Free Essay

Chicken Feathers in Concrete

In: Science

Submitted By austinallen2013
Words 2248
Pages 9
Strengthening Concrete with Keratin Fibers from Chicken Feathers
Austin Allen
Kennesaw Mountain High School

Table of Contents Research Problem 3 Chapter II: Literature Review 4 Keratin Fibers 4 Concrete 4 Compressive Strength 5 Tensile Strength 5 Chicken Feathers 5 Structure 6 Glossary 6 Chapter III: Methodology 6 Analysis Plan 7 Validity 7 Assumptions 7 Scope and Limitations 8 Chapter IV: Analysis 8 Chapter V: Conclusions and Recommendations 9 References 10

Strengthening Concrete with Keratin Fibers from Chicken Feathers
Chicken feathers are primarily used for making feather meal for farm animals; however, chicken feathers are also used in the production of plastics, fishing flies, biodegradable pots and plastics, bio-diesel fuel, hurricane-resistant roofing, and the stuffing in pillows (Fan, 2008). Applying these uses of chicken feathers to concrete could increase the strength and life of the structure built; for example, an office building could potentially last years longer if the concrete used to construct it (contained more strength) to hold up the structure. Furthermore, the wear and tear of the strength of the building would be approximately the same; however, the capacity to support the structure would be greater due to an increased initial strength (Fan, 2008).
Worrell, Price, Martin, Hendricks, and Meida (2001) reported that approximately five percent of the global carbon dioxide emissions come from the pouring of Portland cement. Consequently, replacing a portion of the cement for feather reinforcements could reduce emissions and reduce ozone depletion. Introducing chicken feather reinforcement to concrete could eliminate approximately 2 million tons of chicken feathers from being dumped in landfills (Hu, Ready, Yan, & Yang, 2011). Averaging thirty to thirty five dollars per ton, to dispose in landfills, the purposeful utilization of feathers would be financially beneficial (Fan, 2008).
Research Problem
There will be a correlational study designed to determine if adding keratin fibers derived from chicken feathers to concrete will increase the compressive strength of the concrete. This could possibly reduce greenhouse gas emissions (Worrel et al., 2001) reduce the costs of feathers in landfills. Conclusions could be useful to architects who are designing a building and deciding the strength concrete should be able to withstand, which is usually about 4500 psi; however, there could also possibly be pavement, driveways, and asphalt that are feather-reinforced that aid the environment by reducing greenhouse gas emissions (Schreiber, 2012, personal communication).
Chapter II: Literature Review
Keratin Fibers
Keratin fibers are natural fibers that compose fingernails and the quill (rachis) of feathers (McGovern, 2000). Because chicken feathers are naturally tensile, with an average tensile strength of 203 mega pascals (Zhan & Wool, 2011), adding them to the concrete, with an average tensile strength of 60 mega pascals (Fields & Bischoff, 2004), will possibly increase the average tensile strength of the concrete. Increasing the tensile strength of the concrete will enable the use of concrete in driveways, sidewalks, and roads by increasing the load limits. However, less Portland cement may be able to utilize more aggregate and fiber reinforcement, reducing greenhouse gases emitted by the pouring of the cement. Huda and Yang utilized the quill and barbs as reinforcement in several different composites. Their research was used to support the fact that the feather reinforcements increased tensile strength of the composites they tested; however, the application of the tensile properties of the feathers must be utilized in the addition to the concrete mixes (2009).
Concrete
Concrete is a mixture of Portland cement, aggregate, and water utilized by most of the construction business, mostly for buildings and civil works, such as bridges, roadways, and dams. Milton Schreiber reported that concrete is relatively low in tensile strength, not being able to stretch far without cracking. In addition, the low tensile strength of concrete is made up for by the compressive strength, which can reach values of over 10,000 pounds per square inch (2012).
Compressive Strength The National Ready Mixed Concrete Association (NRMCA) reported that the compressive strength is the measurement of the maximum load that can be put on the concrete before it fractures. Based on this data, engineers utilize compressive strength in order to calculate exactly how strong the buildings they are designing need to be. Testing the compressive strength of concrete follows the American Society for Materials and Testing (ASTM) standard C 39, standard test method for compressive strength of cylindrical concrete specimens. ASTM C 39 states that a concrete cylinder be made and put into a compression-testing machine and applying a load until the cylinder breaks, which is recorded on the digital display of the testing machine (2003). Forrest Waters of Geo-Hydro Engineers stated that the specimens cure for a period of 28 days in a 100% humidity and 70 degree F environment, because the compressive strength after 28 days of curing is an industry-standard specification, where curing for 7 days may yield 50%-80% of the twenty-eight day compressive strength (2012).
