Premium Essay

Childhood Development Theory Paper

Submitted By
Words 1541
Pages 7
Child and growth development theories influence the way we assess paediatric patients and helps to improve communication between practitioner and patient using age appropriate concepts. Understanding cognitive development theories will benefit nurses, providing competent paediatric care in all medical situations.
A ten-year-old girl has presented to the emergency department with suspected ruptured appendix.
Presentation of acute appendicitis is the most common cause of emergency abdominal surgery in children ages 4 to 15 years (Wall and Albanese, 2015). Appendicitis occurs as a result of an obstruction of the lumen of the appendix. This is most commonly due to a faecalith although other causes such as lymph tissue growth, foreign bodies and tumours of the caecum exist.
The intraluminal impaction leads to increased local tissue pressure and recruitment of the
…show more content…
Secondary peritonitis occurs when there is a rupture or perforation of an abdominal organ, releasing gut constituents such as bacteria, enzymes and bile into the peritoneal cavity. Peritonitis is commonly caused by a ruptured appendix (Edwards, 2005).
Following the diagnosis of appendicitis, it is routine for the child to be kept nil by mouth to reduce the likelihood of aspiration for anticipated upcoming anaesthesia. Surgery is usually performed to remove the appendix, either via laparoscopic means or via a laparotomy. Initial management of peritoneal involvement can be done during surgery with the draining of fluid from the peritoneal cavity (Farrell, 2011)
Perioperative antibiotic therapy and parental fluids are administered to help treat the peritoneal infection and hence reduce the likelihood of systemic involvement and sepsis. Parental fluids can be ceased when the child can tolerate food and fluids by mouth. (Edwards, 2008)(Edwards, Lewis's Medical-Surgical Nursing,

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Life Span Perspective Paper

...Life Span Perspective Paper PSY/375 October 15, 2013 Dr. Cynthia Jenkins We all start out as babies coming into the world knowing nothing about our lives or where our lives will take us. This paper will explain the life span perspective of development and summarize two theories of life span development. As humans we have the genetics and heredity issues that can contribute to our development in our life span. Then there is the environment we live in that can produce individual differences in development. Let’s first take a look at the life span perspective of development. To understand the life span perspective you must first know what it means. The life span perspective is an approach to the study of human development that takes into account all phase of life, not just childhood and adulthood (Berger, 2011). Human development can be viewed in five characteristics 1. Multidirectional- when life takes a turn such as divorce. The next direction in life is to adapt to the new single life that may now include children. 2. Multicontextual- would consist of your surrounding that is changing such as family and friends, school, workplace, and the world of politics, and economics. 3. Multicultural-consists of being exposed to the different cultures in life. This could be living in a neighborhood, members of an ethic group, and even students in college who are all coming from different cultures but trying to create a classroom environment. 4.......

Words: 1015 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Psy Childhood

...Middle Childhood PSY/103 Middle Childhood There are various aspects of human development, including physical, cognitive, social, moral, and personality development. In this paper the author will discuss the middle childhood (6-12 years) stage of human development. Incorporated will be the factors that affect physical and cognitive development both hereditary and environmental. I will also discuss the factors that affect social, moral, and personality development. Developmentally, middle childhood is a big time in a child’s life. During this time, they begin their academic journey. “During middle childhood, defined by psychologists as the period between 6 and 12 years of age children develop the emotional, cognitive, and social skills necessary to become educable members of society” (Campbell, 2011). They are growing and changing in so many ways. Children begin learning how to relate to others outside the home. They also learn to respect others and how to treat others properly. A child’s physical and cognitive development can be affected by many things. Genetics, nutrition, home environment, income, and parenting affect how a child will develop during middle childhood. Culture also comes into play when a person looks at social, moral, and personality development. All of these things will affect how a child thinks and feels about the world around him or her. Genes have an effect on middle childhood development. Everything from height and weight to hair color are......

Words: 1195 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Psy 280 Developmental Psych

...Human Development Mindy Donaldson PSY 280 April 26, 2015 There are quite a few different theories about human growth and development, and why people do the things that they do.  In this paper I will discuss and summarize three theories and how each is related to human growth and development, identifying one influential theorist for each. In addition this paper will include many views of the lifespan perspective followed by an explanation of how nature and nurture effect human development. Developmental theory can be defined as a conglomeration of ideas about achieving a good change in one’s society. Such theories draw on a variety of science disciplines and approaches that can provide a framework to understand how and why people evolve throughout their lifespan. Theorists in an attempt to make sense out of their observations try and design concepts that can outline a person’s development throughout life from one’s start as an infant all the way through adulthood (Berger, 2010). The influential theorists in this paper that I will discuss are: Sigmund Freud, John Watson, and Jean Piaget. Psychoanalytic theory is a theory of personality organization and the dynamics of human development that holds that irrational, unconscious drives and motives, often originating in childhood, underlie human behavior (Berger, 2010 p. 17).   (Berger, 2010) According to Freud, development occurs over three stages during the first six years of life, each stage being characterized by......

