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Chapter 3 Sample of a Thesis

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3Chapter 3
Research Methodology This chapter presents the research methodology which includes the research design, methods and procedures used in conducting the study. It also includes the subject respondents, research instrument, research environment or locale of the study and analysis of the data gathered.
Research Design Descriptive research is used in the study and defined as a description, recording, analysis and interpretation of the presented data. This type of research is the most commonly used and the basic reason for carrying out descriptive research is to identify the cause of something that is happening (DJS Research Ltd, 2010). Descriptive research can be either quantitative or qualitative. It can involve collections of quantitative information that can be tabulated along a continuum in numerical form, such as scores on a test or the number of times a person chooses to use a-certain feature of a multimedia program, or it can describe categories of information such as gender or patterns of interaction when using technology in a group situation. Descriptive research involves gathering data that describe events and then organizes, tabulates, depicts, and describes the data collection (Glass & Hopkins, 1984). The process of descriptive research goes beyond mere gathering and tabulation of the information and data. It involves interpretation of the significance of what is described. Descriptive research may also be defines as a process of gathering, analyzing, clarifying and tabulating data about prevailing conditions, cause and effect relationships and then making accurate interpretation with or without statistical methods. The descriptive function of research is heavily dependent on instrumentation for measurement and observation (Borg & Gall, 1989). Based on the following definition and processes of descriptive research, the researchers found out that this method best fits the very purpose of this study which is to determine the effects of extra-curricular activities to the academic performance of the students in La Consolacion College Tanauan through the perception of the respondents.

Locale of the Study The study will take place on the school of La Consolacion College Tanauan. The school of La Consolacion College Tanauan is located at A. Mabini Avenue, Tanauan City, Batangas. It is considered as one of the best private school in Tanauan in terms of academic and non-academic achievement. The school curriculum offers subjects such as Mathematics, Filipino, English, Social Studies, TLE, MAPEH and its trademark subject, CLE or Christian Living Education. The school also has different types of clubs in which the students must attend. The school offers varieties of club from sports-related clubs to academic-related clubs. Each student must attend one particular club for the entire school year. Club meetings are only held twice a month. The club provides activities that are club-related for the students to participate in. Every student will participate in their respective club activities. Because of the accomplishment of the school in both academic activities and extra-curricular activities and other programs involving the students, the researchers decided that La Consolacion College Tanauan best fit their research about the effect of extra-curricular activities towards the academic performance of the students in the school year 2011-2012. Population/Sample In order to collect the appropriate data needed for the research, the researchers collect information by giving survey questionnaires to the students on the high school department of La Consolacion College Tanauan school year 2011-2012. Twelve (12) students from each year level will be the representative respondents for the high school department of the school. Overall there will be forty eight (48) respondents from La Consolacion College Tanauan for the school year 2011-2012.The researchers used the simple random sampling in providing the questionnaires to the forty-eight (48) respondents. Simple Random sampling is the most basic form of sampling. Every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected. The entire population of interest could be selected for the survey, but only a few are chosen at random. In the case of this study, the researchers have chosen selected sections to answer the questionnaires. In each section, the researchers have chosen the respondents randomly. The data which is from the randomly selected respondents was used by the researchers to find the result of this study.