Tensile Strength
Tensile strength is defined as the force required to pull something, such as a rope, wire, or structural beam, to the point where it breaks. Milton Schreiber stated that tensile strength of concrete is about one tenth of compressive strength, because concrete is naturally lacking in tensile properties, while its compressive properties are not (2012). Laboratory tensile strength of concrete is typically determined by a flexural test. This test utilizes a concrete beam that is rested on two points, with a load that compresses the beam exactly halfway between the points, which is in the exact middle of the beam. Typical values of tensile strength range from 2 to 5 MPa (Raphael, 1984).
Chicken Feathers Purslow and Vincent measured the elastic properties of pigeon feathers and reported that the values ranged from 7.5-10 giga pascals on dehydrated feather shafts. Using these values, the elasticity, similar to tensile strength, is relatively high for bird feathers, especially pigeon. However, the results are applied to assume that the elasticity is relatively the same to that of chicken feathers. Due to this natural elasticity, the feathers can possibly pose a solution to the low tensile strength of concrete, allowing for more strengthened buildings and structures (1978).
Structure
Feathers are comprised of three main components: rachis, barbs, and barbules. The rachis is often referred to as the quill of the feather, for which it is often used. The rachis is composed of a keratin shaft, filled with keratin fibers. Barbs are branches joined to the rachis, increasing surface area. Branching from the barbs are barbules, which are microscopic self-organizing structures that allow the feather to have a low specific gravity and density (Fan, 2008)).
Glossary
Aggregate: material, usually crushed rock or sand, that is mixed with cement to create concrete
Curing: placing the concrete in a moist environment, after the pouring of the concrete, to increase its hardness and strength gradually Keratin fibers: fibrous protein found in the outer layer of skin, in hair, nails, feathers, hooves, etc.
Load limits: the maximum weight of loading that is applied to concrete before fracturing
Specific gravity: ratio of density of a substance to the density of a reference substance
Tensile strength: the resistance of a material expresses as the greatest longitudinal stress it can bear without fracturing
Chapter III: Methodology
A correlational study will be conducted to gather information about whether chicken feather fibers (keratin fibers) affect the compressive and tensile strength of concrete. In order to test the compressive strength, Quikrete will be mixed and made ready for making cylinders. However, the researcher will simulate the strength of chicken feathers by utilizing coffee stirring straws, which Milton Schreiber reports are similar to the quill of chicken feathers (2012). Nine cylinders will be made: three 4x8 without reinforcement, three 4x8 inch cylinders with straw reinforcement, and three 6x12 inch cylinders with straw reinforcement. After the cylinders have remained in the lab for one day, the researcher cuts the concrete from the cylinders, and places them inside a 70 degree Fahrenheit room to cure for seven days. After the cylinders have cured, a machine, which measures the compressive strength of concrete, will assist in measuring the strength of the different specimens.
Analysis Plan
The researcher will report the data as ratios, comparing the strength of the reinforced concrete to the strength of the control group of concrete without reinforcement. By utilizing this method, there will be a more visually pleasing graph, clearly illustrating the change in compressive strength.
Validity
Validity is maintained by constructing a normal probability plot of the diameters of the straws, which proved to be normally distributed. However, one variable that would cause problems in this method is the length of the straws that were in the concrete and how many there were compared to the other cylinders.
Assumptions
Throughout the experiment, the assumption that the straw diameters follow a normal distribution, as do the diameters, is to be maintained.
Scope and Limitations There were not enough companies willing to distribute chicken feathers in order to complete this research; therefore, the experiment with chicken feathers had to be simulated with stirring straws. If the researcher were given more time, then the researcher could have obtained more feathers, allowing for more accurate results and results that are more reliable.
Chapter IV: Analysis The table below (Figure 1) notes the compressive strength of the three straw-reinforced concrete samples and the average of the control samples. A one-sample t test was conducted on the ratios of f'cf'ccontrol for samples 1 through 3, where the hypothetical mean was 1.0. For the test, a p-value of .0096 was obtained for a 95% confidence interval, showing that there is a statistically significant difference between the mean ratio of the three samples and the control ratio of one. As predicted before, there is a statistically significant difference between the experimental samples and the control samples; however, the actual results were in the opposite direction of the predicted results.

