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Chemical Equilibriu

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CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM

Equilibrium occurs when the rate of the forward reaction is equal to the rate of reverse reaction. Concentration of the reactants and the products remain the same. Dynamic equilibrium occurs when the processes do not stop and forward and reverse reactions still continue in both directions at the same rate.
A homogeneous reaction is a reaction wherein all the reactants and products are in the same phase e.g. all are gases.
A heterogeneous reaction is a reaction wherein all the reactants and products are not in the same phase.
If there is no interaction between the system and its surroundings, i.e., a system from which no substances in the reaction can escape, we say it is a closed system.

Calculation of the substance amount and concentration at equilibrium

We can determine the concentration of the substance by dividing the number of mol of the substance at that stage of the reaction by the volume of the container in dm3, i.e.: c= n/V where c or [ ] = concentration of the substance in mol.dm-3 n = number of mol of the substance V = volume of the container in dm3

It is handy to use a table to determine these values.

Example 1

A mixture of 5 mol H2(g) and 6 mol I2(g) are placed in a sealed container of 2 dm3 at a temperature of 4580C. The balanced chemical equation for the reaction is:

Equilibrium is reached after a certain time. At equilibrium there is 4mol HI(g) in the container. Calculate the concentrations of H2(g) and I2(g) at equilibrium.

Solution

Step 1 : Set up a table as follows and fill in all the information.
Step 2 : Write all the changes in terms of x. Place the coefficient. Place a – before substances that are used up and a + before substances formed.

| |H2(g) |I2(g) |2HI(g)...

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