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Chemistry

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Golden Acres Road, Corner Misamis St. Bago Bantay Quezon City
Golden Acres Road, Corner Misamis St. Bago Bantay Quezon City
Quezon City Science High School
Quezon City Science High School

Vinegar, Copper Wire, and Zinc Nail as an Alternative
Power Source

Leader: Calipay, Issabone F.
Members:
Callada, Peter Ivan B. Kasilag, Ian Michael

8- Pascal
Febuary 2015
GROUP 7
CHAPER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE The review of literature for this study focuses on procedures on making power source. The review focuses on the number of light bulbs the vinegar can power. The chapter begins with finding some people who lack power source, followed by the findings of researchers on some information about vinegar, zinc nail and copper wire.
What is Vinegar? Vinegar is a liquid consisting mainly of acetic acid (CH3COOH) and water. Vinegar is now mainly used as a cooking ingredients, but historically, asa the most easily available mild acid, it had a great variet of industrial, medical, and domestic uses, some of which are still promoted today. The history of vinegar is actually by accident, but according to legends, Babylonians used vinegar as a cleaning agent. The Babylonians later discovered that vinegars slows or stop the action of bacteria that spoils the food and so they started using it as a preservative. Vinegar is a totally natural food. There are no harmful chemicals or preservatives in fact vinegar is a preservative itself. Vinegar makes itself when it comes in contact with any aerobic bacteria while it is exposed to oxygen. Vinegar is usually use in making the food last longer or use to preserve food. It has an appearance of a clear liquid but it has an unnecessary smell and since the key ingredient is acetic acid, which gives it an acidic taste, The typical pH of vinegar ranges anywhere from 2 to 3.5, although the store-bought kind usually measures 2.4. In food preparation procedures, it is a multipurpose product as an ingredient and condiment. Outside of cooking, vinegar has medicinal, household cleaning, and agricultural applications. The name comes from the Old French vin aigre, which translates into "sour wine."
Vinegar is made from the oxidation of ethanol in alcohol-containing liquid, such as wine, fermented fruit juice, or beer. There are two processes of fermentation that differ by speed of production.
While the fast fermentation process takes only hours to days, it requires the use of machinery to promote the oxygenation. The slow fermentation process takes weeks to months and occurs naturally. At the same time, a nontoxic slime called mother of vinegar accumulates in the liquid. Composed of acetic acid bacteria and cellulose, mother is also available in stores and consumed by some despite its unappetizing appearance. Another part of the fermenting vinegar may include the non-parasitic nematodes called vinegar eels, which are free-living creatures that feed on the mother. While they are shown to be harmless to humans, manufacturers still filter them out of the product before bottling it. And did you know Vinegar is use as healing although some people believe vinegar is a miracle cure, it can't fix everything. Marketers have asserted that vinegar cures diseases such as diabetes, osteoporosis, cancer, and many other disorders. Some even claim that it halts the aging process. Obviously, these claims are exaggerated. Vinegar has been valued for its healing properties for thousands of years, and during that time, it has found its way from the apothecary's shelf to the cook's pot. Today, it can continue to play that dual role, taking the place of less healthful dietary ingredients and helping to regulate blood sugar levels while entertaining our taste buds with its tart flavor. There seems hardly an ailment that vinegar has not been touted to cure at some point in history. And while science has yet to prove the effectiveness of many of these folk cures, scores of people still praise and value vinegar as a healthful and healing food. So let's take a look at the history of vinegar, the healing claims made for it, and what science and doesn't have to say about those claims. Along the way, we'll discover why vinegar deserves a place in every healthy kitchen. The physical and chemical properties of vinegar reflect the fact that vinegar is mainly a dilute aqueous solution of acetic acid. And it is this acid, which imparts the sour taste to vinegar along with its cleaning and antiseptic or germ killing properties. Of course most vinegars are much more than dilute solutions of acetic acid. Depending on the fruit or feed stock they are made from, and the amount of processing, they will contain various amounts of minerals, vitamins, fiber, enzymes and other organic compounds. These are all however, minor components in the vinegar even though they are major contributors to the product's flavor and aroma as well as its overall nutrition and health benefits. The term ph is derived from "potential hydrogen" and refers to the amount of hydrogen ions present in solution. Mathematically, pH is equal to the negative logarithm (base 10) of the hydrogen ion concentration in moles per liter, so if the pH of a solution decreases by 1 pH unit then its hydrogen ion concentration increases by ten times. Pure water has a pH of 7 and is neutral whereas anything with a pH less than 7 is acidic and anything with a pH greater than 7 is basic. The pH of vinegar depends upon how much acid is present, but most commercial distilled white vinegars contain 5% acetic acid and have a ph about 2.4. The density, or mass per unit volume, of a solution is used in many analytical calculations and can be measured with a hydrometer. For a typical commercial vinegar with a 5% acetic acid content, the density is about 1.01 grams per milliliter.

