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Chapter 1 Human Geo Notes

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Chapter 1 - Geography Matters:
* Human geography the study of the spatial organization of human activity and of people’s relationships with their environments * Cartography: the body of practical and theoretical knowledge about making distinctive visual representations of Earth’s surface in the form of maps * Map projection: a systematic rendering on a flat surface of the geographic coordinates of the features found on Earth’s surface * Ethnocentrism: the attitude that a persona’s own race and culture are superior to those of others * Imperialism: the extension of the power of a nation through direct/indirect control of the economic and political life of other territories * Masculinism: the assumption that the world is and should be shaped mainly by men for men * environmental determinism: a doctrine holding that human activities are controlled by the environment * globalization: the increasing interconnectedness of different parts of the world through common processes of economic, environmental political and cultural change * ecumene: the total habitable area of a country. Sine it depends on the prevailing technology, the available ecumene varies over time. Canada’s ecumene is so much less than its total area. * Geodemographic research: investigation using census data and commercial data (i.e. sales data and property records) about populations of small districts to create profiles of those populations for market research * Geographic information systems (GIS): an organized collection of computer hardware, software and geographical data that is designed to capture, store, update, manipulate and display spatially referenced information * Regional geography: the study of ways in which unique combinations of environmental and human factors produce territories with distinctive landscapes and cultural attributes * Region: a larger sized territory that encompasses many places, all or most of which share similar attributes in comparison with the attributes of places elsewhere * Remote sensing: the collection of information about parts of the Earth’s surface by means of aerial photography or satellite imagery designed to record data on visible, infrared and microwave sensor systems * Model: often described as a theory or concept, a model is best thought of as “a simplification of reality” designed to help generalize our understanding of a particular process or set of phenomena. it can take the form of a diagram, equation, or simple verbal statement (such as a law) and may be used as a summary of past and present behaviour or to predict future events * Conformal projections: map projections on which compass bearings are rendered accurately * Equal-area (equivalent) projections: map projections that portray areas on Earth’s surface in their true proportions * Visualization: a computer assisted representation of spatial data, often involving 3D images and innovative perspectives, that reveals spatial * Latitude: the angular distance of a point on the Eath’s surface, measured north or south from the equator, which is 0˚. * Longitude: the angular distance of a point on Earth’s surface, measured east or west from the prime meridian (the line that passes through both poles and through Greenwich, England, and that has the value of 0˚. * Global Positioning system: a system of satellites that orbit Earth on precisely predictable paths, broadcasting highly accurate time and locational information * Site: the physical attributes of a location – its terrain, soil, vegetation and water sources, for example * Situation: the location of a place relative to other places and human activities * Cognitive images (mental maps): psychological representations of locations that are created from people’s individual ideas and impressions of these locations * Cognitive distance: the distance that people perceive to exist in a given situation * Friction of distance: the deterrent or inhibiting effect of distance on human activity * Distance-decay function: the rate at which a particular activity or process diminishes with increasing distance * Utility: the usefulness of a specific place or location to a particular person or group * Topological space: the connections between, or connectivity of, particular points in space * Cognitive space: space defined and measured in terms of the nature and degree of people’s values, feelings, beliefs and perceptions about locations, districts and regions * Place: concept with two levels of meaning: (1) an objective location that has both uniqueness and interdependence with other places; (2) a subjective social and cultural construct – somewhere that has personal meaning for individuals or groups * Place making: any activity, deliberate or unintentional, that enables space to acquire meaning * Accessibility: the opportunity for contact or interaction from a given point or location in relation * Economies of scale: cost of advantages to manufacturers that accrue from high-volume production, since the average cost of production falls with increasing output * Spatial diffusion: the way that things spread through space and over time * Scale: the general concept that there are various scales of analysis (local, regional, national, global), that they are linked, and that processes operating at one scale can have significance at other scales
Why Places Matter * Few people have systematic knowledge of places and geography * Places are dynamic and complex with changing properties and fluid boundaries that are the product of the interplay of a wide variety of environmental and human factors, making geography interesting and shaping people’s lives (different ways of life, culture, behaviour, etc)
The Influence and Meaning of Places * Places are settings for social interaction that ultimately: * Structure the daily routines of people’s economic and social life * Provide both opportunities and constraints in terms of people’s long-term social well being * Provide a context in which every day, commonsense knowledge and experience is gathered * Provide a setting for processes of socialization * Provide an arena for contesting social norms
The Interdependence of Places * Most places are interdependent to other places due to specialization * Due to this interdependence, individual places are tied into wider processes of change that are reflected in broader geographical patterns
The Interdependence of Geographical Scales * Important aspects of the interdependence between geographical scales are provided by the relationships between global and local scales * Canada’s paper and pulp industry: * Global effects: European environmental movement’s protests against clear-cutting BC’s forests adversely affect the local industry by reducing demand for Canadian products
Interdependence as a Two-Way Process * There is a continuous 2-way process in which people create and modify places while being influenced by the settings in which they live and work * Places are created by people responding to the opportunities and constraints presented by their environments
Why Geographwy Matters: * Enables us to understand out world and Canada’s relationship with it * Helps appreciate diversity and variety of world’s people, places, and relationships to one another to help make positive contributions locally, nationally and globally * People appreciate geography through stories, celebrations and traditions * Polynesian star navigation: * Allowed them to travel around the Pacific ocean with knowledge of star navigation * Important to know the relative location of starts that don’t move in the night sky throughout the course of the night * Used stick charts made of ribs of palm leaves (wave pattern) and cowrie shells (island) * Inuit used wind direction, set of snowdrifts, landmarks, vegetation, sea currents, clouds and various astronomical bodies, behaviour of sled dogs and other animals to navigate * snow drifts are the most dependable clue: Uqalurait elevated tongue shaped form found at their windward extremity * Inuit had ability to construct cognitive maps * Ancient Greeks were first to demonstrate in detail the intellectual importance and utility of geographical knowledge * Renaissance: development of new map projections * Geography became closely linked to European commercial and political ambitions * Geography become strongly influenced by enthnocentrism, imperialism, masculinism, and environmental determinism
Geography and Exploration * Portugal’s Prince Henry the Navigator (1394-1460) established a school of navigation and cartography and began to explore Atlantic Ocean and coast of Africa: Age of Discovery * Objective was to circumnavigate Africa to establish a profitable sea route for spices from India * John Cabot: first European known to have reached North America since the Vikings , landig in NFL or Cape Breton, NS * Inspired other countries to go on voyages of discovery for commercial advantage and economic gain * Helped European navigators to develop and invaluable body of knowledge about ocean currents, wind patterns, coastlines, peoples and resources * Crucial to expansion of European political and economic power in the 16th century * Information about geography lead to wealth and power * Competition made regions become more open to interconnects and trade * End of this age was marked by Captain James Cook’s voyages to the Pacific
1.1 – Geography Matters: * ancient Greeks were probably the first to demonstrate intellectual importance and utility o geographic knowledge, particularly in politics, business and trade * 2000 year old device in the Aegan Sea known as the Antikythera Mechanism) was likely to predict solar eclipses * Decline and fall of ancient empires resulted in geographical knowledge being neglected (little use in the Medieval Times) * Instead continued and preserved by Chinese and Islamic scholars * Chinese maps were more accurate than European ones based on the information they brought back by imperial China’s admiral’s who navigated parts of the Pacific and Indian oceans * Islamic faith required at least one pilgrimage to Mecca, creating travel demands * Geographical knowledge was dictated by the Church in the Middle Ages throughout Western Europe * T-O maps: Jerusalem lay at the centre of the world and the rest of the world radiated outward from it (Europe, Africa, China), separated by the Nile and Mediterranean waters * They didn’t seek to challenge the prevailing geographical orthodoxy * Immanuel Kant – all knowledge could be divided into time (chronological) and space (choronological) * Baron Alexander von Humboldt: emphasized the “chain of connection” – mutual interdependence between people, flora, and fauna within their physical setting * Carl Sauer: landscapes should be the focus for the scientific study of geography because they reflect the outcome, over time, of the interdependence of physical and human factors in the creating of distinctive places and regions * Richard Hartshorne: the focus of geography is “areal differentiation” – identification and description of regions * Quantitative Revolution/ New Geography * Focused on “locational/spatial analysis” and adopted use of “scientific” research methods * Using direct measurements of observable phenomena and established methods to verify hypotheses and constrict universal laws and theories – “positivism” * Alfred Weber’s theory of industrial location * Von Thunen’s examination of agricultural location * Christaller’s analysis of settlement size and distribution * Postmodernity: celebrates differences and rejects positvism’s universal or general principles * Re-emphasized traditional concerns with environment and our place in it * more attention to difference and diversity I or use of space and place, study of how gender differences affect ad are affected by our society
Interdependence in a Globalizing World * globalization
Geography in a Globalizing World * new technologies allow for locational flexibility=more functional integration between economic activities, increasingly dispersed so that products, markets, and organizations are both stpread and linked across theglobe * govt cope with consequences via international and political alliances * Humans can alter environment on the global scale * Serious global environmental degredation deforestation, acid rain, desertification, loss of genetic diversity, smog, soil erosion, groundwater decline, pollution of water bodies * Globalization and new mobility of money, labour, products and ideas increases significance of a place * The more universal the diffusion of material culture and lifestyles, the more valuable regional and ethnical diversity becomes * The faster the info highway takes people into cyberspace, the more they feel the need for a subjective setting they can call their own * The greater the reach of transnational corps, the easier they can respond to place-to-pace variations in labour markets and consumer markets and the more radically that economic geography has to be reorganized * The more the integration of transnational govts and institutions, the more sensitive people have to become to localized cleavages of race, ethnicity and religion
Geography in Canada
* Aboriginal peoples: * Maps drawn from memory, on the ground/snow, paper/animal skin to cross Canada’s vast distances for food and to help the first Europeans find their way across Native lands * European explorers: * Explorers trying to find best routes to country and to describe new lands * Paintings and maps * Astrolabe (used to measure latitude) used by Samuel de Champlain to map entire route of Columbia river * Several expeditions to Northwest Passage * Land surveying (country diveided into and settled as farms and townsites and lines of communications were open up) * Settlers began to have their own key interest in knowing more about resource potential and economic future of their farm, province and country, which prompted gov’t action
1870s – 1930s: An immense task * Knowledge of geography were in the hands of federal government, individual writers, artists and interested citizens * 1892: federal gov’t undertook canada’s first extensive topographic map series, National Atlas of Canada was published * Writers of travel and adventure books had great insights about geographical development. They discussed * Canada’s relations with the US * Regional character of Canada * European settlement of Canada * French-speaking canada’s English speaking Canada * University economists and historians: * Role of St. Lawrence and the lower Great Lakes as an organizing axis of the Canadian development * Importance of the ecumene (total amount of habitable land, as a limit on agricultural settlement) * Role of the frontier as a catalyst for development * Novels, poems and paintings described landscapes * Individuals: research * La societe de geographie de quebec * Champlain Society * Canadian Geographical Society
1930s to Present: A Geography Truly to Our Own * Late 19th century: taught as a high school subject * Early 20th century: taught at university and college level * 1951: Canadian Association of Geographers * Got geography as a recognized subject in university * 2001: department/programs in geography * Geography remains as a vibrant and absorbing disciple for 3 main reasons * Technological developments GIS and remote sensing have enabled geographers to deal with an increasing amount of data in an increasingly sophisticated manner * Growing public concerns about environmental change * Addition of a number of new research themes in recent years have increased geography’s purchase on real world issues
Geographers at Work * Geographers integrate data from physical and social sciences (use statistics and write) * Marketing geodemographic research * Geographic Info System technology
1.2 Geography Matters: * geographic information system: organized collection of computer hardware, software and geographical data that is designed to capture, store, update, manipulate and display geographically referenced info * allow data from several sources on different topics and different scales to be merged * location for the variables must be known * x. y, z coordinates of longitude, latitude and elevation or postal code * data capture (putting data into the system) is most time consuming * only more developed nations can take full advantage of GIS – expensive * Applications of GIS: * Can draw detailed maps based on millions of pieces of information * Military applications * Locate bst route for emergency vehicles * Monitor spread of infectious diseases * Identify location of potential customers, criminals, and basisfor regional planning * Critiques: * Doesn’t represent advances in geographer’s understanding of places and regions * Has only increased the level of surveillance of population by those who already posses power and control * Causes people to be judged by where they live
Studying Human Geography * Involves the study of earth as created by natural forces and s modified by human action * Spatial organization of of human activity and with people’s relationships with their environments * How and why geographical relationships are important * Physical geography: earth’s natural processes and their outcomes * regional geography: involved with the way that unique combinations of environmental and human factors produce territories with distinctive landscapes and cultural attributes * region: used by geographers to apply larger size territories that encompass many places or share similar attributes
Basic Tools: * begin with observation * fieldwork (surveying, asking questions, using scientific instruments to measure and record) * lab experiments * archival searches * remote sensing to obtain information about parts of earth’s surface * visualization or representation * written descriptions, charts, diagrams, tables , formulas, aps * allows large amounts of info to be summarized, explored and presented to others * analysis * discover patterns and establish relationships to build hypotheses and models
Fundamental Concepts of Geography * Region * Used to distinguish one area from another * Distinguished on the basis of specific characteristics or attributes * Minimize the variation of the chosen attribute within their boundaries and maximize the variation of that attribute between themselves and their neighbouring regions * Can be defined on the basis of any attribute or combination of attributes (i.e. temperature, precipitation, culture) * Divided into formal (uniform in terms of a specific criteria) ,functional (functions as a unit), and vernacular (identified by the region’s own inhabitants) * Location: * Nominal – solely expressed in terms of the names given to the regions/places * Absolute – locations are fixed via latitude and longitude coordinates * prime meridian – passes through Greenwich, England * estimating latitude is an ancient skill Champlain’s astrolabe measures angle of sun in the sky * calculating longitude hard, so ships carried two clocks, 1 to keep time of home port and the other was reset by noonday sun to local time aboard the ship * the difference between the two clocks in terms of time could then be converted to longitude * Global Positioning System – 21 satellites that orbit Earth on precisely predictable paths broadcasting highly accurate time and locational info * Owned by US govt but readily available to the world * Needs a GPS receiver * Can be relative – fixed in terms of site and situation * Has cognitive dimension, in that people have cognitive images of places and regions compiled from their own knowledge, experience and impressions * Distance * Absolute physical measure – units may count in km or miles * Relative measure – expressed in terms of effort, time or cost * Social distance is a useful measure to explain how social areas in cities develop * Cognitive distance based on people’s personal judgements about the degree of spatial separation between points * First law of geography – everything is related to everything else, but near things are more related than distant things * Friction of distance – the inhibiting effect of distance on human activity * Tends to lessen as the greater distances are involved * Distance decay function- rate at which a particular activity diminishes with increasing distance * Reflects the utility of a specific place or location to people * People seek to maximize the net utility of location * Nearness principle: people will seek to: * Maximize overall utility of places using minimum effort * Maximize connections among places at minimum cost * Locate related activities as close together as possible * Space: * Measured in absolute, relative and cognitive terms * Absolute space: mathematical space * Ex: topological space measured by nature and degree of connectivity between locations * Relative space * Socioeconomic space – sites, situations, regions and distribution patterms * Spatial relationships are fixed through measures of time, cost, profit, production and physical distance * Experiential/cultural space: space of groups of people with common ties being described through place, territories and settings whose attributes carry special meaning for these particular groups * Cognitive space measured in terms of people’s values ,feelings, beliefs and perceptions about behavioural space (landmarks, paths, environments and spatial layouts) * Friction and all the effects of the friction of distance are created by the form of economic exploration when people came to settle in the Praries bc the space itself was produced * First they had sufficient space and could locate anywhere but when more settlements established, a “centre” is created and the farm is refined according to that centre * 3 main processes societies use to constantly produce space * 1) Spatial Work: where social and economic activities are found and ways in which they are linked to create space. Different socioeconomic systems will be associated with different types of space * 2) Representations of space: where power is invisibly “inscribed” by space * 3) representational space/spaces of representation: functions of spatial allusions in the common symbols used in any culture’s literature or art * Place: * Somewhere that has a personal meaning to individuals or groups * A social and cultural construction * Accessibility: * Defined in terms of relative location the opportunity for contact or interaction from one location to a given other location * Distance is an important aspect * Connectivity: the interaction depends on the channels of communication and transportation * Function of economic, cultural and social factors * Ex: daycare isn’t accessible unless you have the money to pay for it, it is part of your culture to do so, etc * Spatial Interaction: * Complementarity: there must be demand in one place and a supply in the other * can be a result of several factors: * variation in physical environment and resource from place to place * international division of labour deriving from evolution of world’s economic systems: * specialization and economies of scale * Transferability: * Depends on frictional or deterrent effects of distance * Function of: costs of moving an item (in terms of money or time) vs. ability of the item to equal or exceed its costs * Intervening opportunities: * Alternative origins or destinations (usually bc it is cheaper) * Important to determine volume and pattern of movement and flows * Size and relative importance of alternative destinations * Principle of intervening opportunity * Spatial interation between an origin and destination is inversely proportional to the number of opportunities in alternative destinations * Spatial diffusion: * The way things spread through space and over time (ex: diseases, innovations, etc) * Most important aspect of spatial interaction * Occurs as a function of statistical probability (rarely random) * Results in an S- curve: slow build up, rapid spread, and levelling off * Expansion/contagious diffusion: due to proximity of carriers or agents of change who are fixed in their location * Relocation diffusion: phenomenon is spread as an initial carrier or group of carriers moving from one location to another with it as it travels * Hierarchical/cascade diffusion: phenomenon can be diffused from one location to another without necessarily spreading to places in between * First spreads between centres of equal rank in urban hierarchy before spreading down to city, then town, etc * 2 consequences * Spreads mre quickly around the world due to globalization * Spreads last to botton of hierarchies, meaning that it is not thorough in reaching everywhere quickly * Scale: * There are various scales (or levels) of analysis (local, regional, national, global)that are linked, and that processes operating at one scale can have significance at other scales * At a global scale, a hierarchical process of diffusion dominates but at a locale scale, diffusion process is more important

