Free Essay

Chesapeake Bay

In: Science

Submitted By jagiw1
Words 699
Pages 3
Jamiu B Giwa-Otusajo
BIOL 205
Lab 3
Dr. Erik Davenport
THE CHESAPEAKE BAY ECOSYSTEM

1. The Chesapeake Bay is approximately 200 miles in length and it has a width which ranges from 3.4miles to 35miles. The Chesapeake Bay watershed has so much research done on it in order to figure out strategies to revive it.

2. The Chesapeake Bay Program is a regional partnership that leads and directs protection and restoration of the Chesapeake Bay. Although the Chesapeake program partners have mutual restorative objective, they tend to implement restorative actions based on their resources. Their restorative objective include but not limited to * Reducing Pollution * Restoring Habitats * Managing Fishery * Protecting Watershed * Fostering Stewardship

3. Point source nutrient loading is a form of pollution which can be easily regulated because the nutrients are known to originate from a specific location. However in a non-point source nutrient loading the nutrient’s origin is not easily identified, which makes this kind of nutrient loading difficult to contain. 4. The greatest contributor of nutrient loading in the bay is agricultural run-offs.

5. Eutrophication is the enrichment of the ecosystem with chemical substances such as nitrogen and/or phosphorous. It can also be said to be the ecosystem’s reaction to the introduction of natural and artificial substances into aquatic habitats. An excess amount of nutrient loading fuels the growth of certain dinoflagellates, causing algae bloom. Algae bloom then cause turbidity of aquatic bodies thus hindering the penetration of light to underwater grasses. It also creates dead zones in aquatic bodies where during decomposition, denies the water of oxygen and hence suffocates marine lives that need oxygen for survival.

6. Although these strategies to recreate a better conducive and clean Chesapeake Bay ecosystem is still in process and the bay’s health in certain areas is slowly and gradually recovering, the overall condition of the ecosystem is still depraved. From recent years, strategies put in place to reduce pollution, caused mainly by nitrogen, phosphorous and sediment loading, and restore habitats for different species in the ecosystem have made significant positive impact on certain areas of the ecosystem. Also, improvements have been made on the management of fisheries and protection of watershed as attempts to reduce overharvesting, increase the amount of forest buffers and protected lands have been improved upon. However, the bay’s food web remains lower than the amount adequate to feed thriving underwater populations. In addition, the fish and shell fish population keeps suffering from pollution, diseases, overharvesting and poor water quality. Based on these results, I can infer that progress is being made and results are gotten due to the strategies used, but more work has to be done to attain the ultimate goal of a healthy bay.

7. BLUE CRABS; they are the bay’s signature crustaceans. Over the past 100 years blue crabs have dominated the Chesapeake Bay’s fisheries. An estimated one third of the nation’s blue crabs comes from the bay. In 2015 an estimated 411 million blue crabs were counted in the bay, 101 million of them were females compared to the 68.5 million in 2013. Over the years, pollution, underwater grass abundance and pressure harvesting have affected the population of blue crabs in the bay.

OYSTERS; for over a century the eastern oysters are known to be one of the most valuable fisheries in the bay but overharvesting, pollution, disease and habitat loss have reduced the population over the years. In the 1800 the transition from the use of hand thongs to dredges increase the harvest rate of oysters from 1.5 million to 20 million per year. In 1949 the prevalence of Dermo and MSX in the 1950s affected oyster population as oysters of all ages were infected between May and October of each year.

STRIPED BASS; one of the most sought after commercial fishes after they returned from a population decrease in the 1970s and 1980s. The population decline was attributed to water temperature fluctuations, low dissolved oxygen in deeper bay waters, pollution and low water quality. 8. The topic for my paper would be NUTRIENTS. It encompasses eutrophication and will touch base on the consequences of algae bloom in the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Chesapeake Bay Water Pollution and Restoration Mitigation Plan

...Chesapeake Bay Water Pollution and Restoration Mitigation Plan Emmett J. Nixon Axia College 2009 Chesapeake Bay Water Pollution and Restoration Mitigation Plan Detailed description of the problem:             For over 300 years, the Chesapeake Bay water system has sustained the area’s economy and defined its traditions and culture (Chesapeake Bay Program Preamble, 2000).  As the most biologically diverse estuary in the U.S., over 3600 species of fish, plants and animals make the Bay their home.  Land uses in 1990 in the 166,000 square kilometer watershed are estimated to be 57% forest, 16% cropland, 8% pasture, 18% urban or developed land, and 1% of land in rivers and lakes (Chesapeake Bay Program, Linker, L.C., Shenk, G.W., Dennis, R.L., and Sweeney, J.S. (1999).  Water pollution makes most people think of factories and industries dumping toxic chemicals and other contaminants into the Chesapeake Bay.  In reality, the main pollutants are excess amounts of nitrogen, and phosphorous.  These nutrients enter the Bay from a variety of sources and cause an explosion of algae growth and sediment.  Airborne nitrogen reaches the land through air deposition and chemical contaminants.  An overabundance of suspended sediment from erosion is the main factor for water stress and poor aquatic life in the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries.  Protection of its natural and man-made infrastructures is essential over the long-term as indicated in the illustration......

