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Module 4 Assignment: Understanding Childbirth and Newborn Development

1. Describe the stages of childbirth and the outcome of each. There are three stages of childbirth; the dilation and effacement of the cervix, the delivery of the baby, and the delivery of the placenta. During the first stage called the dilation and effacement of the cervix, the woman experiences contractions of her uterus which in return causes her cervix to widen and prepare to receive the baby. In addition, the mother experiences a brief process called transition where the contractions are at the highest level. This entire stage can last between 12 to 14 hours if it is the women’s first child or 4 to 6 hours if she has had multiple births. The second stage of childbirth also known as the delivery of the baby can last between 20 to 50 minutes depending on the woman. Within the second stage the level of contractions continue to increase and the mother feels a natural impulse to squeeze and push using her stomach muscles to force the baby down and out the birth canal. The last stage of childbirth is when the mother feels the final contraction which in return forces the placenta to detach from the walls of the uterus and out the body. This third and final stage of childbirth can last between five and 10 minutes.
2. Compare and contrast the medical interventions for childbirth.
During childbirth medical professionals tend to use medical interventions in order to safely deliver the baby. These techniques can include fetal monitoring, labor and delivery medications, instrument delivery, induce labor, and cesarean delivery. All of these medical interventions can increase the successfulness of childbirth. However there are differences between each medical intervention, for example fetal monitoring is used during labor to keep track of the infant’s heart beat while labor and

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