1.3 – Geography Matters * Topographic maps: designed to represent frm of earth’s surface and show permanent. Long standing features (buildings, highways, field boundaries, political boundaries) * Contour: device for representing form of earth’s surface, line that connects points of equal distance above or below a zero point, usually sea level * Thematic maps: designed to represent spatial dimensions of particular conditions, processes or events * Use proportional symbols (shapes, arrows to represent proportion of frequency, etc) * Isopleth maps: based on isolines * Isoline: a line similar to contour that connects places of equal data value (ex: levels of air pollution) * Dot maps: to portray simple distributions 1 dot represents a number of occurrences * Choropleth map: uses tonal shadings to reflect area variations in numbers, frequencies or densities * Use data that relate to the specific areas, or spatial units of measurement * Areal units: comprise areas as a small city block or large province * Built up of smaller units * Located charts: graphs/charts are located by place or region * Map Scales: ratio between linear distance on a map and linear distance on earth’s surface * Large and small scale maps * Map Projections: * Systematic rendering of a flat surface of the geographical coordinates of the features found on the earth’s surface * Since earth isn’t a perfect sphere, it is impossible to represent it on a flat surface without distortion * Conformal projections: compass directions are portrayed accurately * Scale is the same in any direction * Used for navigation * Mollweide Projection: relative sizes are true but shapes are distorted * * Equal –area/Equivalent projections: used to compare and contrast distributions on an earth’s surface * Useful for thematic maps showing economic, demographic and cultural data * Some areas tend to look squished or unsatisfactory outlines * Robinson projection: distance, direction, area and shape are distorted for aesthetic appearance * Peters Projection: equal area * Dymaxion Projection: minimum distortion, divides map in triangular areas * Some are based on aesthetic appearance , political considerations * Cartogram: used in small-scale thematic maps * Space is transformed according to statistical factors with the largest mapping units representing the greatest statistical values

Lecture Notes * Naura: * Tiny Island 4x5km somewhere in the pacific ocean * Transportation technology had immediate effect on how people were living * Usually detrimental effects * shows how interaction of people and places is and how it reflects * located north of austrailia, straight like in south west corner airport , runway crosses entire island, shows how small it is * interior has been strip mined, which is why that looks barren * fingerlike structures coral reefs , bird poo has filled up spaces over 100os of years and isbeing mined bc it is rich in phosphate fertilizer and for making explosives therefore interesting for big player countires * 4/5 of the surface area has been damaged barren reef of dead coral * Matrilineal society, people came 3000 years ago from Polynesia and Micronesia * Things changed after European colonization * Whale blubber oil wasused for lamps * German colonialization * After british, austrailian pretty much controlled it * Ww2 came along and Japanese took over he country, took 1/3 of population as slaves * 60s - Soon they gain control over ther own land and gain so much wealth bc of their resources that they don’t need to work * 80s and 90s - soon they use up all those resources and suddenly the people lose their only source of income * 97% of population are obese couldn’t grow crops or fish * 40% diabetes * What happened in Nauru * Colonialism, imperialism, geopolitics, warfare, measles and other diseases, ecosystem changed, local and global climate change, resource inflation, Russian mafia, north Korean defectors, Chinese Taiwanese conflict…support Chinese and then Taiwanese to get money, break of the Yugoslav state, terrorists, used to process afghan and Iraqi refugees fr money, global financial crisis, london west end musicals
Ch 1 Lecture 1 Nauru – Geography on the Ground

Nauru is a micro laboratory for our geographical studies
People and places interact
At any scale
This interaction creates/reflects interconnectedness and interdependence
Globalization is nothing new, but its scale and speed are unprecedented
Nauru was settled more than 3,000 years ago by Polynesian and Micronesian people “Discovered” in late 18th century by whale hunters
1878: 10 year tribal war reduced population by one third
German colony as of 1888
Colonial culture replaced native culture: matrilineal society, believed in female deity
Today: 10,000 people, 1/3 under the age of 15, most obese pop in the world

Seabird droppings, covered by soil, then tropical forest
Raw material for fertilizer and explosives
Japanese occupation, deportation of population for forced labour, 1/3 died
1945 UN Trust Territory under Australia, Independence in 1968
Strip mining: 4/5 of the surface area devastated, no rehabilitation possible

How is Nauru a “Laboratory”? * Colonialism, Depopulation and Genocide, Racism * Diabetes and Obesity * North Korean defectors and Afghan refugees, Russian Mafia and international terrorism, London Westend musicals and Chinese real estate scams * Global politics of political alliances and blocks * Climate change and resource depletion * Global financial crisis

Nauru and Chapter 1
Main Points
Geography matters because specific places provide the settings for people’s daily lives: * Nauru is the canvas for the lives of Nauruans

Places and regions are highly interdependent, each filling specialized roles in complex and ever-changing networks: * Nauru provides resources to the world economy, and offers other opportunities (investment, detention centre, tax haven, etc). These opportunities change with the globalization of the economy in which all these things are traded

Relationships between the global and the local are important: * Interdependence between local guano production and world market conditions or transportation technologies

Human Geography provides ways of understanding places and spatial relationships as the products of interrelated forces that stem from nature, culture, and individual human action: * Nauru is the product of past decisions, technologies, trends, wars, policies, and individual idiosyncrasies

The first law of geography: * Nauru teaches us to take that law with a grain of salt

Distance is one aspect of this law, but connectivity is also important because contact and interaction depend on channels of communication and transportation: * Globalization speeds up integration and heightens immediacy

1. Geographers’ Tools * Cartography (Mapmaking) * GIS (Geographic Information Systems) * GPS (Global Positioning Systems) * Qualitative Techniques (Interview, Participant Observation, Textual Analysis) * Quantitative Techniques (Questionnaires, Statistics)

2. What is a Map?
A Map is a * two-dimensional * Representation of a * Part of the * Earth’s surface

3. What does a Map do?
A Map * simplifies reality so we can * comprehend it * better/faster/more thoroughly

* …but all of this comes at a price… * Selection * Generalization * Standards and conventions * Etc. pp

4. Cartography:
The art and science of mapmaking

* Goals: * Traditionally: * Primarily Description * More Recently: * Analysis * Explanation * Prediction

5. BEWARE: * Maps are not ‘true’ or ‘real’ * Maps are created by people * Maps are “repositories of trust” and “controlled fiction”
“Maps are two parts truth and one part lies”

6. Decisions to be made: * Map Scale * how much do we want to show? * area and detail (inverse relationship) * Map Type * what do we want to show? * Map type needs to suit the type of data * Ex: dot, choropleth, isoline, proportional symbol, cartogram * Map Projection * which of the following do we want to show undistorted: * area size? * area shape? * distance? * (only an issue in the case of small scale maps)

7. Dot Map * raw values * discrete (countable) phenomena * exact location

8. Choropleth Map * derived values (e.g., percentages) * density * Greek: * ‘colouring book’ map

10. Isoline (or Isopleth ) Map * lines connect points of equal value * continuous phenomena * weather maps

11. Proportional Symbol Map * symbol proportional to value of the phenomenon

12. Solution: Cartogram * -------------------------------------------------
Space is distorted in proportion to mapped phenomenon

