1 1 2 1 2 ......

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