What is a copper wire? Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu. Atomic Number:29. Atomic weight: 63.546 amu (atomic mass unit). Copper comes from the Latin word cuprum, meaning “from the island of Cyprus.” Copper is man’s oldest metal, dating back more than 10,000 years. A copper pendant discovered in what is now northern Iraq has been dated to about 8,700 B.C. The Egyptians used the ankh symbol to denote copper in their system of hieroglyphs. It also represented eternal life. Copper is one of the oldest metals known to civilization. Its uses and contributions continue to grow.
Copper is a vital and positive contributor to humankind and has improved our quality of life for centuries. Copper is the only metal other than gold that has natural color. Other metals are either gray or white. Over 400 copper alloys are in use today. Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc. Bronze is an alloy of copper and tin, aluminum, silicon, and beryllium. Copper is vital to the health of humans, animals and plants and an essential part of the human diet. Copper-rich foods include dried beans, almonds, broccoli, chocolate, garlic, soybeans, peas, whole wheat products, and seafood. Copper maximizes the performance of the products that contain it, helping save energy, CO2, money and lives.
There are so many useful things you can do with copper like, Copper technologies have continued to develop and improve over the past few centuries. The first rolling copper mill was established by Paul Revere in Canton, Massachusetts, in 1801. Flash smelting began in 1949. In 1990, copper oxide was first used as a superconductor. Copper technology continues to evolve as copper uses grow and change to meet society's shifting needs, Copper plating is an application that began in the mid-1600s. This use of copper was most famous for its role in ship building, to protect ships from weathering and storms. Copper in the use of art, In the East, the Nara Buddha, a massive sculpture in bronze, dates back to 751 AD. Copper has been utilized in decorative applications for millennia, but these noteworthy statues are large reminders of copper's growing importance. There are many stories of Copper's history, like Copper mining dates back to 9000 BC While it's difficult to trace history back that far, most estimates place the first copper mining at 9000 BC Copper is likely the first metal to be mined and worked by humans because it used to be extremely plentiful, and it could literally be mined at surface level. The Iran highlands and the Middle East are likely the place where copper mining began. Also Ancient copper pendants provide valuable clues Archaeologists have found a copper pendant in northern Iraq that dates back to 8700 BC. This provides proof that copper was worked at that point, and lends credence to the estimates of copper mining beginning around 9000 BC. Early copper smelting sites from 4500 BC.
While it's estimated that copper mining began as early as 9000 BC, the earliest smelting sites date to around 4500 BC. These sites are located in Israel, Egypt and Jordan. Copper alloys arrive on the scene around 3000 BC By 3000 BC, copper alloys were being developed. Early copper alloys were arsenic and tin. Bronze became an extremely important metal, used in everything from farming to weapons to decorative materials. Alloyed copper was easier to cast, and alloys were harder, making alloys extremely useful and a pivotal step in metallurgy. By 2500 BC, bronze was in widespread use, kicking off the era that historians call the Bronze Age. China advances copper metallurgy starting around 2000 BC China refined many copper metallurgy techniques, beginning around 2000 BC.
Metallurgy technology moved much faster in China than in the West, with advanced casting furnaces, arsenical copper and the development of copper alloys. And some Ancient Romans use copper as money By 600 BC, Romans had begun using lumps of copper as currency. Over time, the Romans shaped these copper lumps into coins.
What is a Zinc nail? Zinc Nail is a pin-shaped object of metal which is used as a fastener, as a peg to hang something or sometimes as decoration. Generally nails have a sharp point on one end and a flattened head on the other, but headless nails are available. Nails are made in a great variety of forms for specialized purposes. The most common is a wire nail. Bronze nails found in Egypt, have been dated 3400 BC. Thomas Jefferson (1743) was quite proud of his hand made nails. In a letter he wrote, “In our private pursuits it is a great
Advantage that every honest employment is deemed honorable. I am myself a nail maker.” From the president to the pioneer, nail making was an important facet of life. Jefferson was among the first to purchase the newly invented nail-cutting machine in 1796 and produce nails for sale. A nail consists of a metal rod or shank, pointed at one end and usually having a formed head at the other, that can be hammered into pieces of wood or other materials to fasten them together. A nail is usually made of steel, although it can be made of aluminum, brass, or many other metals. The surface can be coated or plated to improve its corrosion resistance, gripping strength, or decorative appearance. The head, shank, and point may have several shapes based on the intended function of the nail. Of the nearly 300 types of nails made in the United States today, most are used in residential housing construction. The average wood frame house uses between 20,000 and 30,000 nails of various types and sizes. Nails are divided into three broad categories based on their length. In general nails under 1 inch (2.5 cm) in length are called tacks or brads. Nails 1-4 inches (2.5-10.2 cm) in length are called nails, while those over 4 inches (10.2 cm) are some-times called spikes. These categories are roughly defined, and there is considerable crossover between them. The length of a nail is measured in a unit called the penny. This term comes from the use of nails in England in the late 1700s when It referred to the price of one hundred nails of that size. For example, a "ten penny nail would have cost ten pennies per hundred. The symbol for penny is "d," as in 10d. This designation is believed to go back to the time of the Roman Empire when a similar form of measurement for hand-forged nails involved a common Roman coin known as the denarius.
Today the term penny only defines the length of a nail and has nothing to do with the price. The shortest nail is 2d which is 1 inch (2.5 cm) long. A 10d nail is 3 inches (7.6 cm) long, and a 16d nail is 3.5 inches (8.9 cm) long. Between 2d and 10d the nail length increases 0.25 inch (0.64 cm) for each penny designation. Beyond 10d there is no logical progression to the lengths and designations. Nails may have been used in Mesopotamia as early as 3500 B.C. and were probably made of copper or bronze. Later, iron was used to make nails. Early nails were shaped, or forged, with hammers. They were usually made one at a time, and were consequently scarce and expensive. By the 1500s a machine was developed which produced long, flattened strips of iron, called nail rods. These strips could then be cut into lengths, pointed, and headed. Nails were so valuable in the early American settlements that in 1646 the Virginia legislature had to pass a measure to prevent colonists from burning down their old houses to reclaim the nails when they moved. Two early nail-making machines were patented by Ezekial Reed of the United States in 1786 and Thomas Clifford of England in 1790. These machines cut tapered pieces from flat iron sheet, then flattened the head. In rural areas, black-smiths continued to make nails from wrought iron right into the 20th century. The first machine to make nails from metal wire was introduced in the United States in about 1850, and this technique is now used to make most of the nails today.
What is a Power Source? Power Source is also called a power supply unit or PSU, the component that supplies power to a computer. Most personal computers can be plugged into standard electrical outlets. The power supply then pulls the required amount of electricity and converts the AC current to DC current. It also regulates the voltage to eliminate spikes and surges common in most electrical systems. Not all power supplies, however, do an adequate voltage-regulation job, so a computer is always susceptible to large voltage fluctuations. Power supplies are rated in terms of the number of watts they generate.
The more powerful the computer, the more watts it can provide to components. Power Source also is an electronic device that supplies electric energy to an electrical load. The primary function of a power supply is to convert one form of electrical energy to another and, as a result, power supplies are sometimes referred to as electric power converters. Some power supplies are discrete, stand-alone devices, whereas others are built into larger devices along with their loads. Examples of the latter include power supplies found in desktop computers and consumer electronics devices. Every power supply must obtain the energy it supplies to its load, as well as any energy it consumes while performing that task, from an energy source. Depending on its design, a power supply may obtain energy from various types of energy sources, including electrical energy transmission systems, energy storage devices such as a batteries and fuel cells, electromechanical systems such as generators and alternators, solar power converters, or another power supply.
PowerSource phones used the Sprint network for interconnect and the Nextel network for walkie-talkie calls. They do this through the implementation of two radios in each unit—a 1900 MHz CDMA radio for Sprint, and an 800 MHz iDEN radio for Nextel. Since the more capacity-hungry interconnect (phone) calls are routed through the higher-capacity Sprint network, these phones in mass deployment are expected to reduce the overall burden on the Nextel network. Since data services (such as web browsing and text messaging) are routed through the Sprint PCS network, they perform faster (up to 144 kbit/s) than on the Nextel National Network (up to 56 kbit/s). Also, since interconnect and walkie-talkie calls use different networks, it is possible to receive a walkie-talkie alert while on a regular voice call—something not possible on a traditional Nextel phone. Maintaining two active radios in a single handset is a power-intensive task, and some users have complained about lack of battery endurance in the ic402/ic502 models. Some users report Sprint -Nextel acknowledges the problem and has even offered free car chargers as a result. Additionally, because Motorola did not include the capability for 800 MHz roaming in the handset, the usable coverage area for a Power Source phone is significantly less than that of a comparable Sprint PCS phone. Also, since the Power Source series does not allow voice calling over the iDEN network, a customer with good Nextel coverage but no Sprint coverage would only be able to use the walkie-talkie feature. Power Source's history is not that long. Upon the merger of Sprint PCS and Nextel Communications in 2005, the combined company faced significant integration challenges. Unlike some other mergers in the wireless arena, Sprint PCS and Nextel employed different air-interface technologies for their networks, making them incompatible. Sprint used Qualcomm's proprietary CDMA format, which they operated in the 1900 Hz band, while Nextel used Motorola's iDEN system, which they deployed at 800 MHz. This meant that the combined company had two distinct customer bases with two types of phones; a Nextel user could not use their phone on the Sprint PCS network, and vice versa.
There was an additional problem facing the newly combined company: prior to the merger, Nextel Communications had been issued a government mandate to reduce interference caused by its cellular network with public safety radio systems. It was to do so via a process termed "re-banding." As a side effect of this "re-banding," however, Nextel's iDEN network would lose valuable 800 MHz spectrum, causing the network to face significant capacity challenges. Simultaneously, Boost Mobile, a prepaid MVNO that operated on Nextel's network, was beginning to skyrocket in popularity, placing an even greater burden on the iDEN system. This eventually manifested itself in a decrease in Nextel customers' call quality in certain markets—dropped calls, blocked calls, and bad voice quality all began to be reported in various cities in 2006.…...