Chapter 2: The Changing Global Context
* Colonialism: the establishment and maintenance of political and legal domination by a state over a separate and alien society * Commodity chains: networks of labour and production processes beginning with the extraction or production of raw materials and ending with the delivery of a finished commodity * Core regions: regions that dominate trade, control the most advanced technologies, and have high levels of productivity within diversified economies * Digital divide: inequality of access to telecommunications and information technology, particularly the internet * Division of labour: the specialization of different people, regions or countries in particular kinds of economic activities * External arena: regions of the world not yet absorbed into the modern world system * Fast world: people, places and regions directly involved, as producers and consumers, its transnational industry, modern telecommunications, materialistic consumption and international news and entertainment * Hegemony: domination over the world economy exercised by one national state in a particular historical epoch through a combination of economic, military, financial and cultural means * Hinterland: the sphere of economic influence of a town or city * Import substitution: the process by which domestic producers provide goods and services that formerly were bought from foreign producers * Law of diminishing returns: the tendency for productivity to decline, after a certain point, with the continued application of capital r labour or both to a given resource base * Leadership cycles: periods of international power established by individual states through economic, political and military competition * Mini-system: a society with a single cultural base and a reciprocal social economy * Neo-colonialism: economic and political strategies by which powerful states in core economies indirectly maintain or extend their influence over other areas or people * Peripheral regions: regions with dependent and disadvantageous trading relationships, obsolete technologies and undeveloped or narrowly specialized economies with low levels of productivity * Plantations: large landholdings that usually specialize in the production of one particular crop for market * Post colonialism: a broad set of artistic, political, and research approaches that examine the consequences of the end of European colonialism * Producer services: services that enhance the productivity or efficiency of other firms’ activities or that enable them to maintain specialized roles * Semiperipheral regions: regions that are able to exploit peripheral regions but are themselves exploited and dominated by core regions * Slow world: people, places and regions whose participation in transnational industry, modern telecommunications, materialistic consumption and international news and entertainment is limited * Spatial justice: the fairness of the distribution of society’s burdens and benefits, taking into account spatial variations in people’s needs and in their contributions to the production of wealth and social well being * Staples thesis: a proposition arguing that the export of Canada’s natural resources, or staples, had a pervasive impact on this country, one consequence being that Canada became locked into dependency as a resource hinterland for more advanced economies * Staples trap: an over-reliance on the export of staples makes an economy (national or regional) vulnerable to fluctuations in world prices and without alternatives when resource depletion occurs * States: independent political units with territorial boundaries that are internationally recognized by other political units * Subaltern theory: a theory examining the ways in which the colonized margin is culturally dominated by the colonizing centre * Transnational corporations: companies with investments and activities that span international boundaries and with subsidiary companies, factories, offices or facilities in several countries * World-empire: mini-systems that have been absorbed into a common political system while retaining their fundamental cultural differences * World system an interdependent system of countries liked by economic and political competition *
The Changing World * World system: 3 tiered, fluid system providing a continually changing framework for geographical transformation within individual places and regions * created as a result of economic competition and political competition among states * places and regions are dependant of each other because they has a specific role within the competitive world system (the development of each place affects, and is affected by the development of many other places) * highly-structured and characterized by 3 tiers: core, semiperipheral and peripheral regions * core: dominate trade, control the most advanced technologies, have higher-level of productivity within diversified economies * success depends on dominance and exploitation which involves some colonialism * peripheral: dependent and disadvantageous trading relationships by primitive or obsolescent technologies and underdeveloped or narrowly specialized economies with low levels of productivity * have remained economically and politically unsuccessful throughout the process of incorporation into the world system * semiperipheral: can exploit peripheral regions but are exploited and dominated by core regions * usually countries that were once peripheral * 3 tiers are not homogeneous areas: provinces, cities, etc have their local cores and peripheries too (ex: Downtown Toronto has rich and poor areas) * made up of a nested set of cores and peripheries this way local developments are transmitted to regional and global levels and the forces of globalization affect the local level * Canada is part of both global core and semiperiphery: * Has high GNP and other core characteristics * Heavily interdependent with countries like the US * Basically: * World can be divided into a series of cores, semiperipheries and peripheries * Uses a relative concept of space, based on a socioeconomic measure of distance * Global core remains dominant via economic, political, military and cultural forces at its disposal * also via environmental ad ecological means * global periphery is maintained in a dependent position by the global core * global core and periphery have changed their locations over time * world system is made up of a nested series of cores and peripheries local developments are transmitted to the regional and global levels and the forces of globalization manifest themselves at the local level * Modern world system: * First established over a long period beginning in the 15th century * Over the next 5 centuries, more people become exposed to each other’s technologies/ideas * Different resources, social structures, cultural systems = different pathways of development * Some adapted to European based international economic system faster than others, some resisted incorporation and others created new ways (communism) * Some parts of the world were barely penetrated by the European world-system (external arenas: regions of the world not yet absorbed into the modern system) * This resulted in highly structured relationship between places and regions (core, semiperipheral and peripheral regions) * Has distinctive stages, each of which has left its legacy in different ways on particular places, depending on their changing role in the world system * End of 18th century new technologies of Industrial Revolution brought about the emergence of a global economic system reached everyone * New transportation technologies geographic expansion external colonisation and imperialism * Core of the world = US and Japan, while rest was incorporated into the capitalist world system as a dependant periphery * 18th & 19th century: growth and internal colonization of the core regions could only take place with foodstuffs, raw materials and markets provided by the colonization of the peripehery * industrial core nations embarked on the inland penetration of the world’s midcontinental grassland zones to exploit them for grain or stock production * demand for tropical plantation products increased tropical world came under political and economic control of other industrial nation(s) * overseas expansion into Europe meant political and economic dependency * Successive technological innovations have transformed regional geographies * Helped increase productivity and create new and better productsthat have stimulated demand, increased profits and capital for more investments * Globalization has intensified the differences between core and periphery and contributed to the emergence of the digital divide between a fast world (15% of the population) and a slow world (85%) with contrasting lifestyles and standard of living * Internet: most important mechanism to transfer knowledge * Flow of goods, capital and info taking place among transnational corps are becoming more important than imports and exports * Flows help spread new values altruistic concerns about global social issues
Geographic Expansion, Integration and Change:
* Where systematically differentiated human geographies begun * Society where each individual specializes in something and freely gives excess products to others while others reciprocate by giving back the surplus of their specialization * Small and vulnerable to environmental change * Lead to higher population densities and encouraged proliferation of settled villages * Changed social organization from loose communal systems to ones more highly organized on the basis of kinship * Allowed for specialization of goods other than food * Resulted in beginnings of barter and trade between communities * Most vanished long ago, but some still exist
Growth of Early Empires: * Agricultural revolution (Higher population densities, changes in social organization, craft production and trade production) provided preconditions for world empires * World-empire: mini-systems that have been absorbed into a common political system while retaining their fundamental cultural differences * Social economy of these world empires can be characterized as redistributive tributary wealth is appropriate from producer classes by an elite class in the form of taxes or tribute * Usually through military coercion, religious persuasion or both * Brought urbanization and colonization * Law of diminishing returns: the production per each additional worker was less, so they colonized more land, which had immediate spatial consequences between original colonies who claim/own that land
Geography of the Pre-Modern World * harsher environments in continental interiors were still peopled by isolated, subsistence level, kin-ordered hunting and gathering mini-systems * dry belts of steppes and desert margins stretching across the Old World from Western Sahara to Mongolia was a continuous zone of kin ordered hunting and gathering mini-systems * various forms of sedentary agricultural production extended in a discontinuous arc from Morocco to China with 2 main outliers: central Andes and Mesoamerica * dominant centres of global civilization: China, Northern India and the Ottoman Empire of eastern Mediterranean * more developed realms were interconnected through trade several emerging centres of capitalism existed * port cities were important * traders began to organize the production of agricultural specialities, textiles and craft products in their respective hinterlands (area from which it collects products to be exported and throughout which it distributed imports)
Mapping new world geography: * European merchant capitalism that reshaped the world. Many factors motivated them: * High density population and limited amount of cultivable land continuous struggle to provide enough food * Competition among a large number of monarchies and inheritance laws that produced large numbers of impoverished aristocrats with little or land of their own * Enabling factors of innovations in shipbuilding, navigation and gunnery quadrants and astrolabe * Europeans searched for: * Gold and silver * Take land, decide on its use * Exploit coerced labour to produce high value crops on plantatios * European manufacturers became adept to import substitution emergence of Europe as the core region of a world system that had * Overseas expansion lead to improvements in technology, new developments , entrepreneurship and merchant capitalism (for Europe) * For peripherybecame very dependent due to overseas expansion * Fur trade attracted Europeans up the St. Lawrence River lead to profits in Europe where they sold apparel and profits only in Montreal where individual French traders based themselves * After 300 years of evolution (1450-1750), world system only incorporated into parts of the world Mediterranean North Africa, Portuguese, Spanish colonies in the Americas, Indian ports and trading colonies, the East Indies, African and Chinese ports, the Greater Caribbean and North America
Industrialization and Geographic Change * Industrial Revolution and new production and transportation technologies lead to capitalism around the world human geographies were recast again with an independent dynamic * Allowed for internal development, external colonization and imperialism * Imperialism and colonization that accompanied expansion closely tied to world leadership cycles * With strong leadership cycles, individual states can dominate the world for many economic and cultural practices hegemony * In the long run, this kind of power and influence tends to weaken the presently dominant power, leading to a new dominant power * Europe: 3 distinctive waves of industrialization * 1750-1850: based on initial cluster of industrial technology (steam engine, cotton textiles, ironworking), very localized * 1850-1870: diffusion of industrialization to rest of Britain, northern France, Belgium, and Germany * New opportunities created as railroads and steam engines made places more accessible * New materials and technologies created new opportunities to manufacture and market new products * 1870-1914: newer cluster of technology causing reorganization of geography, creating different needs and created new opportunities * industrialization spread for the first time to other parts of Eurpopes * created a core within a core area of prosperity centred on the “golde triangle” * United States: Made transition from periphery to the core * had vast natural resources of land and minerals that provided raw materials for a wide range of industries that could grow and organize without being hemmed in and fragmented by political boundaries * population grew quickly through immigration which provided cheap labour and a large and expanding market * industrialization developed around pre-existing centres of industrialization and population and shaped by the resource needs and market opportunities of successive clusters of technology * Canada: moved from periphery to semiperiphery status on the world scale * Dependant on the global core in 1900 * Confederation Canada become in charge of its own affairs * Shifted from being dependent on Britain to dependent on US * Canada’s National Policy of 1879 promoted the completion of the transcontinental link to tie the country together, encouraged immigration to the Prairies and introduced tariffs to protect Canadian industry form cheaper American manufacturers * Timber trade began in Quebec and Ontario * Dependent on the exploitation of its natural resources/staples for sales overseas * Staples trap left Canada vulnerable to fluctuations in world prices and without alternatives when resource depletion occurred * High level of exports lead to low levels of economic growth * Staples thesis: the economy’s over-reliance on the export of staples to generate income locked Canada into being a resource hinterland for more advanced economies * domestic industry was stultified cheaper and easier to export raw materials than to use that income to purchase manufactured items overseas * Escaping from this would require the establishment of locally owned factories and a widely diversified industryexpensive * Economic growth could only be achieved via continual discovery of new staples to export * Shows why many local economic activities in Canada have not produced sustained growth in other sectors of the local economy
Internal Development of the Core Region: * Canals and the Growth of Industrial Regions: * 1st phase of internal geographic expansion and regional integration based on canal * Joins river systems * Industrial Revolution = need and capital to build canals to integrate and extend emerging industrial regions * Canada: built canals to improve/protect navigation along St. Lawrence-Great Lakes corridor * Bypass rapids west of Montreal, avoid possible American attacts, enable vessels to climb from Lake Ontario to Lake Eerie * Steamboats, Railroads and Internal Development: * Canals only connected densely settled areas, interior colonization meant steam-tran * Vast interior area of US opened up for commercial, industrialized agriculture * Railroad building in Canada= pillar of nation building * Reason for BC joining Confederation * Cities that served as regional rail centres grew substantially during this period * Led to the consolidation of the Manufacturing Belt * Contributed to mushrooming of Chicago as the focal point for railroads that extended te Manufacturing Belt’s dominance over the West and Souuth * Tractors, Trucks, Road Building and Spatial Reorganization * Powered further rounds of internal development, integration, and intensification * Productivity increased, frontiers of cultivatable land extended, vast number of agricultural labourers replaced y mechanization * Trucks = more factores * Allowed gods to be moved further and faster * Factories could be on inexpensive land and labour * Decentralization of industry along with buses, reorganized geography * Economic linkages among manufacturers, suppliers and distributers
Organizing the Periphery * As soon as the industrial revolution gathered momenrtum in the early 19th century, the industrial core nations embarked on the inland penetration of the world’s midcontinental grasslands to exploit thefor grain and stock * International Division of Labour: * There was a need for extended arena of trade, division of labour and military strength * Result as colonial economies founded narrow specializations that were dependent on the needs of the core countries * International division of labour brought a huge increase in trade and overall size of capitalist world economy * Soon there was a widening circle of exchange and dependence with constantly switching patterns of trade and investment with constantly switching patterns of trade and investment between core and periphera regions * Imperialism: Imposing New Geographies on the World * Competition developed into a scramble for territorial and commercial domination * Core regions wanted to secure as much as possible via military supervision, administrative control and economic regulations * Peripheries become almost entirely dependent on European and north American capiral, shipping, managerial expertise, financial services, news and communications * Also culture * Globalization: * Imperial world began to disintegrate after world war 2 * Us emerged as new hegemonic power 1st world * Old European colonies began to seek political dependence * Resulted in neo-colonial pattern of development * Commercial imperialism * Transnational corporations lead to further globalization * Commodity chainsoften span countries and continents, linking them to vast global assembly lines * Factors Contributing to Globalization * New international division of labour * US has declined as an industrial producer, relative to the huge growth of Japan and Europe as industrial producers * Manufacturing production has been decentralized from all of the core regions to some semiperipheral and peripheral countires * Due to the prospect of keeping production csts low by exploiting lower wage rates around the world * Caused global trade to grow rapidly * Internationalization of finance * Emergence of global banking and globally integrated financial markets * Trading of currencies * Massive increases in leves of direct and international investment * Created a need for banks and financial institutions that can handle investments on a large scale, across distances, quickly and efficiently * New technology system * Required the geographical reorganization of core economies * Extended global reach of finance and industry * Permitted a more flexible approach to investmentand trade * Improved communication and transportation * Homogenization of international consumer markets * Growth of consumer markets * Global market for cultural products is becoming concentrated * Growing dominace of US products * As a result, Canada sought to protect its cultural industries content rules * There are also outcomes of globalization manifested in different ways * Commercial: commodity chains of transnational corportations, spread of US consumerism * Economic: depletion of ozone * Cosmopolitan: growth of internationally and globally oriented group, organizations and alliances * Various local outcomes of the operation of the international economy: resource depletion , environmental despoliation, ecotourism , * Local outcomes of economic and cultural globalization: clashing of cultures, alternative pathways to economic and cultural development, etc * * Soviet and china satellite countires 2nd world * Fast and the slow world: * Core = close knit triad of North America, European Union, Japan * Connected via 3 main circuits/flows of investment, trade and communication between Europe and North America, Europe and Asia and among regions of the Pacific Rim * A new hierarchy of regional economic specialization has been imposed by the locational strategies of transnational corporations international financial institutions * Globalization has intensified the differences between core and periphery * Wealth and income distribution * Spatial justice * Digital divide * Less easily captured in the framework of states trade policy as come to be governed by powerful transnational corporations, while national governments are unable to deal with large scale environments * Widened gap between rich and poor * Made places and regions everywhere vulnerable to rapid and devastating change * Slow world: consists chiefly of imporverished periphery, but also includes many rural backwaters, declining manufacturing regions, and disadvantaged slums in core countries * Centre of gravity for the fast world: tri-polar coreof the world-system * More affluent, contemporary world economy * Leading edge is internet
* Physical –quant, human-qual * Goals of mapmaking * Pictures work better than words * Tell us where I s something, how do we get there * What is a map? – simplifies reality so we can comprehend reality better/faster/more thoroughly * Problems: selective & generalization (we can’t but everything, so we have to cut out things and choose important things, conventions (ex: north is up)

