Premium Essay

Chemistry Unit 2

In: Science

Submitted By sineadlynch99
Words 6002
Pages 25
Chemistry Unit 2 AS

Group 7, the halogens

- Physical properties, fluorine is a pale yellow gas, chlorine a greenish gas, bromine a red-brown liquid and iodine a black solid

o Fluorine is small and leads to the repulsion between non-bonding electrons because they are so close together

o The atoms get bigger as we go down the group because each element has one extra filled main level of electrons compared with the one above it

|Halogen |Atomic number |Electron Arrangement |Electronegativity |Atomic radius nm |Melting point K |Boiling Point K |
|Fluorine |9 |[He]2s22p5 |4.0 |0.071 |53 |85 |
|Bromine |35 |[Ar]3d104s24p5 |2.8 |0.114 |266 |332 |


- This is a measure of the ability of an atom to attract electrons, or electron density towards itself within a covalent bond

o This depends on the attraction between the nucleus and bonding electrons in the outer shell, which depends on the balance between the nuclear charge and the distance between the nucleus and the bonding pairs plus the shielding effect of inner shells of electrons

Melting and boiling points

- Melting and boiling points involve weakening and breaking van der Waals forces only, the covalent bonds in the halogen molecules stay intact

o The lower the boiling point the more volatile the element

Chemical reactions of the halogens

- The oxidising ability of the halogens increases as we go up the group

Displacement reactions

- Halogens will react with metal halides in solution in such a way that the halide in...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Law P2

...of Education May–June Summer 2016 Examination Timetable – FINAL For more information on Edexcel qualifications please visit Notes Pearson Edexcel General Certificate of Education May–June Summer 2016 Examination Timetable – FINAL Home Notes Pearson Edexcel GCE Summer 2016 Examination View by Week Week Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Week 6 Monday 16 May Monday 23 May Monday 6 June Monday 13 June Monday 20 June Monday 27 June Tuesday 17 May Tuesday 24 May Tuesday 7 June Tuesday 14 June Tuesday 21 June Tuesday 28 June Wednesday 18 May Wednesday 25 May Wednesday 8 June Wednesday 15 June Wednesday 22 June Wednesday 29 June Thursday 19 May Thursday 26 May Thursday 9 June Thursday 16 June Thursday 23 June Thursday 30 June Friday 20 May Day Week 1 Friday 27 May Friday 10 June Friday 17 June Friday 24 June Friday 1 July View by Subject Subject A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Pearson Edexcel General Certificate of Education May–June Summer 2016 Examination Timetable – FINAL Notes Home Notes 1. Conduct of Examinations 2. Key Dates • Each examination must be taken on the day and at the time as shown on the timetable. • The date for the restricted release of results to centres is Wednesday 17 August 2016. • The published starting time of all examinations for UK centres is either 9.00 a.m. or 1.30 p.m. Candidates with more than one examination in a......

Words: 5571 - Pages: 23

Free Essay


...AS/A Level GCE GCE Chemistry A OCR Advanced Subsidiary GCE in Chemistry A H034 OCR Advanced GCE in Chemistry A H434 Vertical black lines indicate a significant change to the previous printed version. © OCR 2008 version 2 – February 2008 QAN 500/2425/5 QAN 500/2347/0 Contents 1 About these Qualifications 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 The Three-Unit AS The Six-Unit Advanced GCE Qualification Titles and Levels Aims Prior Learning/Attainment 4 4 4 5 5 5 2 Summary of Content 2.1 2.2 AS Units A2 Units 6 6 7 3 Unit Content 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 AS Unit F321: Atoms, Bonds and Groups AS Unit F322: Chains, Energy and Resources AS Unit F323: Practical Skills in Chemistry 1 A2 Unit F324: Rings, Polymers and Analysis A2 Unit F325: Equilibria, Energetics and Elements A2 Unit F326: Practical Skills in Chemistry 2 8 8 20 38 40 51 62 4 Schemes of Assessment 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 AS GCE Scheme of Assessment Advanced GCE Scheme of Assessment Unit Order Unit Options (at AS/A2) Synoptic Assessment (A Level GCE) Assessment Availability Assessment Objectives Quality of Written Communication 64 64 65 66 66 66 67 67 68 5 Technical Information 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 Making Unit Entries Making Qualification Entries Grading Result Enquiries and Appeals Shelf-life of Units Unit and Qualification Re-sits Guided Learning Hours Code of Practice/Subject Criteria/Common Criteria Requirements Arrangements for Candidates with......