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...The chemistry of perming & rebonding Some of us have naturally curly hair but want it straightened; others have it naturally straight but want it curly. But whatever the style you like to wear, there's chemistry involved in it! The structure of hair Hair is made mostly of a protein called keratin, which is also present in nails. In hair, keratin molecules are arranged in straight bundles. These bundles are held together by disulphide bonds (-S-S-), which give strength to the hair. Disulphide bonds are made by the amino acid called cysteine. The cysteine of one keratin molecule forms a disulphide bond with the cysteine of the neighbouring keratin molecule. The more disulphide bonds there are in a strand of hair, the straighter it is. Ammonium thioglycolate: the perm salt Ammonium thioglycolate (HSCH2CO2NH4) is a compound that can break disulphide bonds. This is because it contains a thiol group (-SH). The thiol group replaces one of the sulphur atoms in the disulphide bond, like this: Keratin-S-S-keratin + 2HS-CH2CO2NH4 --> -HO2CH2CS-SCH2CO2H + 2NH3 + 2HS-keratin When the disulphide bond is broken, the keratin bundles come apart, and hair is weakened. Ammonium thioglycolate is therefore used widely in beauty parlours when customers want their hair re-styled. However, if you use too much of it, or if the reaction is left for too long, you could end up going bald. So do not, ever, try it at home! If you have watched the film Legally Blonde, you'll have seen Reese Witherspoon......

