Free Essay

Chikungunya Virus

In: Other Topics

Submitted By rv169141
Words 876
Pages 4
In our world, in every ecosystem there are a millions of different types of viruses that exist. In this paper we are going to talk about one specific emerging arbovirus called Chikunganya virus. About thousands of people have been affected by Chikungunya virus throughout the world. During the years of 2005 and 2006, the virus altered over a millions of people in the Africa, Asia and the Indian subcontinent. Now, Chikungunya virus have spread to Europe, South American and North America. Chikungunya is a viral disease that is spread by mosquitoes. There are two type of mosquitos that spread this disease that we will talk further into in this paper. There is no signs or researches that the virus can be passed on or spread by contact from human to human. The nearness of mosquito breeding sites to human habitations is a major risk factor for Chikungunya. This disease shares a similar type of clinical signs with the dengue virus, therefore in locations where dengue is common, the virus can be misdiagnosed with the dengue virus. Once a person is affected by the virus it can lead to many symptoms but the most common symptoms can include muscle pain, headache, nausea, fatigue and rash. As of today, there is no vaccine to cure Chikungunya virus. Treatment of chikungunya is concentrated in relieving the virus.
In this paper, we are going to learn everything about chikungunya virus starting with where it came from, how it expanded, the structure of its genome, and all the way until how to treat the virus. Chikungunya virus is known to be abbreviated as CHIKV The topics that we are going to discuss will be, the structure of the virus, the history of the virus, the vectors of the virus and how the vector reproduces, the symptoms of the virus, and some subtopics about the virus that we must know.
Chikungunya virus is known to be abbreviated as CHIKV. Chikungunya is an alphavirus which is categorized into the virus family Togaviridae. There are near 29 different alphaviruses that cause diseases in mammals and humans. Togaviridae belong to Group IV of the Barltimore classification of viruses. Togaviridae included genera such as Sindbis virus, which is a fever also; Eastern equine encephalitis which is also known as the sleeping sickness; Western equine encephalitis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus which is a similar virus as the eastern equine encephalitis but attacks horses, donkeys and zebras; Ross River virus, semliki Fores. Chikungunya virus is part of the Semliki forest. Chikungunya is a positive single stranded RNA. This virus contains a range of 11,000 to 12,000 nucleotides and is enveloped with an icosahedral capsid; which means that the subunits are arranged in a hollow form, quasi spherical structure, with the genome with in. Icosahedron is usually define as containing twenty equilateral triangular faces surrounding the outside of the sphere. The external side of the virus is covered with glycoprotein spikes that serve as projections. The 5’ capped end of the chikungunya structure contain s a 7-methylguanosine which is a modified purine nucleobase, and the 3’ end is polyadenylated which is the addition of a poly(A) tail to a messenger RNA. The virus have a subgenomic positive strand RNA called 26SRNA that is form during replication, that is transcribed from a negative strand RNA intermediate. In chikungunya, the type of RNA acts as the mRNA for viral protein production.
Chikungunya virus has a diameter between sixty to seventy nm, it is spherical and enveloped. The structure consists of an envelope and a nucleocapsid. The chikungunya virus genome encodes for two polyproteins, which are the non structural polyprotein consisting of four proteins the nsP1, nsP2, nsP3, nsP4. The other polyprotein is the structural polyprotein, consisting of five proteins which are a capsid, E3, E2, 6K and E1. In structural polyprotein, The E1 and E2 glycoproteins are expected to form heterodimers that associate as trimeri spikes on the viral surface covering the surface evenly.