* Map scale * The larger thearea of the map, the less detail * Map projection (a way of taaaking a 3d object and flatten it into 2d surface) * When we flatten, we produce gores (splits, ters) * In the spaces where there are tears, we “add” water and land to fill it up and inflate the size of the actual size of the countries..which is why northern countries look huge..wer use it anyways bc itseasy to use in terms of navigation and we’ve just become used to it. guall peters projection is a much more fair way of representing * Maps aren’t accurate people have budgets, limited resources, biases, etc * Not complete fiction, but controlled fiction * Dot map: * Most intuitive, when we have discrete raw values and we know where they are (exact locations) ex: nuclear powerplants we know where the are and we can count them * Ex: light on US map used to look at population, energy consumption light maps north korea has no light, while south korea is lit up * Mc donalds map in US condensed in east, a lot, but less in west * Dot size can change message * Isoline Map: * Valley map the lines are the together, the steeper the slpe * Choropleth map (choro –area) * Colour map * Red and bluewho voted for democratic or other (election results) * Not accurate bc votes should be recorded according to population shows it according to the land area of the state, making it seem like republican candidate won * Obesity map * Proportional symbol map: * Use symbol and change size of it to map the value of the phenomenon * Rubber duck map size of arrow shows how many ducks travelled where * Suicide maps helps us allocate our resources and locate them where the greatest dancer is * Cartogram: * Works well if you know what the undistorted country looks like * * Election map in relation to population shows that democratic won
--- Jan. 25/12 * Globalization and the world system as our conceptual framework * Conceptual framework: ex: emailing prof vs. texting friend…you use different language and format * World system perspective * Structural inequality: something that is the bigger system that puts constraints on some and advantages to others..there are bigger obstacles that individual merit, education and willingness, that prevent countries from having higher living standards * European expansion: they were dominate other people bc of military powers, politics, by bringing diseases to countries that killed existing population * Globalization doesnot make things equal indicators show that the rich got richer and the poor got poorer * Paradox of plenty countries with the most resources happen to end up being the poorest Canada is not that rich..we sell most of our resources (staples thesis), countries that have an abundance of resources (like congo), but is not wealthy, Nigeria (oil) not rich and embroiled in war) * Early start: countries that are trying to catch up will not catch up …although there are some countries that are emerging from the peripheral countries * Nauru and Global Independence * Economic * Exploited when it was found that Nauru was rich in phosoate * When it was found that fertilizers could be made from mineral oil, price dropped dramatically * Political and military * When nautru was made into a colony it changed from a matrial society to a male dominant society * Changed from 12 groups to one king that dominated * Abused its power and supported taiwan and red china, Russia for money * Sold location to Australia * Financial: * Depended n US dollar (fluctuations) bc we compete wit them * London west end musicals naruans invested their money in this and t flopped and lost their money * Nauruan airline: china gave them an airplane inreturn forvoiting for them * Interdependence of people and places shows that the world as a whole is a sytem * Global pencil: materials come from all over the world * Globalization * Transporting things across boundaries * International division of labour: countries specialize on what they have more resources or can produce more efficiently * Basic idea is that world system is that states compete for resources, power and territory * Rust belt- (what used to be the core of north America—detroit, clevelenad, new York, etc) production is goingdown, * Slave trade – child labour, prostitution
Lecture Notes 1) Chapter 2 Lectures 3 and 4: Conceptual Framework:
Globalization and the World-System 2) Outline
Look back at Ch 1 and the concepts learned
What is a Conceptual Framework?
The CF for this course
Immanuel Wallerstein’s World-System 3) What have we done so far? 4) Textbook Chapter 1:
The Importance of Place… places matter * because life ‘takes place’ * Nauru is the stage for Nauruans’ lives * Places contain or produce resources important for life (Dr Blay-Palmer’s lecture!) places are meaningful and unique * because places are made by people * Nauru itself is the result of people’s actions places influence people * places ‘make’ people * Think of Nauruans’ obesity and other health problems (Dr Doherty’s lecture!) places influence other places * places are interdependent * horizontally: Nauru influences/is influenced by surrounding islands (NZ) * vertically: global events (Iran) have local consequences (Nauru) and vice versa 5) Other concepts we covered in Chapter 1:
(note that this list is not exhaustive)
Geography and… * Navigation * Exploration * Description and Analysis * Maps (covered in lecture) * Types of Maps * Map Projections * As well as many tools and techniques such as: * GPS (Dr Doherty’s lecture) * GIS * we will revisit and use them over the course of the term 6) This week’s lectures: * Globalization and the World-System as our conceptual framework for this course 7) What in the world is a conceptual framework??
A CF explains the context in which we discuss a subject * The context influences how we understand what we are talking about
Ex: what are we talking about when we say ‘Family’ or ‘University’? 8) Contexts/definitions shape the conversation and reflect the assumptions we make
Intellectual honesty demands that we admit and state those assumptions 9) The CF for this course:
A World-System perspective * that highlights structural inequality between different places and regions * that argues that this inequality is historically rooted in European expansion * and that fears that Globalization makes these inequalities worse * ‘paradox of plenty’ * ‘early start’ 10) Nauru and Global Interdependence - Economic: * ‘Discovered’ by whalers as agents of global sourcing of lamp oil * Supplied resources for colonial powers * Buffeted by price fluctuations for phosphate on world market 11) Nauru and Global Interdependence - Political and Military: * Incorporated into colonial empires * Socially restructured * Occupied and liberated * Played powers off * ‘Sold’ its geographical location 12) Nauru and Global Interdependence - Financial * Depends on US dollar * Used its location for money laundering * London West End musicals * Nauruan airline 13) These interdependences can be seen as the results of Globalization
Interdependence of people and places shows that the world as a whole is a system: * politically * economically * population/food/pollution….
Why do you and I need to know about Globalization? * the global pencil * the global village 14) What’s in a Pencil?
Half the World!
Its 'lead' core contains * zinc from Canada * graphite from India * copper from South Africa * carbon black and clay from the US * pumice from the Mediterranean * castor oil from Africa * candelilla wax from Mexico the cedar trees used for the wooden shaft were logged on the Canadian West Coast the eraser top is made with rubber from Brazil the assembly plant is located in New England the ships that transport the components around the globe are * built in South Korea * with steel manufactured in Luxembourg * in a mill owned by an Indian company * from iron ore mined in Australia and coal mined in Russia the ships’ German-made engines are powered by oil from Saudi Arabia they are registered in Liberia, while their crew are Filipino and Ukraine. 15) State of the Village Report 16) Examples show that people and places at different scales interact globally: GLOBALIZATION 17) Globalization
G. means the free flow of people, goods, and money across boundaries
G. builds on international division of labour * some countries contribute commodities (developing, peripheral) * other countries produce high-value goods from them (developed, core)
Problem: this division of labour continues historical commodity export dependencies of peripheral countries * increases the debt load of peripheral countries * contributes to the wealth of core countries
G. contributes to the power of transnational companies
G. is creating a fast world (‘us’) and a slow world (‘them’)
G. is leading to Uneven Development 18) How can we explain the uneven (unfair) process and results of Globalization?
Wallerstein’s World-System (mind the hyphen!)
World-System is our conceptual framework for understanding Globalization and this course in general 19) Wallerstein’s World-System
Basic Idea: * States compete for resources, power, and territory
* World-System evolved because some states (Europe, 16th c.) were able to exploit other states (colonies) and so gain dominance
* No more colonialism, but International Division of Labour between states (some are resource providers, some are value-adders) * In the early forms of the World-System theory (1970s) only states were seen as players…but now increasingly also transnational companies (TNCs) * System is still dominated by Europe and its offshoots * because they continue to enjoy the effects of initial advantages brought about by European colonialism and imperialism * System is dynamic * continually evolving, but many states find it very difficult to overcome initial disadvantages
States fall into one of three categories: * CORE (roughly equivalent to ‘developed’ or former ’mother countries’) * PERIPHERY (roughly equivalent to ‘developing’ or former colonies) * SEMIPERIPHERY (states on the threshold) 20) Wallerstein’s World-System
Theory argues that there is no ‘Third World’
Instead, there is only one world connected by a complex network of economic exchange relationships
Sees the beginning in 16th-century NW-Europe, which enjoyed a slight initial advantage in capital accumulation: * Late feudal period: concentration of power and capital * Capital then available for innovation in agriculture and manufacturing * Technology and food (population) surplus enabled colonial expansion * Colonial resources fuelled economic development of ‘mother country’
Processes eventually led to * Global Imperialism * Global Capitalism
Fundamental process: Division of Labour between core, periphery, semi-periphery
Theory criticizes * Commodification of * human labour and relationships (‘human resource’) * Land, the environment (‘resources’) * Exchange value dictates ‘worth’ of people and nature (cf. ex of slave trade) 21) Globalization and the World-System – what do I have to do with that?? 22) World-System and Globalization: Factors 1 through 5 23) Sure, that was then…but what about now? * Example: London * Sugar trade * Financial centre 24) What about other countries and cities? * Example: colonial legacies * official languages * airline connections * educational links * personal links * technology purchases * infrastructure legacies 25) Conclusion:
The processes described by the World-System continue to privilege core countries while keeping peripheral countries dependent on them. 26) Main Points:
* consists of Core, Semi-Periphery, Periphery * …at different scales! * is characterized by Interconnectedness * leads to Uneven Development * has extensive Historical Roots in European Expansion * leaves us wondering: Where does Canada fit? * ------------------------------------------------- leaves us wondering: what is your role (or mine) in maintaining or changing this situation?
Ch.3 - Geography of Population
Key Terms: * Demography: the study of the characteristics of human population * Census: the count of the number of people in a country,region or city * Vital records: information about births, deaths, marriages, divorces and the incidences of certain infectious diseases * Family reconstitution: the process of reconstructing individual and family life histories by linking together separately recorded birth, marriage and death data * Administrative record linkage: the linking together of a number of different govet databases to build one database with much more detailed information on each individual * Crude/arithmetic density: the total number of people divided by the toal land area * Baby boom: the increased number of births in the 2 decades following WW2 * Geodemographic analysis: practice of assessing the location and composition of particular populations * Age-sex pyramid: a representation of the population based on its composition according to age and sex * Cohort: a group of individuals who share a common temporal demographic experience * Dependency ratio: the measure of the economic mpact of the young and old on the more economically prouctive members of the population * Youth cohort: members of the population who are less than 15 yeards old and generally considered to young to be fully active in the labour force * Middle cohort: 15 to 64 years of age and are considered acti and productive * Old age cohort: 65 and older, considered beyond their economically active and productive years * Aging: term used to describe the effects of an increasing proportion of older age groups on the population * Participation rate: proportion of a cohort group that becomes involced in a specific activity (i.e. attending an educational institution) * Crude birth rate (CBR): ratio of the number of live biths ina single year for every 1000 people in the population * Fertility: the childbearing performance of individuals, couples, groups or populations * Total fertility rate (TFR): average number of children a woman will have throughout the years that demograohers have identified as her childbearing years, approx =15-49 * Doubling time: measure of how long it will take the population of an area to double * Crude death rate (CDR): the number of deaths in a single year for every thousand people in the population * Natural increase: surplus of births over deaths (=CBR-CDR) * Natural decrease: deficit of births relative to deaths (=cbr-cdr) * Infant mortait rate:annual number of deaths of infants under one year of age compared with the total number of live births for that same year * Life expectancy: they average number of years an indiv can expect to live * Demographic transition: replacement of high birth and death rates by low birth and death rates * Mobility: the ability to move, permanently and temporarily * Migration: long distance move to a new location * Emigration: movement when a person leaves a country * Immigration: movement where person arrives in a country * International migration: move from one country to another * Internal migration: a move within a particular country or region * Gross migration: the total number of migrants moving into and out of a place, region or country * Net migration: gain/loss in total population of a particular area as a result of migration * Push factors: events and conditions that impel an individual to move away from a location * Pull factors: forces of attraction that influence migrants to move to a particular location * Voluntary migration: the movement by an individual based on choice * Forced migration: the movement by an individual against his or her will * Eco-migration: a population movement caused by the degradation of land and essential natural resources * Guest workers: individuals who migrate temporarily to take jobs in other countries * Medical geography: that part of geography that considers patterns of health and the spread of diseases * Epidemiological transition: theory stating that the prevailing forms of illness changed from infectious to degenerative types as the demographic transition occurred * Vulnerable population: populations that include common charateristcs making them more susceptibl to health problems and failing to get the health care they need including the very young, the old and those with existing health conditions *
The Demographer’s Toolbox * Population is studied to understand the areal distribution and spatial patterns of the earth’s population, and the reasons/consequences of it * How are places shaped by populations and in turn shape them
Sources of Information * Census: * Not simple; directed at gathering other information about population (i.e. previous residence, marital status, income, other personal data * 1666: earliest censes in Canada, population of New France (Quebec) * 1851: first nationwide census * Every 10 years + short mid decade census (2011, 2016) * Expensive and takes long to tabulate fully * Errors: * undercount by 1-2% (enumerator error) * some groups are under-represented (homeless) * high quantity and quality of data compensate for errors * Vital Records * Assess population characteristics * Help reconstruct demographic experiences of entire communities family reconstitution * Not all information that population experts use is as straightforward as census or vital records data, nor are they always available * must use other types of data to say something about a past population’s size and structure * To get a full picture, both census and vital record information is used together * Census data only records snapshot views/cross-sections of a population on the day it was collected * Vial records: track only a limited number of variables over time; censuses give a richer data picture * Solution: administrative record linkage * Also helps update this picture very regularly * Canada is a world leader in this combines tax files with records of employment and immigration data for research purposes * Ethical issues of privacy prevent us from using it more
Population Distribution and Structure * Population geographers bring demography to a spatial perspective * Emphasizes description and explanation of the “where” of population distribution patterns and processes
Population Distribution * Factors that shape population distribution: d * degree of accessibility, topography, soil fertility, limate and weather, water availability and quality, type and availability of other natural resources * political and economic experiences and characteristitcs * Asia is the most populous continent, then Africa, then Europe * Population clusters have similarities: * Almost all of the world’s inhabitants live on 10% of the land * Most near navigatable waterways * 90% live north of equator where largest proportion of land is located (63%) * Most live in temperate, low-ling areas with fertile soils * Population Density and Composition * Population can be explored through density: numerical measure of relationship between number of people and some other unit of interest expressed as a ratio * Crude density most common * Limitation: one dimensional; tells little about opportunities and obstacles that the relationship between people and land contains * Can also be explored in terms of composition: subgroups that constitute it * Number of males vs females, old vs children, proportion active in work force * Baby boom: * Many core countries will face issues because of this * A lot of resources and energies are needed to meet the needs of this large number of people who are no longer contributing to creation of wealth needed for their support * May be a need import workers to supplement the small working age population * Knowing the number of women of childbearing age in that population along with other information about status and opportunities can provide valuable information about future growth potential and opportunities can provide info about growth potential of that population * Variety of social and economic opportunities available to groups within a coutry’s population shapes opportunities and challenges it must confront nationally, regionally, and locally * Understanding people’s consumption can tell us about future and present demographics * Deciding where to market, where to locate business * Geodemographic analysis * Age-Sex Population * Horizontal bar graph – males on left, and females on right, ordered from youngest at bottom to oldest at the top * Compare different frequencies for different cohorts * Cohorts can be defined by criteria like time of marriage or graduation * Dependency ratio: * To assess dependency in a particular population, demographers divide the total population into 3 cohorts, sometimes dividing it by sex helps obtain a measure of dependency of the young and old on the economically active and of the impact of the dependent population on the independent * Youth cohort * Middle cohort * Old age cohort * Population change in Canada * Long run/secular decline in birth rate since 1870s * Population as a whole is aging (less babies, more baby boomers) * Why? Not many reasons justify both baby boom and bust * Basic finding of Canadian demography is that the underlying cause involves the changing role of women as they have gained greater access to education and paid employment * Youth Cohort: 0-15 * Relative and absolute decline * School closures and number of schools shrink * Colleges and universities counter this problem by increasing participation rate * Middle Cohort: 16-64 * Oldest members: front end boomers * Occupy upper ranks of many institutions and corporations * Born at end of boom are entering mid-career * Canada’s workforce has had to expand enormously to accommodate the employment aspirations of the baby boomers * Will free up space when boomers retire in large numbers (2020+) * Affects housing market form cities and towns * Old Age Cohort: 65+ * Primarily raise issues about pension and health care * More women than men (avg. life expectancy is higher) policy problems are gender related * Health care costs are high avg healthcare expenditures for elderly are 2-3X more than teenages * Main cause of the problem arising from need for hospitals * Expensive to run * More emphasis on preventing health issues bc it’s much cheaper than remedies that need drugs/surgery * Pensions: * Baby boomers more people receiving pension plans than paying into the pension plan shortfall * To cover shortfall, govt increased premiums and possibly increase age of retirement * Some cities like Victoria and Kingston have more elderly due to in- migration more services for elderly * Others have more due to out-migration of young * Challenge of aging population will most harshly be affected in periphery due to rising costs * Possible Solutions: * Pronatalism: try to reverse the trend of declining birth rates * Ex: baby bonus cheques in Quebec, subsidized daycare * No govt scheme compensates for true cost of raising children * Increased Economic Productivity: try to have a more productive economy * An economy that produces more can pay higher taxes and health insurance premiums * Workforce will become smaller when all the baby boomers retire no impact on economy if it is countered by rising productivity * NAFTA helps bc it has the potential to increase canada’s international markets * New technologies will help * Immigration * Shortfall of births countered by immigrants coming in * Bc immigrants themselves age, this can only postpone the effects of aging my approx 7 years
Population Dynamics and Processes

Birth, or Fertility Rates * Fertility vs. mortality, birth vs. death rates * Crude birth rate: crude bc it measures birth rate in terms of total population and not with respect to a specific age group or cohort * Economic development is an important factor that shapes it * Demographics structure of population also * Women’s educational achievement, availability of birth control pills * religion, social customs, diet, heath, politics, civil unrest * highest fertility are in periphery countries – Africa has highest birth rate and is the poorest country in the world * limited bc does’nt tell us about potential future fertility levels * Fertility * Total fertility rate more predictive measure telling us how birth rates will be amount a particular cohort of women over time * If TFR is over 2, population has received replacement level fertility birth rates and death rates are somewhat balanced and thre is stability in population * Doubling Time * Death or Mortality Rates * Crude death rates: reflect level of economic development countries with low birth rates have low death rates * Demographic structure with more men and elderly = high * Health care availability, social clas, occupation, place of residence * Poorer groups have higher rates than middle class * Natural increase/decrease * Can be measured for both sex and age cohorts * Infant mortality rate: expressed as a number of deaths during first year of life per 1000 births * Important indicatr of country’s healthcare system and general population’s access to health care * High in peripheral counties and low in coe * Reflect adequate maternal mutrition and the wider availability of health care resources and personnel in core * Not uniform at national, regional and local levels global patterns often mask these variations * Child mortality: number of children who die before their fifth birthday in relation to every 1000 births slow progress on reducing it currently * Life expectancy: * Varies from country to country, region to region and place to place withing cities andamoungdifferent classes and racial and ethinic groups * In Canada, aboriginal population have lowest * Epidemics reduce expectancy by diffusion occurring in hierarchy * HIV/AIDS central Africa * spread across wprld * sub Saharan African nations have been most affected * accounted for 72% of deaths in the world * no cure, but countries are working to slow the spread * Demographic Transition Theory * demographic transition caused by urbanization and industrialization decresase in population growthimproved economic production changes in medicine, education and sanitationhigher standards of living * Phase 1: Pre-indstrial * Phase 2 and 3: Transitional * Phase 4: Industrial birth rates are more likely to oscillate* * many countries stall in the transitional phase “demographic rap” * lag in declining fertility rates relative to mortality rates * social attributes about wanting to have large families have only recently begun to be affected* * most peripheral and semiperipheral are yet to complete the transitions * over generalizes all places and all times? * Doesn’t reflect history of periphery countires and regions * Industrialization is seldom domestically generated in periphery countries (usually just a result of foreign investment) * Demographic transition fuelled by economic growth this only reflects core/developed countries * Absence of advanced educational opportunites for all members of population, limits of tech advances and shortages of skilled labours

Population Movement and Migration * Mobility and Migration * Mobility vs migration * Emigration vs. immigration * International vs. internal migration * Both permanent and temporary chages of residence usually involve adesire for economic betterment or escape from adverse political condition * Alberta, BC and PEI best places for interprovincial migration in terms of findingjobs * NFL,NB and Sask lost huge pop due to interprovincial migration * Govts keep track of migration bc they affect political, economic, cultural at regional, national and local levels * Gross migration vs net migration * Migration is important bc total population of a place is dependent on migration activity aswell as on birth and death rates * Push vs. Pull factors: things that influence migrants to move * Push idiosyncratic (individual dissatisfaction with amenities offered at home), dramatic (war, economic dislocation, ecological deterioration) * Pull highly personal (desires), structural (economic growth and job opportunites) * Decision to migrate is usually a combo f push and pull factors and voluntary * Voluntary vs. forced migration * Refugee: people who have fled countries due to well founded fear of persecution on grounds of race, religion, nationality, political belief or social characteristic * Have the right of nonreturn to their country and protection of UNHCR * Increasing number of refugees more restrictions for them spaces of exclusion * Ecomigration environmental refugees * International Voluntary Migration * Work produced by immigrants in Canada have reshaped the coutnry * Migration can be temporary * Guest workers * Sending workers abroad is important for peripheral and semiperipheral countries * Gender is important men usually have higher positions than women

