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# Chapter 1 Review Psy 315

Submitted By bambi86
Words 792
Pages 4
Ch.1. Review
Amber Hennrich
May 26, 2014
12. Explain and give an example for each of the following types of variables: (a) equal-interval, (b) rank-order, (c) nominal, (d) ratio scale, (e) continuous.
A) An equal-interval is a variable in which numbers stand for approximately equals amounts of what is being measured. Example: Grade Point Average
B) A rank-order variable is numeric and the numbers stand only for the relative ranking. Example: A graduate standing in their class. Their GPA makes a big difference for instance if they stand first or second in the class.
C) A nominal variable is not numeric and values are names or categories. Example: A nominal variable for gender would be female and male.
D) A ratio scale is measured by equal-interval variable. An equal-interval variable has an absolute zero point on the ratio scale. An absolute zero point means there is an absence of the variable.
Example: A number of cats an individual has. If one person has three and the other has six, you can say that they have three times the amount of that person.
E) A continuous variable is a theory that you can have an infinite number between 2 variables. Example: An example of this would big age. You can say you are 12.5 years old.
15. Make (a) a frequency table and (b) a histogram. Then (c) describe the general shape of the distribution.
A)
Speeds | Frequency | Percent | 15-21 | 2 | 5% | 22-28 | 4 | 10% | 29-35 | 17 | 42.50% | 36-42 | 13 | 32.50% | 43-53 | 4 | 5% |

B) http://nces.ed.gov/nceskids/createagraph/graphwrite.asp?ID=b8877424c4834801b7d9e181d80b9102&file=png
C) I believe this graph would be bimodal. It has two high points very close together and has the same cause throughout. It is easy to tell that most people either do the speed limit of speed in this frequency table. A very small percent of people are under the speed limit in the 35 mph zone.
19. Give an example of something having these distribution shapes: (a) bimodal, (b) approximately rectangular, and (c) positively skewed.
A) An example of a bimodal distribution shape could be the day’s account of college freshmen taking final examinations in Algebra 1. For the first two hours students scored 85-98%. The next two hours the scores were 84-88% and the final hours were 55-99%.
B) An example of approximately rectangular distribution could be a college classroom full of 25 students. 15 students were 19 years old and 10 students were 32 years of age.
C) An example of positively skewed could be income. There will be a few people with high income but most will be below the mean and bunched closely together.
20. Find an example in a newspaper or magazine of a graph that misleads by failing to use equal interval sizes or by exaggerating proportions.
The proportions on this graph are exaggerated proportions. The 8.6% is higher than it is supposed to be. They needed to draw lines but they did it like this to make it look like a significant jump.

21. A) This is a frequency table. It shows how frequent speeds were in a 35 mph zone. This table makes it easier to point out information then just writing it in text. For example, as you can see, 2 people drove 15-21 mph in a 35 mph zone.
B) From this frequency table I can see that there are three groups: no competition, some competition, and a lot of competition. When you glance at the table you can see that the majority lies within the group with some competition. The other two categories: no competition and a lot of competition are very close with a low number in comparison to the some competition category.
22. A) This is a frequency table that is used to shows how the last three relationships of male and female were aggressive. There are 9 categories. The first four rows are female and the last four are male. The comparison is for the people who said they had none of the 9 categories in their last three relationships.
B) From this table I see that perpetrators and comparisons on average are off by 1-3 on both men and women. Prosocial/acceptable explanations category was zero throughout for men and women. Tied categories were higher in women than men. This table shows that the aggression is within men and women and not off by much. Rejection of perpetrator or act was the most frequent category between men and women. Comparisons said they did not engage in any aggressive behavior in their last three relationships and the perpetrators did.

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