Chikungunya virus is a small (about 60–70 nm-diameter), spherical, enveloped, positive-strand RNA virus (see figure 1). Early 2006, the complete sequence of a chikungunya isolate from Reunion Island was made available through NCBI/ GenBank accession no. DQ443544.1. The virion consists of an envelope and a nucleocapsid. The chikungunya virus genome is 11,805 nucleotides long and encodes for two polyproteins – the non structural polyprotein consisting of four proteins (nsP1, nsP2, nsP3 and nsP4) and the structural polyprotein consisting of five proteins (Capsid, E3, E2, 6K and E1) (see figure 2). The 5’ end of the RNA molecule is capped with a 7-methylguanosine while the 3’ end is poly-adenylated. A subgenomic positive-strand RNA referred to as 26SRNA is transcribed from a negative-stranded RNA intermediate. This RNA serves as the mRNA for the synthesis of the viral structural proteins. Alphaviruses have conserved domains that play an important role in the regulation of viral RNA synthesis. These domains are found at the 5’ and 3’ ends as well as at the intergenic region. The E1 and E2 glycoproteins are expected to form heterodimers that associate as trimeric spikes on the viral surface covering the surface evenly. The envelope glycoproteins play a role in attachment to cells.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Chikungunya and Zika Virus

...Europe’s journal on infectious disease epidemiolog y, prevention and control Special edition: Chikungunya and Zika virus October 2014 Featuring • Spread of chikungunya from the Caribbean to mainland Central and South America: a greater risk of spillover in Europe? • Aspects of Zika virus transmission • Cases of chikungunya virus infection in travellers returning to Spain from Haiti or Dominican Republic, April-June 2014 www.eurosurveillance.org Editorial team Editorial advisors Based at the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), 171 83 Stockholm, Sweden Albania: Alban Ylli, Tirana Telephone number Belgium: Sophie Quoilin, Brussels +46 (0)8 58 60 11 38 E-mail eurosurveillance@ecdc.europa.eu Editor-in-chief Ines Steffens Austria: Reinhild Strauss, Vienna Belgium: Koen De Schrijver, Antwerp Bosnia and Herzogovina: Nina Rodić Vukmir, Banja Luka Bulgaria: Mira Kojouharova, Sofia Croatia: Sanja Musić Milanović, Zagreb Cyprus: to be nominated Czech Republic: Bohumir Križ, Prague Denmark: Peter Henrik Andersen, Copenhagen Senior editor Estonia: Kuulo Kutsar, Tallinn Kathrin Hagmaier Finland: Outi Lyytikäinen, Helsinki Scientific editors Karen Wilson Williamina Wilson France: Judith Benrekassa, Paris Germany: Jamela Seedat, Berlin Greece: Rengina Vorou, Athens Hungary: Ágnes Csohán, Budapest Assistant editors Iceland: Haraldur Briem, Reykjavik Alina Buzdugan Ireland: Lelia......

Words: 38087 - Pages: 153

Free Essay

Emerging Diseases

...Peer-Reviewed Journal Tracking and Analyzing Disease Trends pages 557–740 EDITOR-IN-CHIEF D. Peter Drotman Associate Editors Paul Arguin, Atlanta, Georgia, USA Charles Ben Beard, Ft. Collins, Colorado, USA Ermias Belay, Atlanta, Georgia, USA David Bell, Atlanta, Georgia, USA Sharon Bloom, Atlanta, GA, USA Mary Brandt, Atlanta, Georgia, USA Corrie Brown, Athens, Georgia, USA Charles H. Calisher, Ft. Collins, Colorado, USA Michel Drancourt, Marseille, France Paul V. Effler, Perth, Australia David Freedman, Birmingham, Alabama, USA Peter Gerner-Smidt, Atlanta, Georgia, USA Stephen Hadler, Atlanta, Georgia, USA Nina Marano, Nairobi, Kenya Martin I. Meltzer, Atlanta, Georgia, USA David Morens, Bethesda, Maryland, USA J. Glenn Morris, Gainesville, Florida, USA Patrice Nordmann, Fribourg, Switzerland Didier Raoult, Marseille, France Pierre Rollin, Atlanta, Georgia, USA Ronald M. Rosenberg, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA Frank Sorvillo, Los Angeles, California, USA David Walker, Galveston, Texas, USA Senior Associate Editor, Emeritus Brian W.J. Mahy, Bury St. Edmunds, Suffolk, UK Managing Editor Byron Breedlove, Atlanta, Georgia, USA Copy Editors Claudia Chesley, Laurie Dietrich, Karen Foster, Thomas Gryczan, Jean Michaels Jones, Shannon O’Connor, P. Lynne Stockton Production William Hale, Barbara Segal, Reginald Tucker Editorial Assistant Jared Friedberg Communications/Social Media Sarah Logan Gregory Founding Editor Joseph E. McDade, Rome, Georgia, USA Emerging Infectious......