Words: 11553 - Pages: 47

Premium Essay

Mordern Medicines

...CHEMISTRY CHEMISTRY (CLASSES XI–XII) Rationale Higher Secondary Stage is the most crucial stage of school education because at this stage specialised discipline based, content oriented courses are introduced. Students reach this stage after 10 years of general education and opt for Chemistry with a purpose of mostly for pursuing their career in basic sciences or professional courses like medicines, engineering, technology and studying courses in applied areas of science and technology at tertiary level. Therefore, at this stage, there is a need to provide learners with sufficient conceptual background of Chemistry, which will make them competent to meet the challenges of academic and professional courses after the higher secondary stage. National Curriculum Framework for School Education – 2005 recommends a disciplinary approach with appropriate rigour and depth with the care that syllabus is not heavy and at the same time it is comparable to the international level. It emphasizes a coherent focus on important ideas within the discipline that are properly sequenced to optimize learning. It recommends that theoretical component of Higher Secondary Science should emphasize on problem solving methods and the awareness of Syllabus for Secondary and Higher Secondary Levels 22 historical development of key concepts of science be judiciously integrated into content. The present exercise of syllabus development in Chemistry at Higher Secondary Stage is based on this......

Words: 3687 - Pages: 15

Free Essay

Apa Style Guide

...MEASUREMENT The Study of Chemistry Chemistry: • is the study of properties of materials and changes that they undergo. • can be applied to all aspects of life. The Atomic and Molecular Perspective of Chemistry Chemistry involves the study of the properties and the behavior of matter. Matter: • is the physical material of the universe. • has mass. • occupies space. Examples of matter: ~100 elements constitute all matter. A property is any characteristic that allows us to recognize a particular type of matter and to distinguish it from other types of matter. Elements: • are made up of unique atoms, the building blocks of matter. • approximately 116 elements. • names of the elements are derived from a wide variety of sources. Molecules: • are combinations of atoms held together in specific shapes. • Macroscopic (observable) propertied of matter relate to submicroscopic realms of atoms • Properties relate to composition (types of atoms present) and structure (arrangement of atoms present. [pic] • Combinations of atoms held together in specific shapes CH3CH2OH HOCH2CH2OH Ethyl alcohol ethylene glycol Why study Chemistry? We study chemistry because: • It has a considerable impact on society (health care, food, clothing, conservation of natural resources, environmental issues, etc.) • Chemistry serves......

Words: 1947 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Chemistry - Equilibrium

...185 EQUILIBRIUM 185 UNIT 7 EQUILIBRIUM After studying this unit you will be able to • identify dynamic nature of equilibrium involved in physical and chemical processes; • state the law of equilibrium; • explain characteristics of equilibria involved in physical and chemical processes; • write expressions for equilibrium constants; • establish a relationship between Kp and K c ; • explain various factors that affect the equilibrium state of a reaction; • classify substances as acids or bases according to Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry and Lewis concepts; • classify acids and bases as weak or strong in terms of their ionization constants; • explain the dependence of degree of ionization on concentration of the electrolyte and that of the common ion; • describe pH scale for representing hydrogen ion concentration; • explain ionisation of water and its duel role as acid and base; • describe ionic product (Kw ) and pKw for water; • appreciate use of buffer solutions; • calculate solubility product constant. Chemical equilibria are important in numerous biological and environmental processes. For example, equilibria involving O2 molecules and the protein hemoglobin play a crucial role in the transport and delivery of O2 from our lungs to our muscles. Similar equilibria involving CO molecules and hemoglobin account for the toxicity of CO. When a liquid evaporates in a closed container, molecules with relatively higher kinetic energy escape the liquid surface into the......

Words: 16204 - Pages: 65

Premium Essay

Iron Works

...FOR 8TH GRADE CHEMISTRY Welcome to chemistry. Chemistry is the science of matter and its interactions. Everything around you is made of atoms – atoms and their chemical combinations, molecules. Everything you can see, touch, smell, and taste is made up of chemicals. So, the science of chemistry is a very wide ranging science. Parts can concentrate on how interactions of atoms and molecules allow the nerves in your body to conduct electrical signals. Other parts might concentrate on analyzing clues left by a burglar in order to help the police solve a crime. Still, other parts of chemistry might be involved in making new polymers that might be used by the fashion industry to make more colorful and longer wearing fabrics. If you have access to a computer and the internet, there are a number of excellent tutoring sites to help students gain a better understanding of chemistry. One of the better sites for middle school students Is: This site is written at middle school level and has a number of on-line tests that you can use to check your understanding of the material. Several other good internet sites are: - Chemistry 101 - a collection of articles and on-line help sites in chemistry - ChemWeb on line - an introductory chemistry course on line - Chemistry Tutor – on......