* International Forced Migration * Ex: African slave trade important for European expansion * Usually due to war, abuse and fear * Sudan has lost a lot of its population due to fleding from war, but also a host country to many refugees due to openness of borders
Population Debates and Policies * Population and Resources * Debate originated from work of Thomas Robert Malthus * His theory of population relative to food supply established resources as the critical limiting condition on population growth * Food is necessary to the existence of human beings * Passion between sexes is necessary and constant * In the time this theory was created: * Industrial Revolution * Traditional forms of employment were being lost at a faster rate than new ones could be created * There will eventually be no food left * “power of population is greater than the power of the earth to produce subsistence” * Population, Resources and the Environment * Limitations to Malthus theory * Harvey: people are creative and can come up with other ways for food through tech and social change * Neo Malthusion: for Malthus * Predict population doomsday, food will eventually not be enough * No solution unless strict demographic control everywhere * Modern theory reduce poverty bc it is associated with high fertility * This problem led to internation agencies and conferences which try to influence population change * Underlying assumption: get population to reduce their ecological footprint * Population Policies and Programs * Population policy: official government policy designed to affect any or all of several objectives, including size, composition an distribution of population; identifies goals and objectives * Population program: implementation of a policy program; instrument for meeting goals and objectives * Most of international pop policies of last 2 decades are in the form of family-planning programs and limiting fertility * International conferences by UNbirth rates are dropping in almost every country population is levelling off * Make family programs available to all * Take steps to reduce poverty and disease, improve living standards and work towards environmentally sustainable development * Millennium Declaration: more sustainable economic growth worldwide is a way of shaping quality of life for people in the periphery
1) Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
2) Achieve universal primary education
3) promote gender equality and empower women
4) reduce child poverty
5) improve maternal health
6) Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases
7) Ensure environmental sustainability
8) Develop a Global Partnership for Development * Controlling fertility is not just a female issue * Women with access to education and employment tend to have fewer children bc they have less need for economic security and social recognition * More equality between men and women inside and outside the household reduces fertility * Enabling voluntary constraints that give both men and women a choice and educating them about the implications of such choices are a successful program fro small islands with historically high pop growth * Periphery excess of female mortality due to preference for male children * Controlling population growth means improving standard of living in periphery countries and using up less resources in core
Population, Health and the Environment * Medical Geography: * Approaches: * The study of the cause and spread of the disease * “ provision and consumption of health care * “ Social construction of health * “ Environmental change * The study of the cause and spread of disease: * Mapping patterns of disease help figure out the cause * Ex: mapping out cholera in London allowed them to figure out that it was caused by the water supply contaminated by sewage * Focus is now more on ecology of diseases, the ecological relations with their agents of transmissions (vectors) and environments where diseases and vectors interact with the population * Humans first experienced many infectious and parasitic diseases following the domestication of animals * Byproduct of first agricultural evolution * Epidemiological transition * One aspect of of demographic transition is a change in the prevailing forms of illness diseases of modernization * Connection between disease incidence and spatial pattern * The study of provision and consumption of health care * Examination of locations of hospitals, physicians, clinics and nurses across Canada * Urban areas have better provision of health than rural areas * Richer urban areas have better provision of sevices than poorer urban areas * Social justice of special inequalities of service provision * Study of social construction of health * Health care and medical care are different * Good health and nature of our illnesses are defined by social norms * Forces of industrialization and consumption that are embedded into both the world system and demographic transition models have altered what we call good health and how we achieve it * Environmental Change * Effect of environmental change on our health and global well being * Climate Change: global warming direct and indirect effects heat related deaths, respiratory related deaths * Pollution: air pollution major environmental health issue in Canada * Phsychological effects fear of change *
The Geography of Canadian Health * Life expectancy is one of the best indicators of the overall health of a population * Canada ranks as one of the top 3 developed countries in the world * Falls to 10th place when you add poverty in bc wealth is not evenly distributed * People with higher incomes generally live longer than people with lower incomes * Relative income has more effect that total income * Mortality rates differ from region to region : * Medical geographers favour 2 types of explanations * Behavioural (lifestyle): geographical differences occur bc certain groups do more life threatening things and less health promoting actiivites * Operation of an economy and society as a while dictates people’s quality of life
1) Geographies of Population
Chapter 3 2) What is the problem?
Is population a problem?
Limits to Growth/Survivalists vs Cornucopians 3) Global Population Growth
Human population is growing exponentially
3 people added every second
1 billion every ten years 4) Global Population Growth: the Spatial Dimension it matters enormously where people are added to the global population more than 90% of all population growth occurs in peripheral countries of the 9 billion predicted for 2050, 8 billion will live in the periphery! (next slide) is that ‘good’ or ‘bad’? 5) Be mindful: Overpopulation can be Quantitative or Qualitative!
Since you were born globally… the number of cars has doubled household energy use has grown by two-thirds air traffic has quadrupled in Canada:
The average house size has increased by 25%...
…while the average household size has shrunk by 33% (from 3.9 to 2.6 people) one quarter of all Canadian households are singles
Note that none of these is the result of rapid pop growth in peripheral countries – but they have an enormous impact on global resource use and the environment 6) World-System concept helps in our analysis of the
Geographies of Population
high population growth rates
decreasing population growth rates
Demographic Transition Model!
low pop growth rates or even shrinking populations but increasing consumption 7) Africa: AIDS/HIV has recently emerged as a powerful brake on population growth in sub-Saharan Africa
Life expectancy in 1995: 62 years 2005: 43
Mozambique: one in four children dies before age five
CDN: one in one hundred
India will surpass China
TFR of India: 3.1 children per woman China: 1.7 * Core countries: population will age and shrink * Italy: from 60 today to 40 million by 2030 * Spain: Europe’s oldest population * Germany: loses 200,000 pop per year despite ‘immigration’ 8) Consequences of Population Decline in Core Countries (i.e., Europe, Japan and NA)
No direct negative influence on natural resources
But very specific effects on national resources because it is usually accompanied by a relative ageing of the population (i.e., older people form an increasingly large part of the population)
2000: one in five over the age of 65, 3% over the age of 80
2030: one in three over the age of 65, 15% over the age of 80
shortage of: labour, tax payers, and pension contributions increased need for: pension payments, health care, geriatric care reduced: crime rates, insurance rates, toy markets 9) Consequences of Population Growth in Periphery (i.e., Asia and particularly Africa)
High demand for natural resources:
Water, soil, arable land (nutritional density!), air quality
Strain on national resources:
Food, housing, education, health care, jobs, pension payments 10) These are figures and words, but we must never forget the human dimension behind them…
12) What drives or checks population change?
Three ways to look at population change:
1. Biological Factors: fertility, mortality, life expectancy
2. Historic Events: disease, war, natural disasters, etc.
3. Individual Countries: immigration, emigration, forced migration (slavery), cultural factors (female infanticide) 13) Textbook explains several population descriptors and predictors:
CBR Crude Birth Rate
CDR Crude Death Rate
RNI Rate of Natural Increase (can be negative!)
IMR Infant Mortality
TFR Total Fertility Rate 14) Beyond total number and spatial distribution of a population, what else do we need to know? 15) Reproductive Structure of Populations 16) ‘Anomalous’ Population Pyramids

Ch. 4: Nature, Society and Technology
Key Terms * Nature: a social creation as well as the physical universe that includes human beings * Society: sum of the inventions, institutions, and relationships created and reproduced by human beings across particular places and times * Technology: physical objects or artifacts, activities or processes and knowledge or know how * Ecological footprint: a measure of the biologically productive land area needed to support a country by providing for its needs and absorbing its wastes * Taoist perspective on nature: the view that nature should be valued for its own sake, not for how it might be exploited * Buddhist perspective on nature: the view that nothing exists in and of itself and everything is part of a natural, complex and dynamic totality of mutuality and interdependence * Islamic perspective on nature: the view that the heavens and earth were made fr human purposes * Judeo-Christian perspective on nature: the view that nature was created by god and is subject to gid in the same way that a child is subject to parents * Animistic perspective on nature: the view that natural phenomena – both animate and inanimate – posses an indwelling spirit of consciousness * Romanticism: the philosophy that emphasizes the interdependence an reltatedness between humans and nature * Conservation: the view that natural resources should be used wisely and that society’s effects of te natural wor;d should represent stewardship, not exploitation * Preservation: an approach to nature advocating that certain habitat, species and resources should remain off limits to human use, regardless of whethere the use maintains or depletes the resource in question * Environmental ethics: a philosophical perspective on nature that prescribes moral principles as guidance for our treatmet of it * Ecofeminism: the view that patriarchal ideology is at the centre of or present environmental malaise * Deep ecology: an approach to nature revolving around two key components: self realization and biospherical egalitarianism * Paleolithic period: the period when chipped stone tools first began to be used * Ecosystem:: a community of dfferent species interacting with one another and with the larger physical environment that surrounds them * Siltation: the buildup of sand and clay in a natural or artificial waterway * Deforestation: the removal of trees from a forested area without adequate replanting * Demographic collapse: phenomenon of near genocide of indigenous populations * Ecological imperialis: introduction of exotic plants and animals into new ecosystems * Biofuels: fuels made from plant material including corn, soy, and sugar cane * Carbon neutral: any carbon released upon burning is equicalent to the carbon absorbed when the plants grew * Carbon benefit: the reduction in CO2 emissions for the same quantity of fuel * Carbon tax: a tax on emissions of CO2 and other greenhouse gases * Acid rain: the wet deposition of acids on earth created by the natural cleansing properties of the atmosphere * Desertification: the degradation of land cover and damge to the soil and water in grasslands and arid and semi-arid lands * Maximum sustainable yield (MSY): the equilibrium between a fish population’s biological productivity and the level of fishing effort; theoretically, the MY for a fish stock is the largest numberthan can be caught while ensuring that enough remain for a productive fishery next year * Fishing capacity: the ability of a fleet ot catch fish, most easily measured by counting the number of boats in a fishing fleet * Global change: combination of political, economic, social, historical and environmental problems at the world scale * Environmental justice: movement reflecting a growing political consciousness, largely among the world’s poor, that their immediate environs are far more toxic than those in wealthier neighbourhoods
Nature as a Concept * 1st model: nature limits or shapes society (environmental determinism) * 2nd model: society shapes nature through technology and institutions * Interest in the relationship among nature, society and technology has increased dramatically in the last 2 decades * 1992: Earth Summit to ensure a sustainable future for the Earth by establishing treaties on global environmental issues. * North American Commission of Environmental Cooperation established to monitor ecological effects of trade in Canada, US and Mexico (under NAFTA) * Interest has spread from core to periphery and from scientific community to public * Many are dissatisfied with their country’s environmental laws * Renewed interest in nature-society relationship due to persistence and large number of environmental crises * People are starting to look for solutions other than technology bc that might the problem worse * Nature is inseparable from society
Nature, Society & Technology Defined * Nature: * Different times have different needs * Not only objects: reflection of society in that philosophies, belief systems, and ideologies shape the way people think about nature and the way we use it * Relationship between nature and society is 2 way * Society shapes people’s understandings and uses of nature while nature shapes society * Amount of shaping depends on technology and constraints on its use * Society * Social relations to nature vary from place to place * Relationship between society and nature is usually mediated through technology * Including knowledge, implements, arts, skills and sociocultural contect * Technology: * Prevailing ideas about nature change over time bc technology and society changes * I=PAT * Relates human population pressures on environmental resources to the level of affluence and access to technology in a society * I-Impact on earth’s resources * P- population * A- affluence, as measured by per captita income * T-technology factor * Differential impact of environment of 2 households’ energy use in 2 different countries = number of people per household x per capita income of household x type of technology used to provide energy for the household * Variables are complex * Determining how much affluence is difficult * Core countries are better at protecting themselves from environmental harm, often by sending the harm to periphery countries * This rise may be enough to sustain social values towards protecting another environment * Variable technology is complicated * Technologies affect the environment in 3 ways * Via harvesting resources * Emission of wastes in the manufacture of goods and services * “ in consumption of goods and services * Can be a solution or a problem * Ecological footprint: * Allows us to visualize growth and scale of the impact humans have on earth in terms of sustainability * Includes all the cropland and other natural resources needed to produce products consumed by a population, wherever they are located * * Religious Perspectives on Nature * Gardner: all religious traditions involve ideas about nature * Religion: orientation to the cosmos and to our role in it * Three major ways religious beliefs can affect our attitudes towards the environment * 1: fundamental worldview of religions shape beliefs about the natural world and its importance * 2: many rituals affect the way in which natural resources are used * 3:ethical systems derived from religious beliefs may influence how the environment’s resources are used and how they are distributed across society * Taoist perspective on nature: * Ancient Chinese religion * Emphases harmony with nature and views natural world as a complex life process to be respected and appreciated * Buddhist perspective on nature: * It is up to humans to care for all life and safeguard integrity of universe * Islamic perspective on nature: * Authority of nature is given to humans by allah not as an absolute right, but a test of obedience, loyalty and gratitude * Judeo-Christian perspective on nature: * Affects western ideas about nature * Animistic perspective on nature: * Humans can’t be separated from nature, natural cant be separated from supernatural * Hunter is successful bc animal chooses to give itself * Concept of Nature and the Rise of Science and Technology * Lynn White: * Judeo-Christian thinking that people must dominate nature was one of the main causes of ecological crisis bc it gave humanity free reign to exploit naturefor industrial purposes * Critics: * 1:all religious traditions have a multiplicity of views * JC tradition also teaches environmental stewardship * 2: not all people practice religious beliefs with equal intensity * 3:many people can’t practice their environmental beliefs bc of the pressure of everyday life * 4: possible that she got the date of when nature and humans were separated wrong * *indirect connection in core euro countries occued in the middle ages religion and the rise of science and tech.
Ch 3 Lecture 6 1) Canada 1971 -2001 (Source: StatsCan) * Canadians are having fewer children 2) Nunavut 1991 -2006
(Source: StatsCan) * Shows the direct opposite is growing 3) Newfoundland 1971 -2006 (Source: StatsCan) * Baby bulge is dropping they are leaving the province 4) ‘Anomalous’ Population Pyramids 5) Total Fertility Rate TFR
TFR: average number of babies born to a woman during her reproductive years
Replacement Level Fertility: number of children required to replace the parents and keep the population stable ( 2 parents need at least 2 children for population to grow) 6) TFR of Canada
NFLD 1.3
ON 1.5
Nunavut 3.1
CDN 1.5 (lower than ever)
CDN in 1950s: 4
Rule of 70 = 70/growth rate = number of years for population to double

7) Factors affecting Fertility
women’s health
children as a source of labour…
Firewood, water, shepherding, income, elder care
Cultural factors
Laws, customs,… 8) Case Study: Nunavut combination of factors leads to a TFR of 3.1 and thus rapid population growth: political sovereignty --1990s economic Northern development: mining, research cultural unconditional preference for children (should hae children whether you’re married or not) results in a growing population case study: Igloolik 9) Nunavut