Figure 1: Strength of Straw-reinforced Concrete Sample | Size (in x in) | f'c (psi) | f'cf'ccontrol | 1 | 4 x 7.8 | 1340 | .531 | 2 | 4 x 7.8 | 880 | .349 | 3 | 4 x 7.8 | 930 | .368 | Control (average) | 4 x 7.8 | 2523.33 | 1 |

Chapter V: Conclusions and Recommendations The results of the research provided evidence that there was definitely a significant decrease in compressive strength of the experimental group of concrete. This suggests that using straws in the concrete has an effect to lower the compressive strength of the concrete. Results obtained from this research reject the hypothesis initially posed, which suggested that the strength will increase by being statistically significant with the addition of straw reinforcement; however, the strength of the concrete decreased, as shown by figure 1, significantly with the implementation of straws in the concrete samples. There are logical explanations for why the variation between the experimental and control groups differed so much. The straws did not stick in the concrete as much as expected, possibly due to the slick texture on the outside of the straw. There were apparent voids in each sample of concrete, which could have caused a massive decrease in compressive strength due to empty space that concrete could have filled. Furthermore, not as much concrete filled the straws, if any, than anticipated; the problem with the straws not filling with concrete is the straws would not be reinforced, and there would be air pockets inside the straws. There is room for improvement in the aspect of the type of reinforcement. If time permitted, the researcher could gather enough chicken feathers from poultry processing plants to implement them in the concrete to test whether the keratin would benefit the concrete’s strength or be a detriment to the strength. Testing with the feathers will provide more of a solid conclusion that can be carried over to other research, and possibly inspire those in civil engineering to test or use feather-reinforced concrete.

References
Fan, X. (2008). Value-added products from chicken feather fibers and protein. Retreived from: http://etd.auburn.edu/etd/bitstream/handle/10415/17/Fan_Xiuling_15.pdf?sequence=1
Fields, K., & Bischoff, P. H. (2004). Tension stiffening cracking of high-strength reinforced concrete tension members. American concrete institute, 101(4), 447-456. Retrieved fromhttp://www.concrete.org/PUBS/JOURNALS/OLJDetails.asp?Home=SJ&ID=13330
Hu, C., Reddy, N., Yan, K., & Yang, Y. (2011). Acetylation of chicken feathers for thermoplastic applications. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 59(19), 10517–10523. doi: 10.1021/jf2023676
Huda, S., & Yang, Y. (2009). Feather fiber reinforced light-weight composites with good acoustic properties.JOURNAL OF POLYMERS AND THE ENVIRONMENT, 17(2), 131-142. doi: DOI: 10.1007/s10924-009-0130-2
McGovern, V. (2000). Recycling poultry feathers: More bang for your cluck. Environmental Health Perspectives, Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/
PMC1638290/pdf/envhper00309-0028-color.pdf
Purslow P.P., Vincent J.F.V. (1978). Mechanical properties of primary feathers from the pigeon. J Exp Biol; 72:251–60.
Raphael, J. M. (1984). Tensile strength of concrete.American concrete institute, 81(2), 158-165. Retrieved from http://www.concrete.org/PUBS/JOURNALS/OLJDetails.asp?
Home=JP&ID=10653
Worrell, E., Price, L., Martin, N., Hendricks, C., & Meida, L. O. (2001). Carbon dioxide emissions from the global cement industry. Annual Reviews, 26, doi: 10.1146/annurev.energy.26.1.303
Zhan, M., & Wool, R. P. (2011). Mechanical properties of chicken feather fibers. Polymer composites, 32(6), 937-944. doi: 10.1002/pc.21112