Words: 2101 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Jug Bay Lab Report

...Jug Bay Lab Intro The Jug Bay Watershed near the patuxent river wetlands. The area is a wildlife sanctuary for animal and wildlife preservation. The dominant forest type around Jug Bay is of deciduous forest. This province comprises the flat and irregular Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains down to the sea. Well over 50 percent of the area is gently sloping. The climate regime is equable, with a small to moderate annual temperature range. Average annual temperature is 60 to 70F. Rainfall is abundant and well distributed throughout the year; precipitation ranges from 40 to 60 in per year. Mild rainforest is run of the mill in this region. The broad beach front bogs and inside bogs are overwhelmed by gum and cypress. Soils are chiefly Ultisols, and Entisols. Estuaries are home to exceptional plant and creature groups that have adjusted to salty water. Container Bay backings and holds a wide assortment of untamed life and species. Container Bay is one of three locales which makes up the Chesapeake Bay estuary. These tributaries are a critical part of the general wellbeing of the Chesapeake Bay biological system. The essential point of this trek was to examine the natural life found in the Jug Bay region and record information about it. Description of Methods/Procedure: Though out the day we went and investigated two different plots and explored the wetlands. In the two plots we went to, we had to research the wildlife to decide if the plot was a young forest, a......

Words: 1002 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

During the 1700's, People in the American Colonies Lived in Very Distinctive Societies. While Some Colonists Led Hard Lives, Others Were Healthy and Prosperous. the Two Groups Who Showed These Differences Were the

...During the 1600's, people in the American colonies lived in very distinctive societies. While some colonists led hard lives, others were healthy and prosperous. The two groups who showed these differences were the colonists of the New England and Chesapeake Bay areas. The differentiating characteristics among the Chesapeake and New England colonies developed due to economy, religion, and motives for colonial expansion. The colonists of the New England area possessed a very happy and healthy life. This high way of living was due in part to better farming, a healthier environment, and a high rate of production because of more factories. The colonists of the Chesapeake Bay region, on the other hand, led harder lives compared to that of the colonists of New England. The Chesapeake Bay had an unhealthy environment, bad eating diets, and intolerable labor. The colonists had different reasons for settling in these two distinct regions. The New England region was a more religiously strict yet diverse area compared to that of the Chesapeake Bay. The development of religion in the two regions came from separate roots. After Henry VIII and the Roman Catholic Church broke away from each other, a new group of English reformers was created called the Puritans. The Puritans came from protestant backgrounds, after being influenced by Calvinistic ideas. When their reforms were thwarted by King James I of England, they fled to the New World in what is now known as the "Great Migration". The......

Words: 929 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Ecosystem Task 2

...Systems of Natural Science 114.2.3 Ecosystems Chesapeake Bay Ecosystem (Taylor & Allen) • The Bay is approx. 200 miles long, from Havre de Grace, Maryland to Virginia Beach, Virginia • The Bay's width ranges from 4 miles near Aberdeen, Maryland, to 30 miles near Cape Charles, Virginia Major Components Chesapeake Bay Ecosystem Biotic Components (Living) Abiotic Components (Non-living) • • • • • • 350 species of fish Crabs Shellfish Birds Mammals Reptiles and Amphibians (Bay stat) • • • • • Water Quality Sunlight Weather Soil Air (pollution) Current Human Impact on Chesapeake Bay Ecosystem Air Pollution  Vehicles, industries, power plants, gas-powered lawn tools, and farm operations: Almost one third of the nitrogen that pollutes the Bay and its rivers comes from the air Pollution from a very large geographic area can eventually wind up in the Bay Water Quality  Fertilizers, waste water and vehicle emissions: • • Increased nitrogen and phosphorus fuels unnaturally high algae growth in the water Algae turns color of the water brownish or greenish - blocking sunlight from reaching underwater grasses When algae die they are decomposed by bacteria that consume the oxygen needed by other aquatic creatures in the bay Without enough oxygen dissolved in the water, aquatic creatures like fish, blue crabs and oysters become stressed or even die. • • • Air and water pollution are not separate problems. There is a close link between the......