Words: 5393 - Pages: 22

Premium Essay

Presentation Physical Chemistry

...Centre for Foundation Studies, UTAR Credit Hour: 4 credit hours Unit code: FHSC1114 Unit title: PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY Course of study: Foundation in Science Mode of delivery: Lecture, tutorial & experiment Contact Hours: 2 lecture contact hours per week for the duration of 14 weeks. 1 tutorial contact hour per week for the duration of 12 weeks. 2 practical contact hours per week for the duration of 10 weeks. Method of Assessment No. Method of Assessment Attendance for lectures, tutorials and experiments are compulsory for every student. Main Text: Kotz, J. C., Treichel, P. M., & Townsend, J. R. (2012). Chemistry & chemical reactivity (8th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole. Total 1. Coursework 50% a) Test 1 & 2 (15% each) b) Experiment (20%) 2. Final Examination 50% Grand total 100% Chapter Scopes FHSC1114 PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY CHAPTER 1 Principle of Chemistry Relative Atomic Masses of atoms & molecules Mass number & atomic number Atomic structure (neutrons, protons & electrons) Mole concept & conversion Avogadro’s concept Empirical & molecular formulae Isotopes FHSC1114 Physical Chemistry 1 Centre for Foundation Studies, UTAR Objectives To define relative atomic masses of atoms & molecules To define & determine mass no. & atomic no. To determine no. of neutrons, protons & electrons To understand mole concept & Avogadro’s concept To determine the empirical & molecular formulae ...

Words: 1150 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Land Ocean and Climate

...AGRICULTURE 100 Level First Semester 1. Communication in English I 2. Logic Philosophy & Human Existence 3. Physical Chemistry 4. General Biology I (Botany/Zoology) 5. Practical Biology 6. General Physics 7. Mathematics 8. Organic Chemistry I 9. Practical Chemistry Sub-Total Second Semester 10. Communication in English II 11. Nigerian People and Culture 12. Social Sciences 13. Organic Chemistry 14. Biology II 15. Organic Chemistry II 16. Mathematics 17. Practical Physics 18. Use of Library Sub-Total 200 Credits 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 18 Credits Credits 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 17 Credits Level 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. First Semester Climatology and Biogeography General Agriculture Anatomy and Physiology of Farm Animals Crop Anatomy, Taxonomy and Physiology Principles of Soil Science Principles of Agricultural Economics Introduction to Forestry Resource Manag~ment Introduction to Biotechnology Sub-Total 8. 9. 10 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. Second Semester Principles of Animal Production Principles of Crop Production Principles of Food Science and Technology Introductory Biochemistry Introduction to Computers Introduction to Fisheries & Wildlife Introductory Statistics Entrepreneurial Studies I Introduction to Home Economics Sub-Total Credits 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 18 Credits Credits 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 19 Credits Total = 37 Credits All courses are core-courses for Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry. 300 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Level First......

Words: 20312 - Pages: 82

Premium Essay

Water a Unique Solvent

...organism to continue and advance. The substantial and chemical aspects of water provide a good medium for aquatic organisms. The bond that is set up between both water and aquatic organisms provide and transport nutrients to the living organism. Since water is transparent plants that live under water can still use the sunlight to perform photosynthesis. Water is also cohesive; water is made up of two hydrogen units and one oxygen unit. They are bonded covalently the hydrogen units are positively charge and the oxygen unit is negatively charge. The hydrogen bonding that happens between these units makes water solid enough for insects to skim over the surface. The thermal properties of water include boiling and freezing points and heat capacity. The heat capacity of water makes it a good buffer. It takes a lot of energy to change temperature of water. When water freezes the ice that is form is denser than the water and that allow the ice to float to the top. The ice can thus provide protection from hunters and predators. Royal Society of Chemistry (n.d.) Citing Website. Chemistry for Biologists. Last updated November 2004 Retrieved form The carbon atom is very adaptable. Carbon is the sixth most plentiful component in world. The in the periodic table the carbon atom is in Group IV which means that the atom has four electrons in it outer shell. Carbon can share or lose electrons making it very diverse. The......

Words: 401 - Pages: 2

Free Essay


...Assignment in Physics... 1. Definition of Science, Major branches of science 2. Scientific Method 3. Definition of Physics and its major branches 4. Notable Physicist and their contribution 5. Importance of Physics in our everyday life and in our society. (Write the references) Short bond paper, written or computerized (font: Times New Roman/font size: 12) Reading assign. Measurement Diff. system of measurement fundamentals and derive quantities scientific notation rules in significant figures conversion of units ) I.1 Science The intellectual and practical activity encompassing the systematic study of the structure and behaviour of the physical and natural world through observation and experiment. I.2 The Branches of Science The Physical Sciences * Physics: The study of matter and energy and the interactions between them. Physicists study such subjects as gravity, light, and time. Albert Einstein, a famous physicist, developed the Theory of Relativity. * Chemistry: The science that deals with the composition, properties, reactions, and the structure of matter. The chemist Louis Pasteur, for example, discovered pasteurization, which is the process of heating liquids such as milk and orange juice to kill harmful germs. * Astronomy: The study of the universe beyond the Earth's atmosphere. The Earth Sciences * Geology: The science of the origin, history, and structure...