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Chemistry

...Centre for Foundation Studies, UTAR Chapter Scopes FHSC1124 Organic Chemistry Alkanes • IUPAC Nomenclature / naming of aliphatic alkanes and cycloalkanes • Physical properties • Combustion reactions • Free-radical substitution reactions & mechanism • Crude oil and “cracking” Chapter 2 Introduction to Alkanes IUPAC Nomenclature • Simplest member of hydrocarbon family • General formula of alkanes = CnH2n+2 • Alkanes = Paraffins (hydrocarbons with general formula CnH2n+2) • Aliphatic compounds: open chain / acyclic compounds • The names of alkanes end with suffix -ane. • Saturated hydrocarbon: only have C−C & C−H single bonds & contain the maximum possible number of H per C. 3 IUPAC Rules 1. Select the longest continuous C chain as parent chain (use root word for the no. of C) 2. Name each of the branch/substituents as an alkyl / aryl group 3. Number the C chain beginning from the end nearest to the branch ⇒ branch/substituents appear at the lowest no. possible FHSC1124 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY • IUPAC  International Union of Pure & Applied Chemistry • The IUPAC nomenclature system is a set of logical rules devised and used by organic chemists to name the organic compounds. Prefix − Parent − Suffix What are the How many What family? substituents? carbons? IUPAC Rules 4. Name each substituent according to its chemical identity & the no. of the C atom to which it is attached ⇒ For identical substituent, use the......

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Chemistry

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