Words: 513 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Chesapeake Bay

...Great Israeli Rabbis of Iraqi Descent Among the Jewish people there are two major cultures. There are those of Sephardic Descent and those of Ashkenaz descent. Although both cultures are very diverse and have separate communities, they follow the same religious guidelines and rules. However, Sephardic Jewry originated mainly from Spanish and Arab countries while Ashkenazic Jewry originated mainly from European countries and Russia. The most scholarly advanced of the Jews over the last hundred years are those of Iraqi descent which produced prestigious rabbis such as Rabbi Ovadia Yosef, Rabbi Yitzchak Kaduri and Rabbi Mordechai Eliyahu. Many of todays great Iraqi Jewish Rabbis are not just of Iraqi descent but were even born in Baghdad, Iraq. Many Regard Rabbi Ovadia Yosef as the greatest Rabbi of the last one hundred years. Rabbi Ovadia Yosef was born on September 20, 1920 in Baghdad, Iraq. Rabbi Ovadia Yosef attained his incredibly high level of knowledge through vigorous study and a top-notch education starting from a young age. As a teenager Rabbi Ovadia Yosef studied at Porat Yosef Yeshiva, which till today is considered to be the most prominent Sephardic Yeshiva for producing future rabbinic leaders. This prestigious yeshiva is located in the Old City of Jerusalem. It can be compared to a minor league farm system in baseball that produces the top prospects. Rabbi Ovadia Yosef quickly rose to the highest-level lecture taught by Syrian born Rabbi Ezra Attiah. Rav......

Words: 1409 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Crab's Migration

...crabs are blue crab migration at Chesapeake Bay and red crab migration Chrismas Island. However, blue and red crabs choose different strategies (e.g. timing, route, mechanisms) in order to successfully complete migration and maximize survival of offspring. At Chesapeake Bay, blue crab mating typically occurs from May to October in lower salinity areas of the Chesapeake Bay. After mating, males remain in these lower salinity areas. However, because blue crab larvae require high salinities for proper development, females will begin moving south to the spawning grounds near the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay and near-shore coastal areas. Periods of peak spawning (larval release) along the Mid-Atlantic Bight have typically been documented from late July through August. After spawning, many females use flood tides to return to the lower estuary, where they may produce subsequent broods, but do not move back into lower salinity zones. Some mature females may also move into near-shore and offshore coastal waters after spawning. The Chesapeake Bay is a large estuary and for many crabs the distance between mating areas the spawning grounds can be considerable (> 100 km). Peak spawning typically occurs in the late summer; therefore, crabs beginning to migrate in the early fall may not be able to spawn that year. According to a study, in which, blue crab were tagged, released and recaptured, it appears that most female blue crabs in the upper Chesapeake Bay appear to begin the......

Words: 984 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Environmental Outline

...had to pay back taxes for there crews. Ÿ It had been the best year ever for oysters, however many of the tongers and dredgers hadn’t gone far enough up the bay for the winter, as they usually did for the last ten years. Ÿ Early spring the time all watermen dreamed of a great season to come. Ÿ Captain grant the watermen the author went out with said,“ don’t mind going out in this weather, catching some crabs.”(pg.264) Ÿ Part way through the season he brought his boat home, like a number of the other watermen who found better conditions in Tangier Sound. Ÿ The price for oysters had remained around five dollars a bushel. Ÿ Captain Grant was talking about how he wanted a better and easier life for his boys, “bricklaying that’s a good start, easy enough to learn, the pay is good and you don’t need a whole lot of equipment.” Sometimes he thought about it himself, to tell the truth. “ But here I am out on the water again, if we just caught one or two, be alright.”(pg.266) Ÿ As far as anybody could tell, the early season was not going very well. Early year more and more crabbers were working late into autumn, and Grant figured that had to mean the old crabs would be scarce the following springs. Ÿ Bait was sky high at $5 three quarter of a bushel, and the diesel fuel had climbed to over forty cents a gallon. Ÿ Chesapeake watermen are excellent mechanics, but they...

