Free Essay

# Chapter 1 Review Psy 315

Submitted By bambi86
Words 792
Pages 4
Ch.1. Review
Amber Hennrich
May 26, 2014
12. Explain and give an example for each of the following types of variables: (a) equal-interval, (b) rank-order, (c) nominal, (d) ratio scale, (e) continuous.
A) An equal-interval is a variable in which numbers stand for approximately equals amounts of what is being measured. Example: Grade Point Average
B) A rank-order variable is numeric and the numbers stand only for the relative ranking. Example: A graduate standing in their class. Their GPA makes a big difference for instance if they stand first or second in the class.
C) A nominal variable is not numeric and values are names or categories. Example: A nominal variable for gender would be female and male.
D) A ratio scale is measured by equal-interval variable. An equal-interval variable has an absolute zero point on the ratio scale. An absolute zero point means there is an absence of the variable.
Example: A number of cats an individual has. If one person has three and the other has six, you can say that they have three times the amount of that person.
E) A continuous variable is a theory that you can have an infinite number between 2 variables. Example: An example of this would big age. You can say you are 12.5 years old.
15. Make (a) a frequency table and (b) a histogram. Then (c) describe the general shape of the distribution.
A)
Speeds | Frequency | Percent | 15-21 | 2 | 5% | 22-28 | 4 | 10% | 29-35 | 17 | 42.50% | 36-42 | 13 | 32.50% | 43-53 | 4 | 5% |

B) http://nces.ed.gov/nceskids/createagraph/graphwrite.asp?ID=b8877424c4834801b7d9e181d80b9102&file=png
C) I believe this graph would be bimodal. It has two high points very close together and has the same cause throughout. It is easy to tell that most people either do the speed limit of speed in this frequency table. A very small percent of people are under the speed limit in the 35 mph zone.
19. Give an example of something having these distribution shapes: (a) bimodal, (b) approximately rectangular, and (c) positively skewed.
A) An example of a bimodal distribution shape could be the day’s account of college freshmen taking final examinations in Algebra 1. For the first two hours students scored 85-98%. The next two hours the scores were 84-88% and the final hours were 55-99%.
B) An example of approximately rectangular distribution could be a college classroom full of 25 students. 15 students were 19 years old and 10 students were 32 years of age.
C) An example of positively skewed could be income. There will be a few people with high income but most will be below the mean and bunched closely together.
20. Find an example in a newspaper or magazine of a graph that misleads by failing to use equal interval sizes or by exaggerating proportions.
The proportions on this graph are exaggerated proportions. The 8.6% is higher than it is supposed to be. They needed to draw lines but they did it like this to make it look like a significant jump.

21. A) This is a frequency table. It shows how frequent speeds were in a 35 mph zone. This table makes it easier to point out information then just writing it in text. For example, as you can see, 2 people drove 15-21 mph in a 35 mph zone.
B) From this frequency table I can see that there are three groups: no competition, some competition, and a lot of competition. When you glance at the table you can see that the majority lies within the group with some competition. The other two categories: no competition and a lot of competition are very close with a low number in comparison to the some competition category.
22. A) This is a frequency table that is used to shows how the last three relationships of male and female were aggressive. There are 9 categories. The first four rows are female and the last four are male. The comparison is for the people who said they had none of the 9 categories in their last three relationships.
B) From this table I see that perpetrators and comparisons on average are off by 1-3 on both men and women. Prosocial/acceptable explanations category was zero throughout for men and women. Tied categories were higher in women than men. This table shows that the aggression is within men and women and not off by much. Rejection of perpetrator or act was the most frequent category between men and women. Comparisons said they did not engage in any aggressive behavior in their last three relationships and the perpetrators did.

### Similar Documents

Premium Essay

#### Chapter 4 Practice Problems Psy/315

...PSY/315 March 4, 2013 Chapter 4 Practice Problems (11) List the five steps of hypothesis testing, and explained the procedure and logic of each. 1) Restate the research question; specify the null theory about the populations. State the null theory and the alternate theory Null: Ho: Alteration: Ha: 2) Determine the features of the compared distribution. Define the level of significance, using type 1 errors; identify sample size using data and resources that are available. 3) Define the region cutoff sample score. Identify the test statistics and sampling distributions. 4) Determine the sample’s score on the comparison distribution. Collect any data and compute the statistics test to find p -value 5) Select the appropriate theory. Classify the p-value and identify whether not to reject the null theory. Summarize the results and give a clear comprehensive solution towards the underline problem. (14) Based on the information given for each of the following studies; decide whether to reject the null hypothesis. For each, give (a) the Z- score cutoff (or cutoffs) on the comparison distribution at which the null hypothesis should be rejected (b) the Z score on the comparison distribution for the sample score and (c) your conclusion. Assume that all populations are normally distributed. Study A-D mean population = 5 Standard deviation = 1 Sample score = 7 P = study A&B =.05 P = study C&D = .01 Tails of this study a = 1(high prediction) Study...

