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Chapter 12 Tci

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Chapter 12

Define and Explain: * Chisholm Trail: this is a cattle-drive trail from San Antonio, Texas to Abilene, Kansas. At that period of time, Cowboys follow the trail to ship their cows. * Transcontinental Railroad: It is a railroad that transverse the whole continent. During the 1850s, many people are demanding for a better, more convenient and faster transportation, which can help the commerce between west and east. * Dawes Act: The US government wants to stimulate the assimilation. So it enacts the Dawes Act. It is a law distributing land to Indians individually. Which mains that the government began distributing land to individual. Individual has the rights to sell or own it. Beneath the layer of owns the land. Indians are losing their land because of selling. Moreover, they betrayed their tradition. * Homestead Act: Homestead Act was granted in 1862, because the government wants to encourage people settle in west. In the act, the government provides tracts, which are 160 acres of public land for a small fee and land to encourage people to work or live for five years. * Exodusters: It refers to those African American who migrated from the south to the Great Plains after the civil war. Many African Americans fled to search and find a better life. Some of them ahead to the west and became farmers. * Populist Party: It is a party established in 1892. It basically is requiring the government to enact new police to protect working people.

Put in order and explain * Pacific Railway Act: It enacted in 1862 and 1863 Help promote the construction of the transcontinental railroad. Because during the 1850s, many people are demanding for a better, more convenient and faster transportation, which can help the commerce between west and east. * Completion of 1st transcontinental railroad:1861 Four wealthy merchants from California established the central pacific railroad company. And push government for paying the bill. * Interstate Commerce Act 1887: the act was aimed to regulate the railroad industry in 1887. The government tried to avoid the monopoly occurring in the Railroad industry. The Act provided Congress the power to help private firms participate in to the industry. * William Jennings Bryan wins Democratic Presidential nomination1896: In 1896, he had a “Cross of God” address which made him become very competitive in the election. * Sand Creek massacre: Colorado Territory Militia attacked and destroyed native Indians’ normal life 1864. They killed more than a hundred Indians including women and kids. * Homestead and Morril Cord – Grand Acts: Homestead Act was granted in 1862, because the government wants to encourage people settle in west. In the act, the government provides tracts, which are 160 acres of public land for a small fee and land to encourage people to work or live for five years. * Wabash, St. Louis, and Pacific R.R. v Ilinois 1886. The law states that individual state can control the commerce in they own place. Howver, they cannot regulate the railroad.

Put in order and explain
1862Pacific Railway Act
1861Interstate Commerce Act
1862Homestead and Morril Cord – Grand Acts
1864Sand Creek massacre
1886Wabash, St. Louis, and Pacific R.R. v Ilinois

1893Completion of 1st transcontinental railroad
1896William Jennings Bryan wins Democratic Presidential nomination

Answer * What role did the US government play in setting the west? Why?
First of all, the government helps to regulate the country economically and help stayed the social ability. The government is like the invisible hand in the market. It enacts many acts and laws to help the market is equal – avoid the appearance of monopolies. * Who were the “winners” and “losers” of these policies?
Winners are those black people because they have a new future to live in the West. For them, west is a mystery place with tons of opportunities and gold. The lost group of people is those Indians because their homeland is dramatically decreasing. Because the government enacts the Dawes Act and then the government apportion the lands to Indians Individually. And they can sell or buy lands do whatever they want. So Indians are losing both their values and less lands.

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