10) Case Study: Female Infanticide
100 million girls are missing
50 m in China alone, that amounts to nearly one in ten girls
China’s One-Child Policy registered births in China:
1st child: 110 boys for every 100 girls
2nd child: 121 boys for every 100 girls
3rd child: 185 boys for every 100 girls
Child Mortality (< age 5) in India:
Boys: 29
Girls: 42
Illegal ultrasound clinics booming 11) Discourse Analysis discursus Michel Foucault (French philosopher, 1926-1984):
“Knowledge is Power”: those who have power can control the creation of knowledge for example: by defining what is ‘proper’ to talk about for example: by creating words that in turn ‘make reality’
Madness vs. Mental Illness
Discourse Analysis examines how we talk about a subject …
… and what we do not talk about (silence) 12) Discourse Analysis
What if we applied this idea to an analysis of our discussion about fertility?
Who is talking?
Whom and what are we talking about?
Whom and what are we being silent about? 13) Why perform Discourse Analysis? teaches us not to take a text at face value but look beyond the words questions the intentions of the author may reveal a bias or omissions helps us become aware that we might create a stereotype of the ‘Other’ when we speak or write ‘about’ them is one of the key building blocks of critical thinking and writing in university 14) But…there are other factors that influence population growth or decline 15) Migration! Currently 200 million worldwide wars and environmental conditions displace people
Why do people move between countries?
Voluntary Migration (pull factors) better economic prospects
Norway, Ireland, … your parents?
war/personal safety
Lebanese (80% abroad!)
Kurds without state
greater cultural/religious freedom
15,000 Jews from Ethiopia airlifted to Israel since 2000
And, increasingly: ecological push-factors U.S. is the only industrialized nation that would grow even without immigration why do we speak E and F in N America? because S and P did not have surplus pop to settle
Share of immigrants between 1% (in Ireland and Japan) and 70% in oil-rich Gulf states
Immigrants send back US $150 billion per year in remittances that is triple the amount of official development aid! 16) Immigration to Canada: How many?
200,000 to 250,000 per year per capita, Canada takes in more than twice as many immigrants as other immigration countries
Immigration is needed to stem the ageing of our population
17) Immigration to Canada: Who?
Immigrant populations grow faster than the rest of the population
Median age: 35 years (rest of CDN pop: 43) more children because of their age, NOT because they tend to have more children per couple!
44% have a university degree
CDN: 25% 18) Immigration to Canada: Where?
More than half of all immigrants settle in Toronto
Toronto: 45% of pop are visible minorities
By 2017 they will be the visible majority
1 m Torontonians from South Asia, 750,000 from China
highest rate of newcomers in the world most multi-ethnic city in the world
‘ethnic’ neighbourhoods are increasingly in the suburbs:
Markham 56% visible minorities, 53% foreign-born 19) Larger Question:
How do we explain what is going on?
How do we predict future populations? 20) The need for modelling:
Ch. 4: Easter Island
Ch. 4
Ester Boserup – people will start creating better ways to create food when there is hunger
Ch. 8
Cornucopians - say that we will never run out f resources bc we always invent something new once one starts to deplete
Ch. 4
Doubling Time (rule of 70)
Demographic Transition
21) But: there are several problems with applying the Demographic Transition Model to Developing Countries today:
1) based on European experience
Discourse Analysis… ‘how the world should work’
2) treats all cultures the same
3) ‘forgets’ about rapid industrialization (based partly on colonial exploitation!)
4) ‘forgets’ about massive emigration
22) Yet another complication: The Demographic Momentum
A pyramid with a wide base indicates many more young people than older people
As these young people mature and have children, they add a great number of people to the population, even if they have only 1 child per couple which would be below the Replacement Fertility of slightly more than 2 children
At the same time, few people die in absolute numbers narrow tip of pyramid!
Hence, population continues to grow for some time (at least for another generation), even if fertility per couple is curbed drastically now
Chapter 4: Nature, Society, and Technology

1) I=PAT
Technology 2) Underlying Questions:
Is our way of life sustainable?
How many/how much can Earth sustain?
Have we already overshot a limit? 3) Things to think about…
By 4am in the morning of 2nd January, you have already been responsible for the equivalent in carbon emissions that someone in living in Tanzania would generate in an entire year.
So the answer is: it depends… 4) Speaking of sustainability – what is it?
Human Geography offers unique perspective on the environment that might help refute Cornucopians:
Both Physical and Human Geography:
• integrated planet
• dynamic flows of matter and energy
• interaction between humans and nature
• space, scale, and distribution are basic principles
In addition, HG acknowledges human values, wants, fears, desires, etc. 5) Human Geography: sees planet as a human system
investigates consequences of human activity 6) What is a System? consists of interrelated parts matter is cycled between the parts energy flows through the parts open (energy) or closed (matter) feedbacks (positive and negative) dynamic events here and now can have effects elsewhere and in the future 7) Examples
Arctic Pollution
Phosphate on Nauru
Human Impacts 8) Far From the Madding Cloud
Pollutants contribute to Arctic warming some more
The Arctic climate is already sensitive to global warming; now it turns out human pollutants are kicking it -- or rather, warming it more -- while it's down. According to a new study in Nature, particulate pollution (mostly from cities in Europe) changes the size and number of water droplets in clouds above the Arctic, increasing their ability to trap heat. On particularly hazy days, especially in the winter when there's little precipitation to wash out pollutants, the effect causes the Arctic surface to grow 2 to 3 degrees warmer than it would be under clean air. Particulate pollution is known to help clouds reflect sunlight and thus reduce surface temperature -- so-called "dimming" -- so the discovery that it contributes to warming is an unfortunate surprise. The Arctic really can't catch a break. straight to the source: Science Daily, 10 May 2006 9) Phosphate on Nauru
From low entropy to high entropy
Second law of thermodynamics
Same with oil, coal, gas, (heat) 10) Water
Every year, 3.4 million people lose their lives to ‘natural’ disasters involving too much or too little water
Every year, 210 million people are affected by such disasters (average 1991-2000) that is seven times the number affected by armed conflicts
75% of all environmental disasters involve water and/or climate (WMO) 11) Human Impacts on Global Ecosystem
Global ecosystem is the ecosphere: as thick as the wax layer on an apple
Forms of human impact:
Reduction: Wilderness
Simplification: Purple Loosestrife
Destruction: Easter Island
‘Improvement’: Aral Sea 12) What is the message of Easter Island? 13) -------------------------------------------------
The Aral sea: a failed attempt to ‘improve’ the environment
Chapter 5: Mapping Cultural Identities
Key Terms: * Culture: a shared set of meanings that are lived through the material and symbolic practices of everyday life * Cultural geography study of the ways in which space, place and landshape shape culture at the same time that culture shapes space, place and landscape * Cultural landscape: a characteristic and tangible outcome of the complex interactions between a human group and a natural environment * Historical geography: the geography of the past * Genre de vie: a functionally organized way of life that is seen to be a characteristic of a particular cultural group * Cultural trait: a single aspect of the complex of routine practices that constitute a particular cultural group * Cultural region: area within which a particular cultural system prevails * Cultural system: a collection of interacting elements that, taken together, shape a group’s collective identity * Religion: belief system and a set of practices that recognize the existence of a power higher than humans * Diaspora: a spatial dispersion of a previously homogenous group * Sacred space: an area recognized by individuals or groups as worthy of special attention as a site of special religious experiences or evens * Language: a means of communicating ideas or feelings by means f a conventionalized system of signs, gestures, markes or articulate vocal sounds * Dialects: regional variations from standard language, in terms of accent, vocabulary and grammar * Language family: a collection of individual languages believed to be related in their prehistoric origin * Language branch: a collection of languages that possess a definite common origin but have split into individual languages * Language group; a collection of several individual languages that are part of a language branch. Share a common origin and have similar grammar and vocab * Cultural hearth: geographical origin or source of innovations, ideas or ideologies (Carl Sauer) * Isolate: language that has no known relationship with any other and cannot be assigned to a language family * Mother tongue: the first language learned at him in childhood and still understood by the individual at the time of the census (Statistics Canada) * Official language: languages in which the government has a legal obligation to conduct its affairs and in which the public has the right to receive federal services * Anglophone: person whose mother tongue English * Francophone: a person whose mother tongue is French * Allophone: a person whose mother tongue is neither English nor French * Home language: the language most often spoken at home by an individual * Language shift: an indicator of the number of people who adopt a new language, usually measured by the difference between the mother tongue and home language population * Cultural nationalism: an effort to protect regional and national cultures from the homogenizing impacts of globalization * Ethnicity: a socially created system of rules about who belongs and who does not belong to a particular group based on actual or perceived commonality * Race: problematic classification of human beings based on skin colour and other physical characteristics * Gender: category reflecting the social differences between men and women rather the anatomical differences that are related to sec * Feminist geography: field that examines the extent to which women and men experience spaces and places differently and to show how these difference themselves are part of the social construction of gender as well as that of place * Cultural ecology: the study of the relationship between a cultural group and its natural environment * Cultural adaptation: the use of complex strategies by human groups to live successfully as part of a natural system * Political ecology: approach to cultural geography that studies human – environment relationships through the relationships of patters of resource use to political and economic forces
Culture as a Geographical Process * Culture: * “shared set of meanings”: can include values, beliefs, practices, and ideas about religion, language, family, gender, sexuality, and other important identies * Revolves around social political, economic and historical factors * With agriculture, politics and urbanization, globalization also has complex effects on culture * Place is important in the negotiation of global forces * Merging of cultural into music * Cultural geography: * Place-based interactions occurring between culture and global political and economic forces * Ongoing process of producing a shared set of meanings * Geography: dynamic setting in which groups operate to shape those meanings and in the process to form an identity and conduct their lives
Building Cultural Complexes * Carl Sauer * understand the material expressions of culture by focussing on their manifestations in cultural landscape * “human group” – with its own practices, preferences, values and aspirations * Natural landscape: humanized version of cultural landscape * Ecological approach * Historical Approach: * Genre de vie: * Centred on livelihood practices of a group, which are seen to shape physical, social and psychological bonds * All approaches placed cultural landscape at the heart of their study of human – environment interactions * Vidal de la Blache: emphasized the need to study small homogeneous areas to uncover the close relationships that exist between people and their immediate surroundings * Homogenity was no longer the unifying element * Increased mobility of people and goods produced new, more complex geographies wherein previously isolated genres de vie were being integrated into a competitive, industrial, economic framework
Cultural Traits: Canadian Vernacular Architecture * Single cultural trait of architecture can be studied and contribute to a broader identification of cultural regions * Early settlers built houses in Canada using the way and form that it is done in their homeland (folk styles) * As people became wealthier, they began to rebuild their houses using new styles (vernacular) * housing styles vary by region * increased immigration and urbanization did little to erode these patterns * added distinctive contributions to adapt vernacular styles * love of rational planning and lure of profit from mass production served to suppress regional differences in building styles during the second half of the twentieth century
Cultural Regions * cultural region: * may be extensive, narrowly described, discontinuous in its extension * area where certain cultural practices, beliefs or values are more or less practised by the majority of inhabitants * area where a particular cultural system prevails
Cultural Systems * includes traits, territorial affiliation, shared history, language * possible for internal variation but have broader similarities * share key element of a cultural system
Geography and Religion: * key components of a cultural system: religion and language * religion: * on the decline in some parts of core * powerful shaper of daily life in core and periphery * change as new interpretations are advanced or as new spiritual influences are adopted * *conversion from one set of beliefs to another * Religious missionizing (propagandizing and persuasion) and converting non Christains were key elements in the 15 centry * Many traditional religions have been dislocated from their origins through this, as well as diaspora and emigration * Involuntary and voluntary movement of people who bring their religious beliefs and practices to their new locales * Diaspora: * Religious practices have become so spatially mixed around the globe * Hinduism was the first religion to emerge * Buddhism and Sikhism evolved from this * Has shaped many religions * Buddhism dispersed throughout india and carried by missionaries to other parts of asia * Chrstiantly, Islam and Judaism developed among semetic speaking people of the middle east * Judaism is the oldest, least widespread * Small bc it does not seek new converts * Christianity’s diffusion was helped by missionizing and imperial sponsorship * Pre Columbian contact * People in North and south America practiced various forms of animism and viewed themselves holistically * Shaminishm: spiritually gifted individuals possessed power to control preternatural forces * Postcolonial period * Religious missionizing and conversion is now flowing from periphery to core (it used to be the other way around * Fasted growing religion in core countries is Islam
The Geography of Canada’s Religions * Is a product of the country’s history of colonialism and recent immigration * Mainly Roman Catholic or Protestant different in different regions/provinces * Has changed since WW2 due to immigration and multicultural mmigration policy * Muslim population has the largest growth * More and more people are declaring “no affilation” with any religion * Religious buildings are tangible indicators of the dominant religion in a community * Religious buildings often find a new purpose if they have been abandoned by their faith community * Growing diversity has influenced out ability to appreciate other cultures and c taditions Sacred Spaces: * Does not occur naturally assigned sanctity though values and belief systems of particular groups/individuals * Rise above the commonplace and interrupt ordinary routine * Religious places * Can be read and interpreted * Designated as sacred to distinguish them from the rest of the landscape * Sites of intense/important mystical/spiritual experiences * Usually segregated, dedicated and hallowed sites maintained for many generations * Many expected to journey to a sacred place (pilgrim) * Model of sacred space: * Past: entire surface of the eath considered sacred * Present: very little considered savred * Cemeteries are considered most sacred
Geography & Language * Language: * Central aspect of cultural identity * Transmitted culture through generations * Communication is symbolic, based on commonly understood meanings of signes/sounds * Dialects are distinguishable through different place-based pronunciations, grammar, vocabulary * Divided into families, branches and groups * Indo-European familyRomance branchSpanish, French, Portuguese, Italian, Romanian, Catalan language groups * Memory of Language : * Retains memory of its past within its present form * Ex: close relationship between Sanskrit and European languages (proto-Indo European) * Must have been after the agricultural revolution bc they had words for crops * Pinpointing a region of origin is hard bc they are too widespread among Eurasia * Reasoning from silence Mediterranean origin is ruled out bc there is no word for olive * Migration has missed 4 areas in Europe where Indo-Euro languages are not indigenous (finish, Estonian, Hungarian Uralic family) Basque language * Isolate Cannot be assigned to any language family * Indigeous languages in Americas 3 groups * Amerindian, Na-Dene, Eskimo Aleut * Language and Regional Identity: * Important characteristic of cultural region bc it is spoken by people who occupy space and is an intrinsic part of culture * Mother tongue * Official languages * Francophone population is decreasing * Nationalist project – decrease in birth rate and increase in allophone immigrants * Language shift discrepancy between mother tongue and home language provides helps record the degree * Toronto has the highest proportion of allophones * Canada’s aboriginal languages are among the most endangered in the world * Language shift is occurring according to a survey they don’t speak their language at home * Index of continuity for every 100 people with Aboriginal mother tongue, number who used an indigenous language most often at home helps show shift * <30= endangered language * Hope: * More aboriginals want to relearn their language * Growth of Ab. Language as a second language * Territory of Nunavutinuit language has best chance of maintaining vitality * Loss of language cannot result in the death of a language, but it can severely handicap its future * Dialects: * Languages are spoken in different ways in different places caused by emigration experience * 2 general processes that work in unison * When people move, their language escapes the changes in vocabulary, grammar, or pronunciation that occurs in the region of origin * When people move, their language undergoes considerable changes in vocabulary as people adapt to their new surroundings
Cultural Nationalism * Manifestation of nationalism * Individuals have a shared identity with others of the same nation, a group often defined by family ties, or geography * Nations endeavour to secure their identities by promoting their own distinctiveness * Some groups may attempt isolationism to seal themselves off from undesirable differences * Others may legislate the flow of ideas and values
Maintaining Cultural Borders: Canada and the United States * Periphery is resisting in cultural imperialism * Canada has formally attempted to erect barriers to US cultural products * Tax on Sports Illustrated bc not Canadian enough * 30% of songs on radio must be vanadian * Affirmative action grant program * Canadian entertainment industry is subsidized * Multiculturalism in Canada: * Canada made multicultural policies to distance iself from US * Multiculturalism is used in at least 3 senses * to refer to a society, like Canada, characterized by ethnic or cultural heteroginity * To refer to a country’s ideal of equality and mutual respect for its minorities * To refer to federal government policies proclaimed in 1971 and set out in Canadian Multiculturalism Act of 1988, which aim “to recognize all Canadians as full and equal participants in Canadian society” * These policies have not yet met the needs of all immigrants (meant of Europeans) * Multicultural movement call attention to all minorities * Criticism * Policies are a way of distracting Canadians from implications of official bilingualism * Diluting political clout of francophone Canada * Bribing Canada’s ethnic communities with cultural blandishments rather than any real financial aid * Policies have not eliminated social and economical discriminations * Another Issue: the extent to which multiculturalism policies produce a framework for minority rights * Neil Bossiidanth Criticism: by empowering minorities, majority is given less rights * Multi-nation of polyethnic state is needed to protect ethnocultural minorities from political and economic power of the majorityuse of multicultural policies that promote self government of particular groups or advance the polyeithic rights of ethnocultural communities * These are essentially “group differentiated rights” and not collective
Culture and Identity
Ethnicity and the Use of Space * Ethnicity: * Geographic focus on this is an attempt to understand how it shapes and is shaped by space, and how ethnic groups use space with respect to mainstream cultural * cultural groups may be ethnically segregated from the wider society ore declare their subjective interpretations about the world they live in and their place in it * public festivals and parades help acquire a degree of power
Race and Place * race: * no such thing exists biologically * visible characteristics are categorized and spatially expressed * geographers want to see neighbourhoods as spaces that affirm a dominant society’s sense of identity * place continues to be a mechanism for creating and preserving local systems of racial classification within defined geographical confines
* socially created difference in the power between groups * males usually have an advantage that is socially created * class position can also intensify power differences * implications of these are played out differently around the world * In Canada * Suburbs tend to be seen as femal space * Downtown and industrial: male space * Although this construction is artificial, it actually exists due to people’s preconceptions * Feminist geography * Gender categories create different spatial experiences for men and women * Study: men would take many short trips during the middle of the day, across the city while women would take long trips at the beginning and end of the day * Different geographic opportunities (life spaces_ existed for men and women in such societies * Due to economic and social demands on women in late 2oth century for where child care duty or work in the paid labour force * Gay, lesbian, and other relationships also create their own geographies gay bars, expensive restaurants, etc
Culture and the Physical Environment
Cultural Ecology * Study material practices (food production, shelter provision, levels of biological reproduction) and nonmaterial practives (belief systems, traditions, social institutions) of cultural groups * Aimunderstand how cultural processes affect adaptation to the environment * Cultural adaptation people are components of complex ecosystems; they way they manage and consume resources is shaped by cultural beliefs, practices, values and traditions as well as by later institutions and power relationships * Cultural ecology approach has 3 key points how geographers analyze their research and how cultural ecology is similar ad different to Sauer’s approach to the cultural landscape * * 1)cultural groups and environment are interconnected by systemic interrelationships. Cultural ecologists must examine how people manage resources through a range of strategies to comprehend how the environment shapes culture and vice versa * 2)Cultural behaviours must be examined as a function of the cultural group’s relationship to the environment through both material and nonmaterial cultural elements conducted via intensive fieldwork * 3)Most studies in cultural ecology investigate food production in rural and agricultural settings in their periphery to understand how change affects the relationship between cultural groups and the environment * Scale of analysis is not on cultural areas or regions, but on small groups’ adaptive strategies to a particular place or setting * Criticism: conceptual framework of cultural ecology leaves out other intervening influences of the relationship between culture and the environment (political and economic institutions and practices)
Political Ecology * The merging of political economy with cultural economy * Processes of world economy affect local cultures and practices * State policies and practices and economic demand in global economy shape local decision making * Local cultural practices are being abandoned as people develop a tase and preference for low cost and convenient imported agricultural commodities * Requires examination of the impact of the State and the market on the ways in which particular groups use their resource base * Incorporates same human – environment components analyzed by cultural ecologists and beyond * Disincentives to producing local food: marketing constraints, crop theft, competition from inexpensive food exports, inadequate agricultural extension assistance * Incentives: subsidies to export – oriented agriculture and access to credit for producers
Globalization and Cultural Change * Places around the world are adapting to a more contemporary way of life more similarities (ex: men all wear suits for business and functions, same cars, tv shows, food and franchises) * These commonalities provide a sense of familiarity among inhabitants of the “fast world” * We are NOT however emerging a single global culture
Is there a Global Culture? * No * There is an increasing familiarity * However the commonalities are just configured in different ways in different places rather than having a single global culture
Chapter 5: The Imprint of Language and Religion on the Cultural Landscape 1) Why are Geographers interested in Culture?
Humans use culture to change their environment * culture is experience that is * learned * adapted * taught 2) Why are Geographers interested in Culture? Culture as a ‘Problem’ it unites people but it creates friction bc people see themselves as different from other people * it varies * it creates differences * us vs. them * the ‘Other’ * it is at the root of many wars 3) Culture in Human Geography * Culture is probably THE crucial concept in Human Geography, as all perspectives which we might take as Human Geographers are in one way or another connected to the question of * what culture is, and * how it shapes the physical landscape into different ‘cultural landscapes’ * Unfortunately, it also is very difficult to pin down and define * It’s a uinifying factor that can be passed down 4) ‘Culture’ is a concept that is central to...
History (Chapters 1 and 2): * How do cultures and states evolve? In stages, cycles, linear?
Philosophy (Chapters 1, 2, 5, and 6): * Is culture a cause of landscape or an effect of landscape?
Population (Chapter 3): * How do cultures view additional humans?
Environment (Chapter 4): * How do cultures perceive and treat the natural world?
Cultural/Social Geography (Chapters 5 and 6): * Who controls landscape in a given culture? (Internal Power Relations) 5) ‘Culture’ is a concept that is central to...
Development (Chapter 7): * Do ‘other’ cultures welcome/need the changes brought about by ‘western-style’ development?
Political Geography (Chapter 9): * How do cultures and states interact politically? (International Power Relations)
Agriculture, Settlement, and Urbanization (Chapters 8, 10 and11): * How do the land, the cities, and the industry of a region reflect (and affect!) the culture of the people who live there?
Globalization (Chapters 2 and 12): * How do cultures and states interact economically, technologically, and culturally? 6) Physical Geography asks: how is the natural landscape formed? * Obviously, Culture is not part of the equation.... * Factors geological, climatic,vegetationaltime * Forms: Weather, Land (surface, soil, drainage, mineral resources), sea and coast, plants 7) Traditional Human Geography (before 1970)
HG in early 20th c. asked: * how are humans shaped by the natural landscape? * Extreme Answer: Environmental Determinism (late 19th century): * “landscape shapes humans”
HG later in the 20th c. asked: * how do humans shape the cultural landscape? * Possibilism (Carl Sauer, Landscape School, 1925) * humans make choices that shape the landscape, environend does not shape humans * these choices are often culturally determined 8) New Human Geography (after 1970) sees culture as a form of power struggle between humans * power to define others (Discourse Analysis!--> helps understand biases) * who is ‘ethnic’? * who owns/controls the cultural landscape? * how is culture used to * maintain power * ‘High Culture’: Formal fashion, Classical music * challenge power * Subcultures, Fringe Cultures: Body Piercing, Hip Hop 9) Case studies:
Religion 10) Language and Culture
Language transmits culture * across time * across space
Language unites a culture
Languages separate cultures 11) How is language connected to landscape?
Language can influence our perception and use of landscape Great American Desert 12) Great American Desert
(in Canada: Palliser’s Triangle) * Americans bought out Louisiana territory and went out on an expedition and found the great American desert (no trees) useless * Palliser’s triangle the connotation of “desert” caused people to avoid it * Now the prairies and plains; bread basket it was actually fertile 13) Early 20th century: The pendulum swings back 14) How is language connected to landscape?
Language may give clues as to who settled/invaded a landscape who or what was there before current settlement
In other words: we can use place names to ‘map’ serial occupancy of an area-> one group occupying a place after another
Study of place names: Toponymy 15) Example of Toponymy:
Place Names in Britain (do not study this!)
Celts (5th – 1st century B.C.): * brig, drum (hill)
Romans (1st – 4th centuries A.D.): * West-CHESTER (castle) * Daven-PORT (harbour) 16) Anglo-Saxons
Early settlement (5th century A.D.): * Dork-ING (territory of the people of…) * Chelten-HAM (homestead)
Later settlement (6-8th centuries A.D.): * Whittles-BOROUGH (fortified place) * Haver-FORD (crossing place)
‘Hived-off’ daughter settlements (9th c. A.D.): * Smith-FIELD (clearing in wood) * Hamp-STEAD (place)
Further clearing (10th century A.D.): * Ash-HURST (wooded height) * Winning-DEN (pasture for pigs in wood) 17) Vikings (8th-11th centuries A.D.)
Names for settlements: * Mores-BY (homestead) * Burnham-THORPE (daughter settlement)
Names for physical features: * Whit-BERG (hill) * Clover-DALE (valley) 18) Normans (1066 A.D.): Herstmonceux: ‘Hurst’ and ‘de Monceaux’ 19) What about place names in North America?
* Sault Ste. Marie, Detroit, Louisiana, New Orleans, Vermont
* Los Angeles, San Francisco, Las Vegas
* Bamberg, Heidelberg, Mannheim, New Hamburg * Berlin
* Nieuw Amsterdam
Sequence of occupation: Native, French, English * Cataraqui, Fort Frontenac, Kingston
…speaking of Dutch: let’s look at the town of Willemstad (or ‘Willam’s Town’)… 20) Toponymy
Place names thus may tell us who settled/invaded a landscape (and when): * we can ‘map’ serial occupancy
But not always! * Examples from Ontario: * Roman: Dorchester * Anglo-Saxon: Pickering, Chatham Scarborough Gravenhurst, Cobden * Vikings: Grimsby, Willowdale 21) The Importance of Language:
Cultural Identity * Language is being lost bc it’s not being used in public discourse 22) Turkey outlaws ‘separatist’ sheep and fox names because they
‘represent a threat to national unity’
March 2005: the Turkish Environment Minister Osman Pepe states that the ‘Kurdish fox’ (Vulpes Vulpes kurdistanica) and the ‘Armenian sheep’ (Ovis Armeniana) ‘represent a threat to national unity.’
He decrees they be renamed ‘fox’ and ‘Anatolian sheep’ 23) First Nations of British Columbia and Ontario 24) Religion and Culture
Religion prescribes behavior which is why it still exists
Religion is about finding our place in the world`` 25) Religion and Landscape * Former Yugoslavia * Northern Ireland * India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh * Newfoundland and the meatless day – fisherman came to nfl bc bible said go meatless on Friday, so fish was what they needed to stay healthy * Sacred cows, sacred dogs… * Jewish cemeteries * City skylines and church steeples 26) -------------------------------------------------
Mosque in Rotterdam taller than churches in area which created a lot of controversy
Ch.6: Interpreting Places & Landscapes
Key Terms: * Ordinary/vernacular landscapes: everyday landscapes that people crease in the course of their lives * Symbolic landscapes: representations of particular values or aspirations that the builders and financiers of those landscapes want to impart to a larger public * Derelict landscapes: landscapes that have experienced abandonment, misuse, disinvestment or vandalism * Humanistic approach: places the individual – especially individual values, meaning systems, intentions and conscious acts – at the centre of analysis * Landscape as text: the idea that landscapes can be read and written by groups and individuals * Aesthetic: culturally determined standard of beauty and good taste * Picturesque: landscape design inspired by 18t century landscape painters in the Romantic tradition * Sublime: a landscape so impressive that it inspires awe or wonder * Territoriality: the persistent attachment of individuals or peoples to a specific territory or location * Ethology: the scientific study of the formation and evolution of human customs and beliefs * Proxemics: study of the social and cultural meanings that people give to personal space * Sense of place: feelings evoked among people as a result of the experiences and memories that they associate with a place and they symbolism they attach to it * Topophilia: the emotions and meanings associated with particular places that have become significant to individuals * Semiotics: the practice of writing and reading signs * Modernism: a forward – looking view of the world that emphasizes reason, scientific rationality, creativity, novelty and progress * Postmodernism: a view of the world that emphasizes an openness to a range of perspectives in social inquiry, artistic expression and political empowerment * Cosmopolitanism: an intellectual and aesthetic openness toward divergent experiences, images, and products from different cultures.
Landscape as a Human System
What is a Landscape * Landscape means different things to different people * Contemporary geographers * Landscape is a comprehensive product of human action such that every landscape is a complex repository of society: collection of evidence about our character and experience, our struggles an triumphs as humans * Ordinary/vernacular landscapes: * Landscapes are changed and in turn, influence and change perceptions, values and behaviours of the people who live and work in them * Ex: trailer park, parking lots, tree shaded suburbs * Symbolic landscapes: * Ex: parliament hill * Landscapes of powergated communities * Landscapes of despair homeless encampments * Derelict landscapes * Landscapes of fear * Agoraphobia fear of pen spaces * Landscapes have many layers of meanings that are expressed and understood differently by different social groups at different times * Many cultural landscapes exist in a single place may reflect the lives of ordinary ad more powerful people, their dreams, ideas and material lives * Humanistic approach * Different people comprehend different landscapes differently ex: children vs. parents * Important counterweight to the the tendency to talk about a social group or society more generally * Criticism: humanistic research has limited utility bc individual attitudes and views do not necessarily add up to views held by a group or society * Alternative to humanistic approach explore the role of larger forces (culture, gender, government, ways in which these forces enhance or constrain individuals’ lives) * Relationship between people and environment is interactive, not one way. And landscape is more dynamic and complex than Sauer’s
Landscape as Text * Departs from traditional attempts to systemize/categorize landscapes base on different elements they contain * Can be read as signs about values, beliefs, practices * Can be understood by considering how individuals experience or value landscapes * Landscapes produce and communicate meaning