Words: 844 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

#### Chapter 7 Practice Problems Psy/315

...PSY/315 March 18, 2013 Chapter 7 14.) Evolutionary theory often emphasizes that human have adapted to their physical environment. One such theory hypothesizes that people should spontaneously follow a 24-hour cycle of sleeping and waking-even though they are not exposed to the usual pattern of sunlight. To test this notion, eight paid volunteers were placed (individually) in a room in which there were no light from outside and no clocks or other indications of time. They could turn the lights on and off is they wish. After a month in the room, each individual tended to develop a study cycle. Their cycles at the end of the study were as follows: 25, 27, 25, 23, 24, 25, 26, and 25. Using the 0 .5 level of significance, what should we conclude about the theory that 24 hours is the natural cycle? (That is, does the average cycling under these conditions differ significantly from 24-hour?) (a) Use the steps of hypothesis testing. (b) Sketch the distributions involved, (c) explain yourself to someone who has never had a course in statistics. (a) Steps of hypothesis testing 1. Restate the question as a research hypothesis and a null hypothesis about the populations. There are two populations Population 1: people who are given the experimental test for 24 hours is the natural cycle. Population 2: people who are given the experimental test in less than 24 hours is the natural cycle. The null hypothesis: µ = 24 The alternative hypothesis: µ ≠ 24 2. Define......

Words: 1742 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

#### Chapter 10 Exercises Review Questions 1-10

...Chapter 10 Exercises Review Questions 1-10 1. Define the term system architecture. Define the term scalability, and explain why it is important to consider scalability in system design. System architecture translates the logical design of an information system into a physical structure that includes hardware, software, network support, and processing methods. Then, Scalability is the measure of a system’s ability to expand, change, or downsize easily to meet the changing needs of a business enterprise. Scalability is important to consider in implementing systems that are volume related, such as transaction processing systems. 2. When selecting an architecture, what items should a systems analyst consider as part of the overall design checklist? Before selecting a system architecture, the analyst must consider the following issues: Enterprise resource planning (ERP) Initial cost and (TCO) Scalability Web integration Legacy system interface requirements Processing options Security issues 3. What is enterprise resource planning (ERP)? What is supply chain management? Enterprise resource planning (ERP) defines a specific architecture, including standards for data, processing, network, and user interface design. It is important because it describes a specific hardware and software environment that ensures hardware connectivity and easyintegration of future applications, including in house software and commercial packages. ERP also can extend to suppliers......

Words: 404 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

#### Psy 315 Dq 1

...DQ 1: What are some terms related to hypothesis testing that you are already familiar with? What is the difference between a null and an alternative hypothesis statement? Why do a null and alternative hypothesis have to be mutually exclusive? (Due Wednesday) Terms that is related to hypothesis testing that I am familiar with is hypothesis, which means a prediction which is usually based on an informal observation, research and it is tested in a study. Theory is another term I know. Theory is what one has or a set of principles that tries to explain one or more facts. I did not know there was something called null hypothesis. According to our textbook, “null hypothesis” is because it “states the situation in which there is no difference ( the difference is null) between the populations” (Aron, Aron, & Coups, 2009). Null hypothesis will show that there is no observed effect for a experiment. A null hypothesis is what one tries to overturn his or her hypothesis test. Taylor (2013) states, “We hope to obtain a small enough p-value that we are justified in rejecting the null hypothesis” (para. 3). A alternative hypothesis is also known as an experimental hypothesis. It shows that there is a observed effect for an experiment. It is what one tries to show in an indirect way by using the hypothesis testing. If the null hypothesis is rejected then one will see that the alternative hypothesis is effective. Now if the finding are not null then one will not accept the alternative of......

