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Chem Lab Report

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INTRODUCTION Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3. It is a common substance found in rocks in all parts of the world, and is the main component of shells of marine organisms, snails, coal balls, pearls, and eggshells. Calcium carbonate is the active ingredient in agricultural lime, and is created when Ca ions in hard water react with carbonate ions creating lime scale. It is commonly used medicinally as a calcium supplement or as an antacid, but excessive consumption can be hazardous. To avoid the breakage of eggs before reaching market, the eggshells needs to be as strong as possible. The strength of eggshells is mainly determined by the percentage of calcium carbonate in it. In order to monitor the quality of eggshells, the following experiment has to be done to determine the percentage of calcium carbonate in eggshells. In this experiment, back titration is used. The purpose of this experiment is to determine the percentage by mass of calcium carbonate in eggshells.

OBJECTIVES To determine the calcium carbonate content in an eggshell. MATERIALS AND APPARATUS Pipet, buret, Erlenmeyer flask, graduated cylinder, hot plate.
Reagents: Hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide and phenolphthalein.

PROCEDURE The weighed eggshell was placed into a beaker and 30mL of previously standardized HCl was added into it. The mixture was warmed for 25 minutes using hot plate until all the bubbles was disappeared. Then, the mixture was cooled to RT and was filtered. 1-2drops of phenolphthalein was added to the filtrate and titrated with standardized NaOH. Last, the mass and the % of CaCO3 were calculated.


| TRIAL | | 1 | 2 | 3 | Mass of eggshell | 0.1132g | 0.1838g | 0.1793g | Volume of HCl used | 30mL | 30mL | 30mL | Volume of NaOH | | Final buret reading | 3.5mL | 10.2mL | 4mL | Initial buret reading | 0mL | 0mL | 0mL | Volume of NaOH used | 3.5mL | 10.2mL | 4mL | Mass of CaCO3 | 0.1131g | 0.08207g | 0.1106g | % of CaCO3 | 99.91% | 44.65% | 61.84% |

DISCUSSION OF RESULTS In the first trial, the mass of the eggshell used was 0.1132g. The volume of HCl used was 30mL and the volume of NaOH used by it was 3.5mL. The mass of CaCO3 in it was 0.1131g and the % of CaCO3 in it was 99.91%. In the second trial, the mass of the eggshell used was 0.1838g. The volume of HCl used was 30mL. and the volume of NaOH used by the it was 10.2mL. The mass of CaCO3 in it was 0.0.08207g and the % of CaCO3 in it was 44.65%. In the third trial, the mass of the eggshell used was 0.0.1793g. The volume of HCl used was 30mL. and the volume of NaOH used by the it was 4mL. The mass of CaCO3 in it was 0.1106g and the % of CaCO3 in it was 61.84%. CONCLUSION Based on the table shown, the mass of eggshell used in the first trial was 0.1132g and the % of CaCO3 in it was 99.91%. Then, in the second trial, the mass of eggshell used was 0.1838g and the % of CaCO3 in it was 44.65%. And in the third and last trial, the mass of eggshell used was 0.1793g and the %CaCO3 in it was 61.84%. It means that, the lesser the mass of the eggshell used, the higher its % of CaCO3content will be. APPLICATION The main use of calcium carbonate is in the construction industry, either as a building material or limestone aggregate for road building or as an ingredient of cement or as the starting material for the preparation of builder's lime by burning in a kiln. Calcium carbonate is also used in the purification of iron from iron ore in a blast furnace. The carbonate is calcined in situ to give calcium oxide, which forms a slag with various impurities present, and separates from the purified iron. Also, Calcium carbonate is widely used medicinally as an inexpensive dietary calcium supplement or gastric antacid. It may be used as a phosphate binder for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia (primarily in patients with chronic renal failure). It is also used in the pharmaceutical industry as an inert filler for tablets and other pharmaceuticals. Calcium carbonate is used in the production of toothpaste and has seen a resurgence as a food preservative and color retainer, when used in or with products such as organic apples or food.

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