Words: 18561 - Pages: 75

Free Essay

Chikungunya Disease

...Introduction to Chikungunya Chikungunya fever is a viral disease transmitted to humans by the bite of infected Aedes Aegypti mosquitoes. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a member of the genus Alphavirus, in the family Togaviridae. CHIKV was first isolated from the blood of a febrile patient in Tanzania in 1953, and has since been identified repeatedly in west, central and southern Africa and many areas of Asia, and has been cited as the cause of numerous human epidemics in those areas since that time. The virus circulates throughout much of Africa, with transmission thought to occur mainly between mosquitoes and monkeys. Symptoms of Chikungunya Symptoms of Chikungunya includes fever, debilitating arthralgia (joint pain), swelling of joints, stiffness of joints, myalgia (muscular pain), headache, fatigue (weakness), nausea, vomiting and rash. The incubation period (time from infection to illness) can be 2-12 days, but is usually 3-7 days. "Silent" CHIKV infections (infections without illness) do occur; but how commonly this happens is not yet known. Acute chikungunya fever typically lasts a few days to a couple of weeks, but some patients have prolonged fatigue lasting several weeks. Additionally, some patients have reported incapacitating joint pain, or arthritis which may last for weeks or months. No deaths, neuro-invasive cases, or hemorrhagic cases related to CHIKV infection have been conclusively documented in the scientific literature. CHIKV infection (whether clinical...

Words: 954 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Zika Virus

...Professor: Thomas Kelly Faulkner February 10, 2016 Zika Virus “Zika virus was first isolated in 1947, a rhesus monkey in the forest Zika, located in Uganda.” Researchers there found that it lived in mosquitoes, and they learned through experimentation that it could also infect mice” (PhD Jennifer, 2016) For a long time, Zika virus disease was confined to the equatorial regions of Asia and Africa” (Virus D. a., 2016); “The Zika virus is an endemic microorganism in Africa and Asia; it is related to a group of viruses named flaviviruses and is connected to the dengue virus” (Virus T. Z., 2016) However, during the post-2005 period, Zika virus disease began to spread to other parts of the world too. The appearance in South America has been linked to an increased incidence of microcephaly (small head and brain practice) among newborns (causation has not been established yet). “Recent studies have pointed to the fact that the Zika virus has the potential to be extended to those regions of the United States, where more than 60% of the population (200 million) reside” (Virus D. a., 2016). As malaria and dengue fever are believed to Zika virus to spread by mosquitoes bite; Aedes aegypti is considered to be the culprit. This species of mosquito is the same that is involved in the spread of diseases of dengue and chikungunya. Some Ideas: * Where Zika virus is present? * What are the symptoms of the disease virus Zika? * How you can diagnose Zika? * What is......

Words: 1220 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Epidemic Paper

...I am writing about an epidemic that is currently happening in the island of Hispaniola, Chikungunya virus. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention or CDC, this virus is transmitted to people by two species of mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. These species of mosquitoes are found in the tropical and subtropical of the world and are found in the southeastern part of the United States as well. The disease was discover in East Africa in the early 1950s and so far, it was found in Asia, Europe and other areas. In 2013, the first cases of the virus were confirm in the Americas, on Islands in the Caribbean. Since that date, there has been more than 570,000 confirm or suspected cases throughout the Americas. There has been cases with local infections in Florida. In 2015, chikungunya virus disease became a nationally notifiable condition and as of December 8, 2015, a total of 629 cases have been reported from 43 states. All reported cases occurred in travelers returning from affected areas. There was not a locally transmitted case in the United States. A total of 202 cases were reported from U.S. territories. All those cases were locally transmitted in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgen Islands. The most common symptoms are fever and joint paint, but can also include headaches, muscle pain, joint swelling or rash. There are not specific treatments for chikungunya, and is treated symptomatically,...