Words: 318 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

#### Review Questions: Chapter 1

...Review Questions: Chapter 1 1.1. Define the following terms: data, database, DBMS, database system, database catalog, program-data independence, user view, DBA, end user, canned transaction, deductive database system, persistent object, meta-data, and transaction-processing application. • Data – known facts that can be recorded and that have implicit meaning. • Database – a collection of related data with an implicit meaning. • DBMS – a collection of programs that enables users to create and maintain a database • Database system – not only contains the database itself bit also a complete definition or description of the database structure and constrains. • Database catalog – the information about the database structure is stored in the Database Catalog which contains the structure of each file, the type and storage format of each data item, and various constrains of the data. • Program-Data Independence – DBMS access programs do not require changes in all programs due to the change in the structure of a file because the structure of data files is stored in the DBMS catalog separately from the access programs. • User View – a database typically has many users, and each of whom may require a different perspective or view of the database. A view may be a subset of the database or it may contain virtual data the is derived from the database files but is not explicitly stored. • DBA – a database administrator (short form DBA) is a......

Words: 2493 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

#### Psy 315 Chapter 4 Practice Problems 11,14,18

...Statistics for Psychology Mary Hale 7/8/2013 PSY 315 Dr. Ellis-Morris Prepare a written response to the following assignments located in the text: Ch. 1, Practice Problems: 12, 15, 19, 20, 21, & 22 (12) Explain and give an example for each of the following types of variables: A) equal interval- A variable whose value is not known and can take on different values. For example 0 degrees Celsius or Fahrenheit (0 degrees Celsius does not mean there is no temperature but it is different from 0 degrees Fahrenheit.) B) rank order- variables that are individual observations that can be put into order from smallest to largest, even though the exact values are unknown. An example of this would be shirts, small, medium and large shirts. C) Nominal- variables which are also called categorical variables. They classify observations into a small number of categories. Examples are 1) "types of property" can include houses, condos, Co-ops, or bungalows. Another example 2) Gender or race D) Ratio Scale- is measured data with a zero point and provides information relative to an absolute zero. An example of this is a person's weight. The scale starts at 0 and when you step on it, the amount goes up starting from 0 to the amount of weight on it. (It has to start at 0). E) Continuous- variables that are numeric and can be any number (positive or negative). Examples of...

Words: 747 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

#### Intro to Business Review: Chapter 1

...1. What factors contribute to the rapid pace of change in business?  Is the pace likely to accelerate or decrease over the next decade? Why? Answer: Some key factors contributing to the rapid pace of change in business are the economy and Wall Street. The interest rates and loan terms have greatly changed businesses. It is harder to borrow money, as a small business especially. The job market has also changed businesses dramatically. I believe the pace will accelerate over the next decade. The economy is recovering from the recession of 2008 and the business are buying and selling again and the unemployment rate is declining. 2. What role does entrepreneurship play in the economy?  Who stands to gain from the success of individual entrepreneurs?  How do other parties benefit? Answer: Entrepreneurial enterprises can kick start an economy, creating great opportunity for everyone involved in the building, developing and manufacturing of the product . The downside is that it could force out competing business.     3. When did American business begin to concentrate on customer needs?  Why?   Answer: Business began to focus on the customer needs during the Marketing era. The reason was more intense competition, which gave consumers more choices. Because of this meeting customer needs became an imperative for business success.   4. How do nonprofit organizations compare to businesses?  What role do nonprofits play in the economy?  How do they......

Words: 322 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

#### Chapter 1-3 Computer Structure and Logic Review

...Chapter 1 review questions 1. Which of the following is an example of a PC? The 8088 processor marked the start of the home and office based PC’s given that it had a 1mb address limit making a more efficient machine. 2. Who is credited with the patent of the first computer? John V. Atanasoff was the first person accredited for the invention of the computer due to his use of modern digital switching techniques. 3. In the Von Neumann architecture, what two make up the CPU? In Von Neumann’s model of the CPU there are three components, only two are listed in this review and they are the control unit and the arithmetic unit. 4. What technology alleviates the problem of the “Von Neumann bottleneck”? in this chapter they explain the issue of bottlenecking like a highway, where the information sent and received traveled through a narrow highway on the original architecture. The solution to the problem was creating what is now referred to as Cache memory. 5. Which of the following are groups within the Von Neumann architecture? There are four groups to the basic architecture Working Storage, Permanent Storage, Output and Input devices. 6. What are the three main connections in a transistor. Transistors are made using the same architecture as a vacuum tube just in a much smaller and safer manner, these connections are called the “Gate” the “Drain” and the “conductor”. 7. MOSSFET is the most common type of what electronic component? MOSSFET (standing for......