Words: 742 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Audience Analysis Memo

...audience for the “Maryland Blue Crabs-How to Pick ‘Em and Eat ‘Em” instruction manual. Summary: The target audience for the instruction manual will be categorized in three groups; primary, secondary and tertiary. The primary audience is intended to be people who have never “picked” or eaten a Maryland Blue Crab. The secondary audience consists of people that may be familiar with eating crabs but are only interested in the technique being taught. The tertiary audience would consist of people whom are not necessarily looking to pick up the manual and eat crabs but may look at the manual simply in passing. Primary Audience: This audience will be individuals who are new to or visiting Maryland that has an interest in eating this Chesapeake Bay delicacy. Tourists, new Maryland residents or other individuals from the area that have a newly developed interest in crabs are grouped in this category. Tourists are individuals who are not from this area and are likely to be visiting or passing through Maryland. New residents are also part of the prime audience along with current residents of Maryland both who have decided to enjoy what is such a big tradition of the state. With Maryland designating the blue crab as the State Crustation, when individuals visit, “picking crabs” is on the top of the list for “things to do”. The audience in this category is very wide, they could range from any age level, any educational level and could be from any part of the world. Many of......

Words: 625 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Early Colonization in America

...EARLY COLONIZATION PERIOD IN AMERICA By the 1700’s two settlements had been established, Chesapeake and New England regions. Both New England and the Chesapeake region started off as colonies, established by England, and were divided into two distinct societies because of their religious, economic and geographical differences. The first major difference between the two settlements was religion. On one hand, the puritans, who colonized the New England, were very religious.  They wanted to create a model society in which there were limits to legitimate commercial behavior, and the religious idealism would turn into a renewed sense of community. They were very strict in their religious beliefs.  The Chesapeake region took a different approach, and did not put religion at the center of life. In the Chesapeake, religion was much less severe. These was the difference between two region. The second difference between the two settlements was economy. The Chesapeak’s  economy was almost entirely based on farming. Rice, indigo, tobacco, sugarcane, and cotton were cash crops. Crops were grown on large plantations where slaves and indentured servants worked the land. On the other hand New England’s economy was largely depend on ocean.  Fishing was most important to the New England economy. Farming was difficult in New England for crops like wheat because of the poor soil. As can be seen the economic sources was different between the two region. The last difference between the two......

Words: 353 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Field Survey

...Felice Schwartz Ms. North IB Environmental Science I September 23, 2013 Field Survey Project A. Defining the Problem 1. Run off is the indicator 2. The runoff affects the Chesapeake Bay because it brings pollution into it. It carries contaminants from land such as nitrogen and bacteria. This then creates algae, which deprives the bay of oxygen. It also clouds the water and in turn restricts the amount of sunlight in the water, which limits the growth of grasses. Ultimately creating an unstable environment in the bay and kills the life that lives there. 3. Healthy system: RainDrainage Systems Heavily forested area with high grasseslimited runoffHealthy Bay Unhealthy system: RainDrainage systemsImpervious surfaceRunoff from the surface into the storm drainsstorm drains give off into the bayBay is unhealthy from excessive runoff.  B. Data Collection Qualitative | Bare soil | Landscape | Drainage systems | | Quantitative | Measure in cm^2 | Percentages taking of different land use | Count how many | | C. Data Processing 1. The mathematical formula used was Q= (C)(i)(A). The calculated results of the formula were Q= .89x3x3.2, Q=8.54. 2. The uncertainties that exist in our formula are that some of the components are our own estimations and therefore the validity of them is uncertain. 3. The estimated effect is that our calculation could be about .2 off. We got this effect because we calculated a different Q using......

Words: 604 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Ecosystems

...Chesapeake Bay Ecosystems The Chesapeake Bay is near and dear to me for a variety of reasons. First, that is near where I grew up and now that I don't live there I have a major appreciation for the natural ecosystem there and secondly, as a seafood and more importantly oyster lover I realize that many of the oysters that I eat come from there. The Chesapeake Bay's ecosystem houses all types of shell fish such as perch, croaker, and anchovies but primarily oysters. Being the largest estuarine system in the United States, the importance of maintaining that ecosystem is at an all time high. The EPA reports that over half of the fresh water entering the estuarine in the Middle Atlantic Region. (epa.gov, 2014) There have been a decrease in the ecosystems ability to maintain the native oyster population due to several reasons. Over fishing has been one of the causes of this. (Cerco, 2005)Other causes include but are not limited to disease and the destruction of the habitat. Additionally, the increased population growth rate, heightened sewage dumping, and further development of agricultural lands have had its fair share in the blame as well. In 1975, the EPA cited that the Chesapeake Bay became the Nation's first estuary to be targeted for protection and restoration. (EPA.gov, 2014) Due to the fact that 25% of our shellfish comes from the Chesapeake Bay, I say again that this is a major concern. As we think about some of the nutrients that play a role in the......