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Incomplete Thesis

...CHAPTER 1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Fiber- reinforced concrete contains fibrous materials which intensifies its structural integrity. Since concrete is weak in tension, the use of conventional steel bars reinforcement and to some extent by the mixing of a sufficient volume of certain fibers. Its fibers include steel, glass, synthetics or natural fibers which provide varying properties to concrete. Also, its character changes with varying concretes, fiber materials, geometries, distribution, orientation, and densities. Fibers have been used as a reinforcement since ancient times. In the 1900s, asbestos fibers were used in concrete. In the 1950s, the concept of composite materials came into being and fiber-reinforced concrete was one of the topics of interest. But due to health risks linked to asbestos, its substance in concrete and other building materials were replaced. Also, in the 1960’s, steel glass and synthetic fibers were used in concrete. Since then, new fiber-reinforced concretes are being researched to improve the tensile properties of concrete. FIBER REINFORCED CONCRETE ADVANTAGES PHILIPPINE ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS The Environment of the Philippines is prone to natural disasters, particularly typhoons, floods, landslides, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and tsunamis, lying as it does astride the typhoon belt, in the active volcanic region known as thePacific Ring of Fire, and in the geologicall suitable region. The Philippines also suffers major......

Words: 860 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Important

...- 7683 Waste Chicken Feather as Reinforcement in Cement-Bonded Composites Menandro N. Acda Department of Forest Products and Paper Science, College of Forestry and Natural Resources University of the Philippines Los Baños, College, Laguna 4031 Philippines This study investigated the use of waste chicken feather (barbs and rachis) as reinforcement in cement-bonded composites. A series of composite boards consisting of various proportions of waste feather, cement, sand, and chemical admixtures were prepared. Mix workability decreased significantly as the proportion by weight of feathers or ground feathers increased from 5% to 20%. Boards containing 5% to 10% fiber and/or ground feather by weight showed comparable strength and dimensional stability to commercial wood fiber-cement composites of similar thickness and density. Stiffness, flexural strength, and dimensional stability of the feather-cement boards decreased as the proportion of feathers was increased above 10%. Higher proportions of feather, however, showed significant reduction in modulus of elasticity (MOE) and modulus of rupture (MOR), and increased water absorption and thickness swelling after 24 hours of soaking in water. Key Words: Barbs, Chicken Feather, Cement Composites, Coupling Agent, Dimensional stability, Hygroscopicity, Keratin, Silane, Superplasticizer INTRODUCTION Chicken feathers are waste products of the poultry industry. Billions of kilograms of waste feathers are generated......

Words: 4170 - Pages: 17

Premium Essay

Waste Chicken Feather

...2010 ISSN 0031 - 7683 Key Words: Barbs, Chicken Feather, Cement Composites, Coupling Agent, Dimensional stability, Hygroscopicity, Keratin, Silane, Superplasticizer *Corresponding author: mnacda@yahoo.com 161 Menandro N. Acda Waste Chicken Feather as Reinforcement in Cement-Bonded Composites Department of Forest Products and Paper Science, College of Forestry and Natural Resources University of the Philippines Los Baños, College, Laguna 4031 Philippines This study investigated the use of waste chicken feather (barbs and rachis) as reinforcement in cement-bonded composites. A series of composite boards consisting of various proportions of waste feather, cement, sand, and chemical admixtures were prepared. Mix workability decreased significantly as the proportion by weight of feathers or ground feathers increased from 5% to 20%. Boards containing 5% to 10% fiber and/or ground feather by weight showed comparable strength and dimensional stability to commercial wood fiber-cement composites of similar thickness and density. Stiffness, flexural strength, and dimensional stability of the feather-cement boards decreased as the proportion of feathers was increased above 10%. Higher proportions of feather, however, showed significant reduction in modulus of elasticity (MOE) and modulus of rupture (MOR), and increased water absorption and thickness swelling after 24 hours of soaking in water. INTRODUCTION Chicken feathers are waste products of the......