Words: 1431 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Analytical Chem

...Chemistry Modern Analytical Chemistry David Harvey DePauw University Boston Burr Ridge, IL Dubuque, IA Madison, WI New York San Francisco St. Louis Bangkok Bogotá Caracas Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City Milan New Delhi Seoul Singapore Sydney Taipei Toronto McGraw-Hill Higher Education A Division of The McGraw-Hill Companies MODERN ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY Copyright © 2000 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a data base or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher. This book is printed on acid-free paper. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 KGP/KGP 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 ISBN 0–07–237547–7 Vice president and editorial director: Kevin T. Kane Publisher: James M. Smith Sponsoring editor: Kent A. Peterson Editorial assistant: Jennifer L. Bensink Developmental editor: Shirley R. Oberbroeckling Senior marketing manager: Martin J. Lange Senior project manager: Jayne Klein Production supervisor: Laura Fuller Coordinator of freelance design: Michelle D. Whitaker Senior photo research coordinator: Lori Hancock Senior supplement coordinator: Audrey A. Reiter Compositor: Shepherd, Inc. Typeface: 10/12 Minion Printer: Quebecor Printing Book Group/Kingsport Freelance cover/interior designer: Elise Lansdon Cover image: © George......

Words: 88362 - Pages: 354

Premium Essay

Entreprenuership, gaming & interactive entertainment, Internet & e-Commerce, networking, communications & connectivity, open source, operating systems, security) * Internet-based businesses Non-ICT * Biotechnology (Bio-informatics, Bio-chemicals, Bio-diagnostics tools, agriculture and food tech) * Advanced materials * Advanced manufacturing-related tech * Renewable energy / waste management / recycling tech * High-technology consumer & business products Others * Semi-conductors (manufacturing of integrated circuits, microprocessors, logic devices, chipsets, memory chips) * Life sciences (neuroscience, organic chemistry, potential drug target & method of treatment inventions, protein & nucleic acid-based inventions, small molecule chemistry & pharmaceuticals,...

Words: 721 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Project Report

...|Name of the Book |Comments |Availability | | | | |Analytical Chemistry | | |Bassett, J, et al.: | |ICET, PU. | | |Vogel’s Textbook of Quantitative Inorganic Analysis including| |545 | | |Elementary Instrumental Analysis, 4th ed., Longman Group | |VOG-4 | | |Ltd., 1978. | | | | |Mann, F. G. and Saunders, B. C.: | |ICET, PU. | | |Practical Organic Chemistry, 4th ed., Longmans, Green and | |547 | | |Co., Ltd., 1960. | |MAN-4 | | | |Biochemical Engineering ...

Words: 3423 - Pages: 14

Free Essay


...well as those prepared by CBSE, NCERT and COBSE. This is to establish a uniformity across the country keeping in view the relevance of different areas in Medical Education. PHYSICS S.No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. CLASS XI Physical world and measurement Kinematics Laws of Motion Work, Energy and Power Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body Gravitation Properties of Bulk Matter Thermodynamics Behaviour of Perfect Gas and Kinetic Theory Oscillations and Waves CLASS XII Electrostatics Current Electricity Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents Electromagnetic Waves Optics Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation Atoms and Nuclei Electronic Devices CHEMISTRY S.No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. CLASS XI Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry Structure of Atom Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure States of Matter: Gases and Liquids Thermodynamics Equilibrium Redox Reactions Hydrogen s-Block Element (Alkali and Alkaline earth metals) Some p-Block Elements Organic Chemistry- Some Basic Principles and Techniques Hydrocarbons Environmental Chemistry CLASS XII Solid State Solutions Electrochemistry Chemical Kinetics Surface Chemistry General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements p- Block Elements d and f Block Elements Coordination Compounds Haloalkanes and Haloarenes Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers Aldehydes,......

Words: 5244 - Pages: 21

Free Essay


...C13 Colloids This topic focuses on a variety of colloidal systems and stresses their importance in everyday life. Hand cream, salad cream and milk are all emulsions. For example, milk is an emulsion of fat droplets in water. Jelly baby sweets are a gel and muddy river water is a sol. Fog or mist is an example of a colloid called an aerosol. |Syllabus Core |Page |Notes | |Know that a colloid consists of one substance finely dispersed in another|p1 & 2 |of this booklet and | |and know the meaning of the words sol, gel and emulsion |p4 |of the “Unit 11 Colloids Information” document | |Know that colloidal systems are not | | | |transparent; | | | |Appreciate the purpose of emulsifiers | | | |Supplement | | | |Understand that......

Words: 1807 - Pages: 8