The Aesthetics of Landscape * Aesthetics: culturally ad historically determined, influenced by changing attitudes to nature
The Evolution of Garden Design * Gardens reflect the elite’s ability to control space message of wealth and power * Our attitudes to nature are culturally contstructed * European landscape gardens have influenced Canadian garden aesthetics other gardening traditions also make an impact * Evolution of European garden 4 basic phases: * Italian garden nature domesticated (1550-1650) * Small scale, controlled planting in rectangular beds around owner’scila * Reflected a esire to domesticate nature * Controlled water, fountains and canals * Clear separation from outside fear that wilderness still existed beyond the walls * French garden: nature subdued (1650-1720) * Geometic planings, topiary of garden around hose * Vast series of endess straight avenues f trees radiating out from house * Wilderness became a park showed power of empire * English garden: nature triumphant (1750-1850) * Geometric landcscapes on vast scale * Didn’t suit “romantic aesthetic” developed in Britain at the time * Industrializaiton and urbanization were contributing to a sense of lss and nostalgia for natire * Nature was no longer feared as wilduncorrupted and closer to god than everything else in the industrialization period * Showed celebration of nature * Picturesque: main landscape esthetic * City park: municipal nature (1850 – present) * Slow decline in economic fortunes of he cor’s elite made it too expensive for them to support large houses and gardens * Gardens should be made available to a wider number of people public gardens * Many became tourist attractions
Canadian Garden Design * French, English and city park landscapes had an influence on Canadian garden design * French nova scotia * Englishused in private gardens of 19th century industrialists * There were no ambitious goals or resources for all municipal parks * Most were made to serve for pubiic recreationwithout the demands of major landscaping projects * Established at strategic points around Canadian Pacific Railroad to spread new idea of beautifying public spaces aross the country * Canada is still influenced by English style we mow our front lawns and keep them looking perfect and “natural” by using unnatural things * Real hallmark of a “Canadian aesthetic” ability to appreciate true wilderness or landscapes untouched by people

The Construction of an Aesthetic * Europeans feared mountains because they were the realm of ghosts and robbersthey were of little use for farming and not valued * This idea became reconstructed * Landscapes that had the power to induce this sublime, or awe, were the ones to be most valued * As a result, elemental nature, the nature of windswerpt coasts, storms, etc became reinterpreted as desireable across eurpose * Sublime was an aesthetic particulary suited to Canadian landscape has dominated painting, photography and fiction * We are taught to value sublime landscapes * Canadian’s have endured rather than conquered nature in their settlement of this country * However, the opposite is a better generalization in the south of the border * Policy analysts and planners are increasingly realizing that as the agricultural value of the country side diminishes, alternative sources of value in our rural areas must be found * Environmental stewardship provides one such value * Countryside aesthetic provides another * The repository of memory and image in the rural landscape is, in many ways, an untapped resource for Canadian rural development *
Place Making/Place Marketing * Humans have an innate sense or territoriality * Part of the study of theology * Also used to refer to the behaviour of animals in their natural environments * Territory gives a source of physical safety and security, a source of stimulation (through border disputes) and physical expression of identity * Adds up to a strong territorial urge * Territoriality as a product of culturally established meanings is supported by a large body of scientific evidence * Some come from the field of proxemics * Increased use of cell phones destabilizes some of these carefully ordered spaces because larger amounts of personal space are required to keep phone conversations private * At larger spatial scales, territoriality is mostly a product of forces that stem from social relationships and cultural systems * All social organizations and the individuals who beling to them are bound at some scale or another by formal or informal terrirotial limits * Many of them (nations, corporations, unions, clubs) claim a spefific geographical scape under control * Territoriality can be defined as any attempt to asset control over a specific geographical area to achieve some degree of control over other people, resources or relationships * Also defined as any attempt to fulfull socially produced needs for identity, defence and stimulation * Teriitoriality provides a means of fulfilling 3 social and cultural nneds * Regulation of social interaction * Regulation of access to people and resources * Provision of a focus and symbol of group membership and identity * Facilitates classification, communicaton and enforcement * Gives a tangible form to power and control in a way that directs attention away from the personal relationships between the controlled and the controllers * Rules and laws become associated with particular spaces and territories rather than with particular individuals or groups * Allows people to create and maintain a framework through which to experience the world and give it meaning