Words: 1246 - Pages: 5

Free Essay


...------------------------------------------------- Course Syllabus AAGI0MZ6M0 Child Development Course Start Date: 12/04/2012 Course End Date: 02/24/2013                   Please print a copy of this syllabus for handy reference. Whenever there is a question about what assignments are due, please remember this syllabus is considered the ruling document. Copyright Copyright ©2009 by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved. University of Phoenix© is a registered trademark of Apollo Group, Inc. in the United States and/or other countries. Microsoft©, Windows©, and Windows NT© are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries. All other company and product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective companies. Use of these marks is not intended to imply endorsement, sponsorship, or affiliation. Edited in accordance with University of Phoenix© editorial standards and practices. Facilitator Information                                                                                                       Stephanie Jacobs Holder (University of Phoenix) (Personal) 602-738-2059 (MST) Facilitator Availability I am available from 9 a.m.-9 p.m. Central Time on most days, but I attempt to reserve Sunday for my family. During the week, I am online most of the time during that 9 a.m.-9 p.m. time frame. On Saturdays, I tend to......

Words: 3022 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Lifespan Development and Personality Paper

...Lifespan Development and Personality Paper: Middle Childhood Ages Soterica Johnson Psy 103 June 15, 2015 Mary Newhams Lifespan Development and Personality Paper: Middle Childhood Ages The main goal of developmental psychology is to pursue the understandings of and report different aspects of human development. These aspects include development of physical, cognitive, social, moral, and personality. Discussing these aspects in different terms can be a tough task. In this paper I chose to write on one age group. To define this age, I will focus on the middle childhood ages 6 to 12. I will address physical, cognitive, social, and moral as well as personality development. Within these factors I am also considering both hereditary and environmental factors. Middle childhood is the period of life between the years of 6 to 12, where children are going to school, beginning to make friends outside of their families, mastering new physical and mental abilities, and also learning to become independent. During these ages physical development is most important. Growth may be slower during these ages, causing wide differences in height and weight in children. Passing through the beginning stages of life children have already began losing teeth. Middle childhood ages is when permanent teeth began to come in and dental visits have become more frequent. Children of this age group have improved motor skills so they began getting involved in more physical activities. Along with the......

Words: 1266 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Lifespan Development

...Lifespan Development Name Institution Course Date Lifespan Development Lifespan development is a wide field in the field of psychology. It all began with Darwin, who, in his quest to understand evolution, began to study the topic. In simple terms, lifespan development refers to a process, usually beginning from conception and ending when an organism dies. The process occurs methodologically and is as a result of the change that occurs with increasing age. Although the lifespan development may look simple, it is quite complex and involves different developmental stages. According to Baltes, (1996), the entire life cycle has four eras. These eras, he says, take an approximate time of 20-25 years. Levinson goes further to identify the developmental periods as childhood and adolescence, early childhood, middle adulthood, and late adulthood. At this point in time, it is formal to simplify various terminologies that relation to human development. This is because they will feature constantly in the preceding sections. First and foremost is development. This is simply a change characterized by movement from one state to another. Usually, development leads to transitions. Development, as will be used in this paper, will refer to growth, and progression through certain stages, commonly termed as “maturity.” Another term of significance is stage. This refers to sections that differentiate the various phases of growth. The phases involve...

Words: 4003 - Pages: 17

Premium Essay

Literature and Topic Review for Environmental Influences on Personality

...thoughts, social interactions, behavior, close relationships and feeling all influence our personality. The environment influences our personality (Myers, 2004). Anything that affects a person except his or her genes is the environment. Many external factors help in shaping our personality. These external factors include the people around us and the places that we live. Our friends, family, daily experiences, and all the people whom we interact with influence our personality. However, every person has a personality that is unique to them (Simanowitz, & Pearce, 2003). An analysis of environmental influences on personality reveals that childhood experience is one of the factors that influence a person’s personality. 2.0 Topic Review This research paper concentrates on three research articles that are based on personality and childhood experiences. Childhood experience is one of the environmental influences to personality. 2.1...