Words: 2681 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

#### Caff 321 Chapter 1-4 Review Questions

...MICHELLE LU - 011810966 CAFF 321 CHAPTER REVIEW QUESTIONS (1-4) Chapter 1 1. Why does Daniel Gilbert, author of Stumbling on Happiness, say that experiences might bring more satisfaction than durable goods? Do you agree or disagree? Although happiness is not easily defined and it really depends on who you ask and what their degree of happiness is in their life, Gilbert the author of Stumbling on Happiness, explains that experiences might bring more satisfaction than that of durable goods.  With this he is simply stating the fact that happiness is dependent the things you do in life and not the objects. It is the time that you share with friends and family what makes life meaningful and that creates happiness. All the objects in the world that money can buy is meaningless when you don't have anyone to share it with. 2. Harvard economists Alberto Alesina and Paolo Giuliano say that strong family ties imply more reliance on the family as an economic unit that provides goods and services and less on outside institutions such as those found in the market place and government.  Why does household production (doing things together or making things within the home) activity have such an impact on family ties?  Can you give an example from your own family?   Not completely sure if I am answering this question correctly but basically the way I see things, I must say I agree with both economists who say that strong family ties imply more reliance on the family as an economic unit......

Words: 2837 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

#### Business Management Chapter 1 Review Questions

...Chapter 1 – Subject Review Questions 1. I have worked for my current boss, Mr. Ford, in the field of youth social services for nearly a decade. Due to his leadership, I have remained with the agency throughout tumultuous periods. He has always challenged his employees to strive for quality of service at the greatest speed possible. Mr. Ford organizes employees to create a dynamic workforce capable of adapting to changes affected by the macroenvironment. In an effort to continue to win Requests for Proposal bids, Mr. Ford has consistently operated an efficient service program that is cost competitive with other service providers and fiscally sustainable. 2. One of the greatest ways that the Internet impacts my life on a daily basis involves how it has allowed knowledge to be shared instantaneously and with increasing accuracy. I am able to receive information about events and interests in real time. Instead of having to search libraries for dated information, as I did as a youth, I can find information that is relevant and current from trusted sources. Now it is possible to access peer-reviewed publications from esteemed institutions. Globalization, in conjunction with the Internet, has provided access to news and information from around the world. I enjoy reading articles from the perspectives of those of other nationalities and now, thanks to Google Translate, I can read articles that were written in foreign languages. 3. I have always admired Google for......

Words: 542 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

#### Chapter 1 Review Questions

...CHAPTER 1 REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. Define each of the following terms: a) Data: raw data not processed. This usually includes telephone numbers, a date of birth, customer name etc. It has little meaning until it is turned into information. b) Field: A character or group of characters that has a specific meaning. A field is used to define and store data. c) Record: A logically connected set of one or more fields that describes a person, place, or thing.  d) File: A collection of related records. 2. What is data redundancy, and which characteristics of the file system can lead to it? a. Data redundancy is when the same data are stored unnecessarily at different places. This can lead to poor data security, and data inconsistency. 3. What is data independence, and why is it lacking in file systems? b. Data independence is when you change the data storage characterizes and it doesn’t affect the program’s ability to access the data. 4. What is a DBMS, and what are its functions? c. A DBMS (database management system) is a collection of program that stores and manages data and control access to the data in the collection. It is responsible for creating, editing, deleting and maintain all the data inserted. 5. What is structural independence, and why is it important? d. Access to a file is dependent on the structure of the database. Without structural independence new changes such as adding a field, or a decimal in a......

Words: 1121 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

#### Chapter 1 Review Questions

...CHAPTER 1 SOLUTIONS 1-2 There is a demand for auditing in a free-market economy because in the agency relationship there is a natural conflict of interest between an absentee owner and a manager and due to the information asymmetry that exists between the owner and manager. As a result, the agent agrees to be monitored as part of his/her employment contract. Auditing appears to be a cost-effective form of monitoring. The empirical evidence suggests auditing was demanded prior to government regulation such as statutory audit requirements. Additionally, many private companies and other entities not subject to government auditing regulations also purchase various forms of auditing and assurance services. 1-3 There is a natural conflict of interest in the agency relationship between an owner and manager because of differences in the two parties’ goals. For example, the manager may spend funds on excessive personal benefits or favour entity growth at the expense of stockholders values. If both parties seek to maximize their own self-interest, it is likely that the manager will not act in the best interest of the owner and may manipulate the information provided to the owner accordingly. 1-7 Audit risk is defined as the risk that ‘the auditor expresses an inappropriate audit opinion when the financial statements are materially misstated’ (ISA 200). Materiality: ‘Misstatements, including omissions, are considered to be material if they, individually or in the......