Sense of Place * Can also refer to the character of a place as seen by outsiders unique or distinctive physical characteristics or its inhabitants * Bonds established between people and places through territoriality allow people to derive a pool of shared meanings from their lived experience of everyday routines * For insiders * It is the natural outcome of people’s familiarity with one another ad their surroundings * For outsiders: details add up to a sense of place only if they are distinctive enough to evoke a significant common meaning for those with no direct experience * Our personal engagement with places gives us a sense of place
Experience and Meaning * People filter information from their environments through neurophysiological processes but also draw on personality and culture to produce cognitive images of their environment, pictures, or representations of the world that can be called to the mind through imagination * Cognitive images what people see in the mind’s eye when they think of a particular place/setting * 2 important attributes * Simplify and distort real world environments * Many people tend to organize their cognitive images of particular parts of the world in terms of several simple elements * Paths: channels along which they and others move (streets, walkways, transit lines, canals) * Edges: barriers that separate one area from another (shorelines, walls, railroad tracks) * Districts: area with an identifiable character (physical and/or cultural) that people mentally “enter” and “leave” (business district, ethic neighbourhood) * Nodes: strategic points and for travel (street corners, traffic intersections, city squares) * Landmarks: physical reference points (distinctive landforms, buildings, monuments) * Distortions in peole’s cognititve images are partly the result of incomplete information * Also partly a result of our own biases
Images and Behaviour * Cognitive images are partly compiled through behavioural patterns * Environments are learned through experience * Once generated, cognitive images influence behaviour * The more elements (districts, nodes and landmarks)an environment cotnaints, the more distinctive they are and the more legible the environment is to people and easier it s to get oriented and navigate * The more first hand information people have about their environment and the more they are able to draw on secondary sources of information, the more detailed and comprehensice their images will be * The narrower and more localized people’s images are, the less they weill tend to venture beyond their home area * People’s images of places are important in shaping particular aspects of their behaviour * Sentimental and symbolic attributes ascribed to places of cognitive imagery is of special importance in modifying people’s behaviour topophilia
Place Marketing * Sense of place has become a valuable commodity due to this, and culture has become and important economic activity * Central to place marketing is the deliberate manipulation of material and visual culture in an effort to enhance the appeal of places to key groups (upper level management of large corporations, higher skilled and better educated personal sought by expanding high tech industries, wealthy tourists, organizers of business and professional conferences and other income generating events) * This manipulation of culture depends on promoting traditions, lifestyles andarts tat are locally rooted * Places like UK with high density of historic districts and settings, place marketing relies heavily on heritage industry * Economic impact of heritage tourism * Direct: money for admission, gifts and food purchased during their visit * Indirect: increase revenue brought into area’s hotels, money on transportation * Hard to attribute to just heritage sites because they might have reasons other than heritage to be there * Difficult to calculate “economic multiplier” effects due to heritage tourism -> some benefits tricle down though a regions economy but not all spending will * One important aspect of the influence of heritage industry on saces, places, and landscapes is the tendency for historic districts and settings to be re-created, imitated, simulated and even reinvented according to commercial considerations rather than principles of preservation or conservation * Contemporary landscapes contain increasing numbers of inauthentic settings * Ability to market a region using some of the many components of the cultural region as selling points
Coded Spaces
Semiotics in the Landscape * Semiotics proposes the view that innumerable signs are embedded or displaced in landscape, space, and place, sending messages about identity, values, beliefs and practices * The signs that are constructed may have different meanings for those who produce them and those who read or interpret them * The shopping mall as a coded space: * Messages deployed though landscape and embedded in spaces and places * Placement and mix of stores and teir interior design, arrangement of prodts within stores * Palaces of consumption malls are complex semiotic sites directing important signals about what to buy, who should and should not shop there * Mall is a pseudoplace meant to encourage shorpping by projecting the illusion that something else besides shopping and spending money is going on * Most malls possesss a kind of sociocultural geology where the lowest level of the mall is a landscape with ower middle class semitocs * *Consumption is a predominant aspect of globalization* * For malls to succeed commercially, we must be persuaded that these they are not machines for consumtion * Malls create a sense of place by creating allusions to the following: * The traditional “main street” of small town North America entails design references and the creating of a feeling of public space in the mall * Carnivals or open- air markets illusion of a friendly exchange through market handcards, sidewalk sales, traveling performers * Natur: to increase people’s confort levels and to disguise the mall’s links to consumption, references to nature aremade by using plants, lighting, mirrors and fountains * Stores create in us a sense of place through the following * Their simple allusion o plae names * Their general allusion to a distant time period * Replication of a specific place * Forms of retailing present growing difficulties over the use of private and public space * Signals the landscape gves are ambiguous and depend heavily on our intentions and who we are * The City Plan as Coded Space * Costa’s crosses for Brasilia smiotic connection to 2ideal types found in both ancient and contemporary city planning and founding * The architecture of federal capitals contain more subtle and more explicit messages about the strength and purpose of government there * Not all signs are consistent, even when planners and designers have complete control over their projects, because readers do not always interpret signs in the way creators intended
Postmodern Spaces * The shift to postmodern cultural sensibilities is of particular importance to cultural geography because of the ways in which changed attitudes and values have begun to influence place making and the creation of landscapes
Modernism and Postmodernism * Modernism: one of the major influences on the interdependencies among culture, society, space, place and landscape * Throughout this period, a confident and forward looking modernist philosophy remained virtually unquestioned, with the result that places and regions everywhere were heavily shaped by people acting out their notions of rational behaviours and progress * Postmodermism: result of a reconfiguration of sociocultural values that has taken place in tandem with the reconfiguration of the political economy of the core countries * Abandons modernism’s emphasis on economic and scientific progress, arguing that modernism’s faliure to deliver such progress is indicative of its flaws * Rejects value of grand universal theories * Result of a reconfiguration of the political economy of the core countries of the world * “cultural clothing” of the postindustrial economy * Favours the unique and values difference * Consumption oriented * Has caused us to re-evaluate how we reflect on “landscapes of dereliction”
Globalization and Postmodernism * Mass communications media have created global culture markets in print, film, music, etc * Internet has created a new kind of space cyberspace * Instantaneous character of contemporary communications shared global consciousness from the staging of global events * Mass communiations meda have diffused certain values and attitudes toward a wide spectrum of sociocultural issues citizenship, human rights, child rearing, social welfare, self expression * International legal conventions have increasd the degree of standardization and level of harmonization of trade, labour practices, criminal justice, civil rights and environmental regulations * “culture industries” (advertising, publishing, etc) have become important shapers of spaces, places and landscape * Products are advertised in terms of their association with a particular lifestyle rather than in terms of their intrinsic utility * Contemporary cultures rely much more than before not only on material consumption, but also on visual and experiential consumption (purchase of images and the experience of spectacular and distinctive places, physical settings and landscapes) * Consumption of Place? The restaurant as Cultural Site * Increasing trend toward the consumption of experiences emergence of restaurants as significant cultural sites * Powerful place makers * Local cuisines are well able to convey a powerful sense of regional identity * Food embodies powerful memories of time as well as images of place or region * We are brought up accustomed by our own culture to eat certain foods comfort foods * As a result, immigrants will strive to presernce as much of their native cuisine as they can * After migrating to Canada, the distinctive ecuisines of the imigrant’s homeland continue to becooked they become valued for their memories of home as an important aspect in the retention of group identities in the new country * Ethnic restaurant served as a clear cultural geographical marker of that group’s spatial presence in an area * Ethnic cuisines have become so much sought after by the wider public that ethnic restaurants have greatly increased in number * Ethnic restaurants have been so successful bc they counter the homogenization of the restaurant experience with an emphasis on exotic or unique cuisines postmodernism’s celebration of place if opposed to globalization’s erosion of difference * Postmodern emphasis on material, visual and experiential consumption meants that many aspects of contemporary culture transcend local and national boundaries * Contributes to cosmopolitanism fosters curiousity about all places, peoples, cultures together * Allows people to locate their own society and its culture in terms of a wide ranging historical and geographical framework * Encourages willingness and ability to take the risk of exploring off the beaten track of tourist locales * Develops skills needed to interpret other cultures and to understand visual symbolism * The cultural geography of cyberspace: * Rapid growth of internet brought a massive global immigration into cyberspace * Sharing points of interest through social networking, maps and gps * Internet represents the leading edge of globalization of culture * Culture propagated by internet is core oriented * Internet shopping has begun to change the nature of consumerism; * These changes are likely to be highly uneven in their impact because of the digital divide * Possible that thesenew technologies will actively undermine businesses in the periphery * In some places there is resistance to the cultural globalization associated with cyberspace quebec sensitive about influence of English language popular culture
Chapter 6 Landscape and Power

1) ‘Traditional’ Cultural Geography: * relationship between Human Cultures and Landscapes, e.g., * Place names (last lecture) * House/barn/fence styles * often rather uncritical * did not question purpose of research or who benefits from it

2) ‘New’ Cultural Geography: * studies relationship between Power and Landscape * researches the politics of culture: * why is the research done? * who benefits? * who has the power to make (or suppress) changes in how the cultural landscape * is created * is divvied up among owners * is changed over time * Note that this refers to internal power relations between people and institutions in the same country * later this term: international power relations between countries (Political Geography, Ch 9) * some examples of New Cultural Geography Research: * Mobility of * AIDS patients * Criminals – map where crime occurs * Protestant/Catholic shoppers * Mental map of US

3) Our focus today: Gender * 1 Gender and Geography * 2 Historicity: There is a Place and Time for Gender Roles… * 3 Moral Geographies * 4 Quantitative and Qualitative Research on Gender: The case of spousal assault in K-W * 5 Gender and Poverty

4) Why do we need a gender-aware geography? * Because men and women differ in their * Experience of space * Income * Education * Health * Mobility * note that none of these have anything to do with alleged ‘natural abilities’ or ‘limitations’ of ‘the weaker sex’ etc… * instead, they are gendered * i.e., socially constructed roles!

5) Historicity of Gender Roles: * Gender Roles: * allocation of tasks, rights, income, space, etc. to people on the basis of their gender * Sex vs. Gender * Samoa: fa'afafine: ‘in the manner of a woman’ * biological males who express feminine gender identities * Tonga: fakaleiti * French Polynesia: rae rae * Hawaii: mahu

6) Gender roles * have a place and time * Place (geography) * India * Time (history): * Rosie the Riveter 7) Suburbanization literally cast Gender Roles in stone * Suburbs reflect the idea of a nuclear family with * the male pursuing paid work * the female taking care of the house and the children * Until the 1970s, suburbs confined women to the neighbourhood (no public transit, no second car)

8) Our zoning laws and planning practices still reflect this idea that home and work do not mix: * house design (open concept kitchen vs. secluded den) * single land use * feminized suburbs and masculinized industrial areas * but that is changing rapidly with the changing labour market! 9) Cause or Result? Moral Geographies of Gender * masculinized public space: * workplace, streets, * dangerous * feminized private space: * home, (Dept. Store), suburbs, * safe * Corresponding moral geographies: * Private Home * “a woman’s place” * Public Streets * “what was she doing out on the street at that time of night?”

10) Quantitative and Qualitative Research on Gender * Example from Waterloo: Spousal Assault * Master’s Thesis by Claudia Saheb in Dept. of Geography * Some of her research questions: * what is the spatial distribution of assaults? * are there ‘risk indicators’ such as unemployment, etc.? * What do you think?

11) Spatial Inequality: frequency of personal abuse-related crimes

12) Quantitative work * where do these assaults ‘take place’? * hot spots analysis of assault rate vs. repeat assault rate

13) Quantitative work: * why is Waterloo’s rate lower? * can socio-economic variables serve as ‘risk indicators’? * unemployment?--> not a predictor * housing situation? (single-detached vs. apartments) reported rates in apartments are higher but also occurs in houses, yet less reported * residential mobility? (one-year movers/five-year non-movers) * no children living at home? more reported when there are no children * …but what hides behind the statistics?

14) Qualitative Research: * Moving from stats to scars… * how many assaults on spouses are reported? * …and until the police are finally called… * how many non-reported attacks on the same victim happened before that call? * finally, listen to some interview transcripts by a British researcher…these are the voices of victims…

15) * Gillie, 35: “I don’t know. I kept thinking he was changing, you know, change for the better…he’s bound to change. Then I used to think it’s my blame and I used to lie awake at night wondering if it is my blame – you know, I used to blame myself all the time.” * Annika, 28: “I went to my parents and of course he came – I left him because of his hitting and kicking me – I went home to them, but he came there and I had to go. I went back [to him] really to keep the peace because my parents weren’t able to cope with it.” * Jenny, 24: “I have had ten stitches, three stitches, five stitches, seven stitches where he has cut me. I have had a knife stuck through my stomach; I have had a poker put through my face; I have no teeth where he knocked them all out; I have been burnt with red hot pokers; I have had red hot coals slung over me; I have been sprayed with petrol [gas] and stood there while he has flicked lighted matches at me. But I had to stay there because I could not get out. He has told me to get out. Yet if I had stood up I know what would have happened to me. I would have gotten knocked down again.”

16) Gender and Poverty * Most geographical work on poverty and residential segregation in cities has focussed on ethnicity and class: * gender blindness * Yet women and men are distributed unevenly in cities and they have different needs and problems

17) Feminisation of Poverty in Inner Cities: * More women than men live in inner cities: * Minneapolis 110 females for 100 males * Washington, D.C.: 115 females for 100 males * …what about Toronto?

18) Why are there more females than males in the inner cities? * above-average number of households in inner city are headed by * single women (professionals, but also low-income) * single moms * elderly/widowed women * larger number of women among the elderly because of higher female life expectancy * women and their children make up the bulk of the poor * feminisation of poverty crosses all ethnic groups * But why in the inner city?

19) Why in the Inner Cities? * inner cities offer cheap housing * but poor housing conditions * why do women need cheaper housing? * lower wages than men * preponderance of part time work * lack of job security in ‘women’s jobs’ * child care responsibilities * short commute

20) Putting it all together: * Women move to or stay in inner cities because of the affordability of housing * and they often become homeless when their income fails * Homelessness: one quarter of 250,000 homeless people in Canada are children * problem: lack of definition and statistics!

21) Conclusion 1: * These examples clearly show how * a social idea (nuclear family with a male breadwinner and a dependent wife who looks after home and children) can actually shape the spatial organization of the urban landscape * the spatial mobility of women is curtailed by our current gender roles * When we look at urban landscape today, we must look at gender roles as part of the explanation!

22) Conclusion 2: * Things are changing! (Constructivist view!) * Gentrification of inner city areas renovate and completely change how house looks * women marry later * have fewer or no children * have better paying jobs * Consequences: * DINK (double income couples can afford higher rents or make renovations * want to be close to theatres etc for which they have time and money to spare

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... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 1 General notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 1 .1 Citations and footnotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 1 .1 .1 1 .1 .2 1 .1 .3 1 .1 .4 Citing cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Citing legislation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Citing secondary sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Order of sources in footnotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 1 .2 Subsequent citations, cross-references and Latin ‘gadgets’ . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 1 .2 .1 Subsequent citations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 1 .2 .2 Cross-references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 1 .2 .3 Latin ‘gadgets’ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...

Words: 18564 - Pages: 75