Words: 4171 - Pages: 17

Free Essay

Filipino Arch

...was fast and inexpensive. Houses were built then through the help of friends and neighbors. Today there are only few bamboo houses. Most houses are already built of strong materials like hollow blocks, wood, galvanized iron and glass windows. Modernity has not entirely changed the architecture of the Filipino houses. The batalan is stall a part of the houses in Luzon and is used as an open bathroom, a place for water jars or tapayan and a place for washing. The modern batalan is made of concrete and is still adjacent to the kitchen. The banguerahan, a storage shelf and drainer before the dish rack was introduced, is still a part of a few modern houses. The modern banguerahan is no longer enclosed with bamboo spikes but is screened. The old house of before were not painted. The present ones are painted in varied colors and built styles. The old houses were built high on the ground and the space below calle4d silong was fenced with bamboo to keep pigs, dogs, and chickens out. Chairs, tables, beds and other furniture are found in most hours. Many Filipinos, particularly t6he Tagalogs, still prefer to sleep on bamboo or wooden floors instead of on beds. Some years ago kerosene lamps were used in most houses. Now electricity has found its way in almost all houses. The old kalan or native stove has been replaced by electric ranges; the palayok or native...

Words: 600 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

The Adventures of Brazil

...the clouds light and fluffy as cotton candy. The golden sun reflects gently on my skin, as the light flowing breeze flows through my hair, tickles my skin like a feather. The beach, the first thing I come across was the white sandy beach as white as snow with a trickle of golden sun light reflecting from the radiant sun. The tide swiftly lapped the shore, the water a bright blue, the first thing I noticed the water was clean, clear Celeste blue beautiful bright colour I see my reflection it was crystal clear it stared right back at me, splash, splash I crashed into the water it was warm soft feeling, I screamed in delight, the water rushed all of my skin with a warm fresh feeling, as I came out, the water stung my eyes like a bee stuck my finger, the feeling of warmness jumped off my body like a grasshopper jumping through grass, all of a sudden there was a rush of coldness hit my skin , bang goose bumps hit my skin, I shivered, and shivered but when sun light hit my skin the coldness dance off my skin. My stomach rumbled and growled as loud as a loin’s growl as the aroma of flame-grilled meat drifts towards me. I could hear the sizzling on the open fire and the steak fat dribbling and hissing as it spills onto the grill, the smell of sizzling sausages on an open fire, the mouth-watering smell freshly cooked chicken. Sun set every night spread slowly across the sky into a tangy orange sky light as a fiery red circle of light slowly sank beneath the horizon, and threads......

Words: 687 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Treatment of Factory Farm Animals

...survive. Since it is so important, the culture surrounding our food is quite diverse and has grown through the ages. In the past, people would usually make their own food through farms or other means. However, today the source of our food mainly comes from grocery stores or we just go out to eat either at a sit down or fast food restaurant. Because of the means we go about getting our food, the source of where the restaurants or grocery stores get their food is unknown to us. Just the other day I went to a sit down restaurant and ordered chicken wings. Obviously there are laws protecting people from getting tainted food, but the source of this food was unknown to me and could of had something wrong with it. Luckily I am fine and I survived that meal, but the process of how that food got to my plate and how that animal was treated before it was slaughtered to become my food was unknown to me. Even though farm animals such as chickens, pigs, and cows are most likely going to be killed for food purposes, they are living things and do deserve to live a decent life before they become our food. The opposition might argue that there are too many people in this world who eat meat, so these means are necessary to feed all the people. But if the meat eating society were to look closely at how these animals were treated before becoming our food in most cases they would not see a very good life and even would be disgusted with the environments as well as the treatment of these......

Words: 2947 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

Bird's Nest

...considerable, is not captured by its GDP estimates. Enquiries are hampered by the secretive behaviour of the practitioners, who jealously guard their trade secrets. The author is an economist/planner who first observed the phenomenon when conducting fieldwork for an urban development project in North Sumatera. He is currently preparing a research project on the subject to be carried out in association with Badan Pusat Statistik. The nests of bird’s nest soup are produced by the genus aerodramus (formerly collocallia), a type of swift, known in the Malay and Indonesian languages as walet. The essential ingredient is the saliva of the bird, almost pure in the nests of the white-nest walet (aerodramus fuciphagus) but heavily mixed with feathers and other material in those of the black-nest walet (aerodramus maxima), which consequently command lower prices. Figure 1 - Freshly Harvested Nests The...