Words: 629 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Essay On Chikungunya

...2007). The most important genera are Aedes, Anopheles and culex which are responsible for the transmission of yellow fever,malaria ,dengue,chikungunya and other diseases( Miller-Keane, 2003). In this report the main focus would be based on chikungunya the word chikungunya is derived from the Makonde word meaning “that which bends up”. Chikungunya is a mosquito borne virus which spreads to humans through mosquito bites. The aedes albopictus and aedes aegypti are the principle vectors of dengue fever, malaria, yellow fever, chikungunya and many other diseases (WHO, 2014) Chikungunya is an illness which was detected in 1952 in Africa following an outbreak on the Makonde plateau ( a border between Mozambique and Tanzania). Lately there has been an outbreak of chikungunya in Africa ,Asia , Europe...

Words: 905 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Lymphatic Web Quest

...species tend to transmit Cryptococcus. Especially in old pigeon feces and bat guano. 2. Can dogs and cats get Cryptococcus? Any animal is susceptible to getting Cryptococcus, even dogs and cats. 3. What is the infectious agent for Bubonic Plague? The infectious agent for Bubonic Plague is basterium Yersinia Pestis. 4. By how much was the world population reduced during the Plague pandemic? The world population reduced an estimated 450 million during the Plague pandemic. 5. What year (within the past 100 years) did the world experience a flu pandemic? In 1918, also known as the Spanish Flu. 6. What are 3 symptoms of chikungunya fever? 3 symptoms of chikungunya fever are fever, headache, and vomiting. 7. What bacterium causes Lyme’s disease? Borrelia burgdorferi is the bacterium that cuases Lyme’s disease. 8. What is ‘erythema migrans?’ Erythema migrans refers to the rash often seen in the early stages of Lyme disease. It’s an actual skin infection with Borrelia burgdorferi. It is also the only manifestation of Lymes disease that allows clinical diagnosis in the absence of laboratory confirmation. 9. Find a disease transmitted by rabbits and list 2 symptoms. Tularemia is a disease transmitted by rabbits. Symptoms are fever and diarrhea. 10. What are symptoms of guinea worm......

Words: 518 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

The Negative Effects Of Malaria

...Centers for Disease Control and Prevention explains that “zika is spread mostly by the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito. These are the same mosquitoes that spread dengue and chikungunya viruses” (2016). People who infected zika virus have common symptoms include fever, skin rash, red eyes, and joint pain. Others are a headache and muscle pain. Zika virus can be passed from a pregnant woman to her fetus and can cause birth defects. Pregnant women should be a safe place and avoid to travel to a risk area. What people should know how to protect yourselves from zika virus includes avoiding mosquito bites, plan for travel and protect yourself during sex. If you think you have zika virus, you should see a doctor or a healthcare provider for a diagnosis, and protect others from getting the...

Words: 705 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Ssss

...year. Dengue is a disease caused by any 1 of 4 related dengue viruses. The viruses are transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected mosquito. There are 2 types of dengue, with dengue hemorrhagic fever being the more severe, and sometimes fatal, though much less common form of the infection. Dengue is endemic in at least 100 countries such as Asia, the Pacific. Dengue cannot be spread directly from person to person, so you can’t catch it from shaking hands, a sneeze, a doorknob or a toilet seat. Dengue is spread from person to person by the bite of an infected mosquito. The mosquito becomes infected with dengue virus when it bites a person who already has the dengue virus in their blood, typically in the time frame just before the infected person starts to have symptoms of the disease. About one week after biting an infected person, the mosquito can transmit the virus while biting a healthy person. A single infected mosquito can infect multiple people, who in turn can infect multiple mosquitoes — and the cycle continues. A bite from a female carrier mosquito can cause you fever, often as high as 104 - 105 degrees Fahrenheit, fatigue, headache, and swollen nymph nodes and might lead to death if it was not treated immediately. A total of 54,659 dengue cases were reported nationwide from January 1 to August 14, 2010, much higher than the recorded 31,248 cases in the same period in 2009. There were 429 deaths recorded in the last seven months and almost 80% of the cases......