Research Instrument In making research study, there is a need for references in which the data and information are accurate so that the research being made will be successful and complete.
There are different types and varieties of instrument used in collecting data and information. This research collected its information and data through the use of books found in the library, the media such as internet and television and the use of survey. In reading books, the researchers found some theories from famous and non-famous authors who give way to the researchers to understand and have deeper understanding about the topic of the study. The researchers used research papers to have any additional information. The researchers also used the media such as internet and television as another instrument in collecting information about the subject matter. The internet contains several articles from foreign authors who are respected in their field of expertise. These articles give the researchers accurate information and data needed for the study. There are also previous studies found in the internet that help the researchers to start and complete this research paper. Aside from the internet, television also acts as an instrument in collecting the needed data and information. The television also provides accurate information concerning the subject matter. Local and foreign experts that are interviewed in the television give the researchers accurate data and information for the research. The last instrument used in collecting data for this study is the survey questionnaire. The questionnaire will show the opinion of the respondents particularly the students about the effects of extra-curricular activities on the academic performance of the students. All the instruments mentioned helped the researchers collect the data and information needed to made the conclusion and recommendation for the subject matter.
Data Collection There are two kinds of survey questions in the questionnaire that are used in this study particularly, the rating scale method and multiple choice questions. There are four parts of the questionnaire which falls on the rating scale method. On the first rating scale method contains the different views of students towards extra-curricular activities. The views on this part are all positive views on extra-curricular activities from experts and teachers alike. On the second rating scale method, it contains the possible reasons of students on participating in extra-curricular activities. The third rating scale method describes the advantages of extra-curricular activities. While the fourth and final rating scale method describes the disadvantages of extra-curricular activities. The multiple choice questions contain the different variety and types of extra-curricular activities in which the students are involved in. In handing out the questionnaires to the forty eight (48) randomly selected respondents, the researchers asked for the help of each selected sections to lend an assistance to the selected students acting as the respondents so that there will be a continuous flow of the survey. The researchers also explained to the selected respondents that they will be given a maximum of twenty four (24) hours to answer the questionnaires accurately. the researchers also reminded the respondents to be honest while answering the different types of questions in the survey questionnaires. After collecting the answered questionnaire, the researchers asked the respondents about their own suggestion and recommendation about the topic at hand which is the effect of extra-curricular activities towards academic performance of the students in school. The suggestions and recommendations of the respondents was considered by the researchers for the research's conclusion and recommendation.

Data Analysis In preparing the table where the data will be placed and interpret, the researchers had to identify the sub-topics of the study which are stated in the statement of the problem. The data gathered from the survey was categorized in the number of sub-topics of the study. Each sub-topic has their respective questions found in the questionnaire. All the data gathered from the questions in the questionnaires was interpreted to arrive at a conclusion and give recommendations for the research. In this study, the questions revolved around the three (4) sub-topics of the study namely; reasons of students in participating in extra-curricular activities, types of extra-curricular activities in which the students are involved in, advantages and disadvantages of extra-curricular activities, and views on extra-curricular activities.
Mean is the statistical term for average. It is used to get the average frequency answered by the respondents in the survey questionnaire. In getting the interpretation of the answers of the respondents regarding their reasons in participating in extra-curricular activities, the researchers used a graphical form called pie graph to present the data gathered. The formula used by the researchers:

Percentage = E (F.W)_____ x 100 H
Legend:
E = Summation F = Frequency W = Weight of the response H = Highest Possible Score of the Total

For the interpretation of data gathered about the types of extra-curricular activities, the researchers used a graphical form to present the data and used this formula for the interpretation: Percentage = W _ x 100 TW
Legend:
W = Weight of the response TW = Total weight of response 100 = Constant number

For the interpretation of the data gathered regarding the advantages and disadvantages of extra-curricular activities and views on extra-curricular activities, the researchers used a two separated table to distinguish the advantages from the disadvantages of extra-curricular activities and another table for the different views of the students about extra-curricular activities. The three separated table used the same formula:
Weighted Mean = E (F.W) N
Legend:
E = Summation F = Frequency W = Weight of the response N= Number of respondents

Implications on table 1:

Strongly Observed | 3.26 - 4.0 | Fairly observed | 2.51 - 3.25 | Poorly Observed | 1.76 - 2.50 | Not Observed | 1.0 - 1.75 |

Views on Extra-curricular Activities
Strongly Agrees= 4
Agrees = 3
Disagrees = 2
Strongly Disagrees = 1

Implications on table 4.1 and 4.2: Strongly Dominant | 2.35 - 3.0 | Moderately Dominant | 1.68 - 2.34 | Slightly Dominant | 1.0 - 1.67 |

Advantages and Disadvantages of Extra-curricular Activities
Always = 3
Sometimes = 2
Never = 1

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