Words: 812 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Acc 557 Assignment1

...many ethical accounting breeches in large corporations that ended up costing investors and employees of the corporations a lot of money. Enron was a major player in many breeches, and ultimately was one of the key players for the SEC creating new guidelines and punishments for fraudulent behavior, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. As of today, with the SOX act put in place for almost 11 years, there are still corporate breeches, Chesapeake Energy, Wal-Mart, Green Mountain Coffee, and Groupon are among the most recent (Rogers, 2012). I believe the SOX act helped prevent a lot of accounting illegalities and helped to protect the shareholders, but ultimately the act is not strong enough or covers enough to prevent it all. While more accountability is definitely held with the CFO, and CEO of corporations, as well as with outside accounting teams, the SEC is not going forward with investigations regarding independent CPAs or accounting firms (Benston & Hartgraves, 2002). Chesapeake Energy is a clear example; the CEO had taken out $1.1 billion in loans funded by Chesapeake in return for stake in the company (Driver & Grow, 2012; McKenna, 2012). The SEC has rules against taking out loans for stocks, but because it does not mention any areas related to stake in the company, it falls in a grey area that cannot be prevented by the SOX act or SEC (Driver & Grow, 2012). In section 402 of the SOX act, it states that companies are unable to give personal loans to any director or......

Words: 1644 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Chesapeake Eneregy

...CHESAPEAKE ENERGY CORPORATION BY: GALE C. HOWARD Chesapeake Energy Corporation is headquartered in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. With field offices spread throughout its vast operating area to include: Oklahoma, Texas, Wyoming, Louisiana, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. Chesapeake Energy is the second largest producer of natural gas and the twelfth largest producer of oil in the United States. Chesapeake Energy employs approximately 4400 employees and owns about 9.5 million net acres of leasehold rights. As with all energy companies, Chesapeake Energy must follow the legal guidelines of several entities. One of the entities being the State Commissions governing oil and gas interests. These control the conservation of oil and gas products as well as mineral interest owner’s rights. Another entity is the Internal Revenue Service which requires strict adherence to their set procedures and accounting of owner’s tax information and payment history. Chesapeake Energy is also subject to various audits of its accounting systems, data concerning its interest calculations, and all investor information. The social environment at Chesapeake Energy is always expanding. Some of the amenities provided to its employees include: a top of the line fitness center, an employee garden, three restaurants on campus, and an outdoor track and field area. All of these amenities allow the employees to interact with each other in a more relaxed social setting. In a more professional setting,......

Words: 820 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

In the National Gallery

...In the National Gallery ”In the National Gallery” is a short story by Doris Lessing form 2007. The themes in the story are that older are more patient than younger, a person can be attracted by another without showing it, and you must follow the time otherwise it can become ugly. The narrator is first person point of view “She was the boss girl in this group, even if nit officially a head girl or monitor” (page 3, line 43). The narrator has an objective sight, but the narrator reflects and interprets what he sees. Therefore gets the reader a subjective view on the text. Because it is his thoughts we read. “Her eyes focused, on the great brilliant horse, so close, towering there on the golden canvas, on his hind legs.” (page 4, line 102) The French girl did not say anything about the horse; therefore can the narrator not tell what the French girl thinks about the horse. We only get the narrator thoughts therefore the narrator becomes unreliable. Strubbs horse is a symbol of the older man. “But then a man sat down, on the other side of the bench’s arm and he leaned forward, elbows on knees, and locked hard at the horse” (Page 1, Line 19). Before had the horse an important role in the society. Every great leader in history has sat on a horseback, because it was a strong, powerful, and fast. Now we only use the horse as a hobby. When the older man was young he was a strong and marvellous man. He cut pick up a sixteen-year-old girl when he just where twelve years old. ”She...

Words: 1005 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Digging Into Unethical Corporate Behavior

...Exchange Commission. Madoff operated legal and illegal operations. His illegal entity ran a Ponzi scheme, using revenue from new investors to pay existing clients. Shareholder losses from Madoff’s actions amounted to $20 billion. WorldCom and Tyco International have become synonymous with white-collar crime, thanks to unscrupulous behavior by a select few business executives within those companies. Bad executive behavior can lead to sales declines and tanking stock prices, and sometimes, a company’s demise. Enron brought down itself and a former “big five” accounting firm, Arthur Andersen. Companies not in any danger of collapsing, but recently shown to have ethical lapses that could signal bigger problems within the company include Chesapeake Energy Corp. (NYSE: CHK), Wal-Mart...

Words: 1119 - Pages: 5