Words: 815 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Vietnam, Marketing International

...Le Vietnam – Marketing International 1. Repères Géographiques 2. Informations générales 3. Une évaluation du risque Politique : Pays politiquement stable 4.1. Stabilité du gouvernement et des institutions : Contrôle du processus de décision par le Comité central et le Bureau politique dont le renouvellement s’est déroulé sans perturbations en 2011, lors du XIème Congrès du Parti Communiste Vietnamien (PCV). Une réforme constitutionnelle a été adoptée le 28 novembre 2013 et confirme le mouvement d’ouverture et de démocratisation du pays. Et le pays a même été élu au Conseil des Droits de l’Homme de l’ONU (Organisation des Nations Unies) 4.2. Conditions socio-économiques En 20 ans, la pauvreté est passée de 60% à 20% de la population. Les indicateurs démographiques sont encourageants : baisse de la mortalité infantile et maternelle. Mais des fragilités demeurent. En particulier le déséquilibre entre les zones urbaines et rurales. L’appauvrissement de ces dernières et l’afflux de population dans les villes qui les paupérisent.  De plus l’exode rural lié au décollage économique dans les villes entraîne une dépendance croissante à l’importation. Enfin au niveau de la formation et de l’éducation, le Gouvernement est engagé dans une politique visant à développer une main d’œuvre qualifiée plus importante. 4.3. Conflits internes Depuis 2011, une rivalité oppose le Premier Ministre, Nguyen Tan Dung, et le Président......

Words: 1777 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Interview

...To analyze the efficacy of 'Nanopatch Technology' as a potential vaccine delivery system Introduction: More than 17 million people die every year from infectious diseases –most in low resource regions – and many of these lives could be saved by appropriate vaccinations. (UNDP, 1996) Whilst public and private research initiatives continue, to develop novel vaccines for many diseases, the issue of how best to formulate, package, distribute and administer these vaccines across the world remains a significant unsolved problem. Most vaccines have been delivered by the needle and syringe, however this technology has several important disadvantages including needlestick injuries, disease transmission through needle reuse, (Ekwueme et al., 2002) limited thermostability, the need for training/ expertise for administration, lack of targeting to immune rich regions of the body, and the issues of pain/phobia that result in avoidance of medical care in nearly 10% of the population. One of the ways to meet the vaccination challenges worldwide is to engineer better ways of administering vaccines in a simple and effective way to more people than is currently the case (Hickling et al., 2011). Hypodermic needles were first introduced in the 1850s and since then, intramuscular injection of vaccines has been the most popular delivery method due to its ease of administration (Mitragotri, 2005). However, this technology has several disadvantages. Firstly, muscle contains relatively few antigen......

Words: 2518 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Community Health

...Community Health and Population-Focused Nursing Hillsborough County, Florida is the 4th largest county in Florida. It is comprised of 1,048 square miles of land and 24 square miles of inland water area for a total of 1,072 square miles located midway along the west coast of Florida. It has a diverse culture of people cohabitating in a large community. Assessing the community allows you to see a broader picture of diversity and layers of multicultural issues that affect the community as a whole. Population Economic Status Assessment Hillsborough County is an average sized county for all intents and purposes with a population of approximately 1,316,298 people. The county is also average in income levels with the average household income of $49,596 and only 16.8% of this population being at or below poverty level and 83.2% above the poverty level. Isolating ethnicity, it is the Native Americans with the highest percentage of “poor” individuals 29.8% and African Americans second at 27.7%. Approximately 3% of the population is receiving public assistance in various forms. are receiving assistance in one way or another. According to the Tampa Hillsborough Homeless Initiative there are approximately, 1,931 people living without a fixed residence in the county. This number is slightly down from 2014 numbers of 1,944. The majority race in Hillsborough County is Caucasian at 75.6%, followed by Hispanic or Latino at 26% and......