Words: 857 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

#### Mkt 315 Wk 2 Quiz 1 Chapters 1 & 2

...MKT 315 WK 2 QUIZ 1 CHAPTERS 1 & 2 To purchase this visit here: http://www.activitymode.com/product/mkt-315-wk-2-quiz-1-chapters-1-2/ Contact us at: SUPPORT@ACTIVITYMODE.COM MKT 315 WK 2 QUIZ 1 CHAPTERS 1 & 2 MKT 315 WK 2 Quiz 1 Chapters 1,2 MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Which type of strategy did Walmart decide to use to compete with Amazon? a. Heavy advertising b. Price reduction c. Establish kiosks in Walmart stores d. Wholesale distribution e. Mass distribution via its own online channel 2. Which of the following statements is false? a. Consumer expectations have moved firms to add additional channels. b. Both B2C and B2B businesses are increasing the number of channels they use to distribute their products c. The flexibility to respond to consumers does not appear to be relevant to channel design. d. Channels must be targeted to reach intended customer segments. e. The increasing role of technology is helping to foster the use of multiple channels. 3. Which of the following is a true statement about Internet-based channels? a. Walmart's channel model continues to rely on its 'brick and mortar' stores exclusively. b. ‘Bricks and Mortar’ retailers that added online capabilities to traditional channels of distribution have had sluggish sales. c. Online sales have become an established distribution channel for B2C but not B2B markets. d. Internet-based channels have become a mainstream channel in the channel mixes of many firms. e. The growth of......

Words: 1485 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

#### Psy 428 Week 5 Individual Review of Chapters 1-16

...PSY 428 Week 5 Individual Review of Chapters 1-16 To Buy This material Click below link http://www.uoptutors.com/PSY-428/PSY-428-Week-5-Individual-Review-of-Chapters-1-16 PSY428 REVIEW OF CHAPTERS 1-15 Guide 1.  The field of organizational psychology began to take its present shape in the _____. a) 1870s b) early 1900s c) 1950s d) early 1800s                                                   2.  Organizational psychologists collect data most frequently using ____________. a)     survey research b)     one-on-one interviews c)      under-cover agents d)     none of the above 3.  The transitioning process by which a new hire becomes a productive member of an organization is known in organizational psychology as: a)     organizational integration b)     organizational socialization c)      new-hire trauma d)     group cohesion 4.  Which of the following is not true regarding realistic job previews? a)     They should only provide applicants with positive information b)     They may lower applicants’ expectations of a job c)      They may reduce turnover d)     They can facilitate newcomer socialization 5.  Employee behaviors that are not required under a formal job description (e.g., altruism, general courtesy) are known in organizational psychology as _______. a)     Organizational personal behaviors b)     Organizational citizenship behaviors c)      Person-in-organization behaviors d)     Extra-organizational behaviors 6.  An evaluation......

Words: 1535 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

#### Psy 315

...Perspectives Cathy Lint PSY/310 February 6, 2012 Katrina Ramos John B. Watson (1878-1958) John B. Watson was born in 1878 just outside Greenville, South Carolina, in what would be known today as a dysfunctional family because of the alcoholism, fighting, and extra-martial affairs. Watson had many behavioral problems due to his upbringing that caused Watson to have contact with the law at an early age. Watson went on to Furman University and graduated at the young age of 16 in 1900 with a master's degree. Watson was influenced by one of his professors at Furman when Watson decided to enter the University of Chicago where Watson was to study philosophy and psychology. Watson studied comparative psychology Comparative psychology is the branch of psychology concerned with the study of animal behavior (Call, 2010). Watson felt more comfortable studying animals than he did humans and began his study in cortical development while using white rats. Although many other physiologists did not believe rats were capable of "associative learning" due to a rats brain development Watson thought otherwise. During Watson's experiments with the white rats could show that minimal learning was achieved during, the first week and that during the fourth week the white rats could form associations in the rats cortical development (Goodwin, 2008). Watson was able to have this study published that led to Watson's doctorate and his stay at the University of Chicago. During Watson's time at......

Words: 1557 - Pages: 7