Words: 5056 - Pages: 21

Free Essay

Linguistics

...Idioms 1) “Absence makes heart grow fonder” :- Our feeling for those we love increases when we are apart from them . 2) “Armed to the teeth” :- To be heavily armed. 3) “Back-handed compliment” :- A compliment that also insults or put down at the same time. 4) “Bleed like a stuck pig” :- To bleed heavily. 5) “Blow off some steam” :- To enjoy oneself by relaxing normal formalities. 6) “Blowing smoke” :- To be boasting without being able to back it up ; talking about action without intent to follow through. 7) “Bouched up” :- Substandard; Messed up; Make a shamble of. 8) “Brand Spanking New” :- New and Unused. 9) “Break A Leg” :- A wish of good luck, do well. 10) “A burnt child dreads the fire” :- One does not repeat a painful lesson twice. 11) “Bust your balls” :- To harass with the intent to break one’s spirit. 12) “Busting your chops” :- To say things intended to harass. 13) “Can’t hold a candle to” :- To be far less competent or have far less skills than someone else. 14) “Cat bird seat” :- A highly advantaged position, to have it all. 15) “Chew the fat” :- To talk about unimportant things. 16) “Clean bill of health” :- To be found healthy. 17) “Clear as a Bell” :- Clearly understood. 18) “Close, but no cigar” :- Nearly achieving success, but not quite. 19) “Cold Turkey” :- To Quit something abruptly. 20) “Cooking with gas” :- To be working fast, proceeding rapidly. 21) “ In the Crapper”......

Words: 3206 - Pages: 13

Free Essay

Linguistics

...Idioms 1) “Absence makes heart grow fonder” :- Our feeling for those we love increases when we are apart from them . 2) “Armed to the teeth” :- To be heavily armed. 3) “Back-handed compliment” :- A compliment that also insults or put down at the same time. 4) “Bleed like a stuck pig” :- To bleed heavily. 5) “Blow off some steam” :- To enjoy oneself by relaxing normal formalities. 6) “Blowing smoke” :- To be boasting without being able to back it up ; talking about action without intent to follow through. 7) “Bouched up” :- Substandard; Messed up; Make a shamble of. 8) “Brand Spanking New” :- New and Unused. 9) “Break A Leg” :- A wish of good luck, do well. 10) “A burnt child dreads the fire” :- One does not repeat a painful lesson twice. 11) “Bust your balls” :- To harass with the intent to break one’s spirit. 12) “Busting your chops” :- To say things intended to harass. 13) “Can’t hold a candle to” :- To be far less competent or have far less skills than someone else. 14) “Cat bird seat” :- A highly advantaged position, to have it all. 15) “Chew the fat” :- To talk about unimportant things. 16) “Clean bill of health” :- To be found healthy. 17) “Clear as a Bell” :- Clearly understood. 18) “Close, but no cigar” :- Nearly achieving success, but not quite. 19) “Cold Turkey” :- To Quit something abruptly. 20) “Cooking with gas” :- To be working fast, proceeding rapidly. 21) “ In the Crapper”......

Words: 3205 - Pages: 13

Free Essay

Dgdgdfgsd

...Perdue Farms Ine.: Responding to Twenty-First-Century Challenges This case was prepared by George C. Rubenson and Frank M. Shipper, Salisbury University. I have a theory that you can tell the difference between those who have inherited a fortune and those who have made a fortune. Those who have made their own fortune forget not where they came from and are less likely to lose touch with the common man. -Bill Sterling Background and Company History The history seven themes: quality, isgrowth, dominated by of Perdue Farms Ine. geographic expansion, vertical integration, innovation, branding, and service. Arthur W. Perdue, a Railway Express agent and descendant of a French Huguenot family named Perdeaux, founded the company in 1920 when he left his job with Railway Express and entered The authors are indebted to Frank Perdue, Jim Perdue, and the numerous associates at Perdue Farms Inc., who generously shared their time and information about the company. In addition, the authors would like to thank the anonymous librarians at Blackwell Library, Salisbury State University, who routinely review area newspapers and file articles about the poultry industry-the most important industry on the DelMarVa peninsula. Without their assistance, this case study would not have been possible. This case is intended to be used as a basis for class discussion rather than as an illustration of either effective or ineffective handling of the situation. Reprinted by permission......