Words: 2743 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Business Management

...284 I The Johns Hopkins and the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies Control of communicable diseases 7 This measles 'jab' will help prevent this child from the consequences of measles such as pneumonia, malnutrition, blindness and brain disease. Photo:Marko Kokic,Canadian Red Cross Control of communicable diseases in emergencies Description This chapter gives an overview of common and emerging communicable disease threats among displaced populations because of natural and human-made disasters. General and disease-specific strategies for monitoring, preventing and controlling disease outbreaks are discussed. Learning objectives To review communicable diseases of public health importance; To discuss the basic principles for communicable disease control in emergency and post-conflict situations; To plan a communicable disease control programme for emergency settings; To discuss simple but effective ways of preventing outbreaks of communicable diseases; To describe how to manage specific disease outbreaks in emergency settings; To review re-emerging and other diseases that may affect displaced populations; To discuss how to monitor and evaluate communicable disease control programmes. Key competencies Identify communicable diseases of public health importance; Discuss the basic principles for communicable disease control in emergency and post-conflict situations; Discuss how to design and evaluate disease......

Words: 19028 - Pages: 77

Free Essay

Globalization

...GLOBALIZATION THE ESSENTIALS GEORGE RITZER A John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Publication Globalization Globalization A Basic Text George Ritzer This balanced introduction draws on academic and popular sources to examine the major issues and events in the history of globalization. Globalization: A Basic Text is a substantial introductory textbook, designed to work either on its own or alongside Readings in Globalization. The books are cross-referenced and are both structured around the core concepts of globalization. 2009 • 608 pages • 978-1-4051-3271-8 • paperback www.wiley.com/go/globalization Readings in Globalization Key Readings and Major Debates Edited by George Ritzer and Zeynep Atalay This unique and engaging anthology introduces students to the major concepts of globalization within the context of the key debates and disputes. Readings in Globalization illustrates that major debates in the field are not only useful to examine for their own merit but can extend our knowledge of globalization. The volume explores both the political economy of globalization and the relationship of culture to globalization. The volume is designed so it may be used independently, or alongside George Ritzer’s Globalization: A Basic Text for a complete student resource. 2010 • 560 pages • 978-1-4051-3273-2 • paperback Order together and save! Quote ISBN 978-1-4443-2371-9 GLOBALIZATION THE ESSENTIALS GEORGE RITZER A John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Publication This edition......

Words: 168078 - Pages: 673

Premium Essay

Case

...CoNTE j\:\PORA.R'f Contents Foreword Preface iii v Chapter 1 The Cold War Era 1 Chapter 2 The End of Bipolarity 17 Chapter 3 US Hegemony in World Politics 31 Chapter 4 Alternative Centres of Power 51 Chapter 5 Contemporary South Asia 65 Chapter 6 International Organisations 81 Chapter 7 Security in the Contemporary World 99 Chapter 8 Environment and Natural Resources 117 Chapter 9 Globalisation 135 Chapter 1 The Cold War Era OVERVIEW This chapter provides a backdrop to the entire book. The end of the Cold War is usually seen as the beginning of the contemporary era in world politics which is the subject matter of this book. It is, therefore, appropriate that we begin the story with a discussion of the Cold War. The chapter shows how the dominance of two superpowers, the United States of America and the Soviet Union, was central to the Cold War. It tracks the various arenas of the Cold War in different parts of the world. The chapter views the NonAligned Movement (NAM) as a challenge to the dominance of the two superpowers and describes the attempts by the non-aligned countries to establish a New International Economic Order (NIEO) as a means of attaining economic development and political independence. It concludes with an assessment of India’s role in NAM and asks how successful the policy of nonalignment has been in protecting India’s interests. The end of the......

Words: 52386 - Pages: 210