Words: 9454 - Pages: 38

Free Essay

Raymond's Run

...I don’t have much work to do around the house like some girls. My mother does that. And I don’t have to earn my pocket money by hustling; George runs errands for the big boys and sells Christmas cards. And anything else that’s got to get done, my father does. All I have to do in life is mind my brother Raymond, which is enough. Sometimes I slip and say my little brother Raymond. But as any fool can see he’s much bigger and he’s older too. But a lot of people call him my little brother cause he needs looking after cause he’s not quite right. And a lot of smart mouths got lots to say about that too, especially when George was minding him. But now, if anybody has anything to say to Raymond, anything to say about his big head, they have to come by me. And I don’t play the dozens or believe in standing around with somebody in my face doing a lot of talking. I much rather just knock you down and take my chances even if I am a little girl with skinny arms and a squeaky voice, which is how I got the name Squeaky. And if things get too rough, I run. And as anybody can tell you, I’m the fastest thing on two feet. There is no track meet that I don’t win the first-place medal. I used to win the twenty-yard dash when I was a little kid in kindergarten. Nowadays, it’s the fifty-yard dash. And tomorrow I’m subject to run the quarter-meter relay all by myself and come in first, second, and third. The big kids call me Mercury cause I’m the swiftest thing in the neighborhood. Everybody...

Words: 3748 - Pages: 15

Free Essay

English

...Perdido Street Station (Bas-Lag 01) By China Miéville "...and Lublamai no longer thought of screaming but only of watching as those dark markings rolled and boiled in perfect symetry across the wings like clouds in a night sky above, in water below." Prologue Part One: Commissions Chapter One Chapter Two Chapter Three Chapter Four Chapter Five Part Two:Physiognomies of Flight Chapter Six Chapter Seven Chapter Eight Chapter Nine Chapter Ten Chapter Eleven Chapter Twelve Chapter Thirteen Chapter Fourteen Chapter Fifteen Chapter Sixteen Chapter Seventeen Part Three: Metamorphoses Chapter Eighteen Chapter Nineteen Chapter Twenty Chapter Twenty-One Chapter Twenty-Two Chapter Twenty-Three Chapter Twenty-Four Chapter Twenty-Five Chapter Twenty-Six Part Four: A Plague of Nightmares Chapter Twenty-Seven Chapter Twenty-Eight Chapter Twenty-Nine Chapter Thirty Chapter Thirty-One Chapter Thirty-Two Chapter Thirty-Three Part Five: Councils Chapter Thirty-Four Chapter Thirty-Five Chapter Thirty-Six Chapter Thirty-Seven Chapter Thirty-Eight Chapter Thirty-Nine Chapter Forty Chapter Forty-One Part Six: The Glasshouse Chapter Forty-Two Chapter Forty-Three Chapter Forty-Four Chapter Forty-Five Part Seven: Crisis Chapter Forty-Six Chapter Forty-Seven Chapter Forty-Eight Chapter Forty-Nine Chapter Fifty Chapter Fifty-One Part Eight: Judgement Chapter Fifty-Two "I even gave up, for a while, stopping by the window of the room to look out at the......

Words: 46847 - Pages: 188

Free Essay

Human Resource Management

...BANGKOK GUIDE YOUR FREE BANGKOK GUIDE FROM THE ASIA TRAVEL SPECIALISTS www.asiawebdirect.com Cultural phenomenon, shopping haven and tourist treasure. Welcome to Bangkok; one of the most cosmopolitan, contrasting and, above all, compelling of Asian cities. A steamy, pulsating, yet smiling metropolis of more than ten million souls – intense at first, but addictive as anything. Come find your niche among dazzling temples, hotels of every type and size, eclectic markets, gleaming palaces, ritzy shopping malls, a famous nightlife and the many things in between. Enjoy a memorable dinner cruise along the Chao Phraya River. Bask in the city’s warm, affluent glow at a skyscraping rooftop bar. Experience all the things – a tuk-tuk ride, a ladyboy show, Muay Thai (kickboxing) match, Thai massage – everyone always comes home talking about. WEATHER Bangkok has a tropical monsoon climate and holds claim to being the hottest city in the world. Sitting close to the equator, it is both hot and humid in equal measure, is unrelenting simply because it doesn't cool significantly at night. The period between April and May is the steamiest (avg. 25-35° C). The Southwest monsoons arrive between May and October, and with it pouring rain and thunderstorms – for many, though, this is a welcome respite. http://www.bangkok.com/weather.htm SIM CARDS AND DIALING PREFIXES Pre-paid SIM cards are available for purchase at most convenience stores (you will find 7-Elevens everywhere) as well as......

Words: 8442 - Pages: 34

Premium Essay

Kuharenko

...Кухаренко В.А. Практикум з стилістики англійської мови: Підручник. – Вінниця. «Нова книга», 2000 - 160 с. CONTENTS FOREWORD...............................................................................…………………………………………... 2 PRELIMINARY REMARKS.....................................................………………………………………….. 3 CHAPTER I. PHONO-GRAPHICAL LEVEL. MORPHOLOGICAL LEVEL…............................... 13 Sound Instrumenting. Craphon. Graphical Means…………………………………………………………...6 Morphemic Repetition. Extension of Morphemic Valency………………………………………………….11 CHAPTER II. LEXICAL LEVEL..............................................……………………………………….…14 Word and its Semantic Structure…………………………………………………………………………….14 Connotational Meanings of a Word………………………………………………………………………….14 The Role of the Context in the Actualization of Meaning…………………………………………………….14 Stylistic Differentiation of the Vocabulary…………………………………………………………………..16 Literary Stratum of Words. Colloquial Words…..…………………………………………………………..16 Lexical Stylistic Devices…………………………………………………………………………………….23 Metaphor. Metonymy. Synecdoche. Play on Words. Irony. Epithet…………………………………………23 Hyperbole. Understatement. Oxymoron. ……………………………………………………………………23 CHAPTER III. SYNTACTICAL LEVEL..................................…………………………………………38 Main Characteristics of the Sentence. Syntactical SDs. Sentence Length…………………………………..38 One-Word Sentences. Sentence Structure. Punctuation.......

Words: 57354 - Pages: 230

Premium Essay

A Book of Practice in Stylistics

...Кухаренко В. А. Практикум з стилістики англійської мови: Підручник. — Вінниця: Нова книга, 2000. — 160 с. Кухаренко Валерия Андреевна, д.ф.н., проф., кафедра лексикологии и стилистики английского языка факультетеа РГФ ОНУ им. И. И. Мечникова CONTENTS FOREWORD...............................................................................…………………………………………... 2 PRELIMINARY REMARKS.....................................................………………………………………….. 3 CHAPTER I. PHONO-GRAPHICAL LEVEL. MORPHOLOGICAL LEVEL…............................... 13 Sound Instrumenting. Graphon. Graphical Means…………………………………………………………...6 Morphemic Repetition. Extension of Morphemic Valency………………………………………………….11 CHAPTER II. LEXICAL LEVEL..............................................……………………………………….…14 Word and its Semantic Structure…………………………………………………………………………….14 Connotational Meanings of a Word………………………………………………………………………….14 The Role of the Context in the Actualization of Meaning…………………………………………………….14 Stylistic Differentiation of the Vocabulary…………………………………………………………………..16 Literary Stratum of Words. Colloquial Words…..…………………………………………………………..16 Lexical Stylistic Devices…………………………………………………………………………………….23 Metaphor. Metonymy. Synecdoche. Play on Words. Irony. Epithet…………………………………………23 Hyperbole. Understatement. Oxymoron. ……………………………………………………………………23 CHAPTER III. SYNTACTICAL LEVEL..................................…………………………………………38 Main......

Words: 56594 - Pages: 227