Words: 1198 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Life Span Perspective Paper

...Spain Perspective Paper Teresa Haumschild PSY/375 August 12, 2013 Kay Rubin, MA Life Spain Perspective Paper When it comes to life span development you have to understand what it is and where it comes from or even how it got its name. As it was said by Boyd and Bee that life span development is the name that psychologists have given to the physical and cognitive changes that occur throughout a person’s life (Boyd & Bee, 2009). So I will be first explaining the life span of development, along with summarizing two different theories of life span development, and then the last one is just explaining how heredity and the environment interact to produce individual difference in the development. So what is life span development it is the study of which human development is the changes that do occur within each different period of one’s development and along with the changes they must be interpreted into terms in which the culture and the context do a occur. So it truly beings with conception and birth, because it has stages just like the transition stage that one goes through from childhood to adulthood. With this perspective it has the very same level of important to a person’s changes that lead into adulthood, in which had been just focused on changes in ones childhood instead. It can even be characterized in different things such as interdisciplinary research, multi contextual along with just emphasis on plasticity as well. The two theories that I have......

Words: 721 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Personality Overview

...Personality Overview Paper Socrates Garcia Sr, September 22, 2011 PSY/ 405 Leslie Fuentes Personality Overview Paper Like many things in psychology there is a wide selection of personality theories as well as theorist that contributed to the theories. Just like other theories in psychology all of the theories dealing with a person’s personality have their strengths as well as their weaknesses and limitations. This paper is going to cover two of the theories of personality, psychoanalytic social theory and interpersonal theory. The paper is going to focus on comparing the two theories by covering their basic assumptions, comparing the behavior in regards to all the free will, that’s finally going over to the unconscious versus all the conscious motives for a person’s behaviors. Psychoanalytic Social Theory Assumptions The creator or the originator of the psychoanalytic social theory was Karen Horney. The most basic assumption underlying the theory is the social and the cultural experiences; special experiences in childhood, these are primarily responsible for the shaping an individual’s Character (Feist & Feist, 2009). Horney was unlike other theorists didn’t rule out biological factors as influencing a person’s personality development. She also didn’t limit childhood experiences that happened to be traumatic in the terms of stages of development. Horney was similar to Freud as she believed that people were driven by a force in life; while Freud......

Words: 1553 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Human Learning

...recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright holder. Address inquiries to: Research and Development Branch Office of Learning and Teaching Department of Education and Training Level 2, 33 St Andrews Place GPO Box 4367 Melbourne 3001 Acknowledgments This resource has been developed by the Office of Learning and Teaching, Department of Education and Training, Victoria, 2004 Authors Sandra Mahar and Maddy Harford Contributions This publication was developed by the Research and Development Branch, Office of Learning & Teaching for the Department of Education and Training. Contents INTRODUCTION: THE IMPORTANCE OF LEARNING IN THE KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY 4 Defining Learning 5 Overview of the paper 6 THEORIES OF LEARNING 7 Cognitive Learning Theories 7 Social Learning Theories 7 Constructivist Theories 8 Experiential Learning 9 Adult Learning, or Andragogy 9 Multiple Intelligences 10 Situated Learning Theory and Communities of Practice 10 FACTORS AFFECTING LEARNING 12 Neurological development and functioning 12 Emotional and Social Factors 13 Generic Skills 14 The ICT Revolution 15 CONCLUSION 16 Bibliography 17 Selected Resources 17 Introduction: The Importance of Learning in the Knowledge Economy This paper is the first in a series of occasional papers developed by the Research Branch within the...

Words: 6821 - Pages: 28

Premium Essay

Life Span Perspective

...Life Span Paper Janet Nienhueser Psychology 375 June 22, 2012 Moriel McDuffy In this paper I will be explaining the life span perspective of development. I will be listing the eight developmental stages throughout life, and the three key developmental domains. I will then summarize two of the theories of the life span development. I will list the four I will then explain how heredity and the environment interact to produce individual differences in development. I will then summarize everything that I have wrote in this paper in a conclusion of the paper. I will also list the references that I have used to write this paper. After several hours of research, I have put this paper together. I hope that you like it as much as I enjoyed writing it. Throughout this paper you will know how the life span development works and what all is entailed in it. You will be able to understand the two theories that I have chosen. You will also know how heredity and the environment interact to produce individual differences in development. Explain the life span perspective of development. The life span perspective is all about understanding all of the changes that take place throughout ones’ life and the changes have to be observed as a result of the culture and the situations that surround each change. Life span is also known as and referred to as being life-long changes that continue and is not based by just one age period. The life span perspective consists of physical,......

Words: 1311 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Ece 311 Week 5 Final Paper

...ECE 311 WEEK 5 FINAL PAPER A+ Graded Tutorial Available At: Visit Our website: Product Description PRODUCT DESCRIPTION ECE 311 Week 5 Final Paper, I choose the curriculum that I am most comfortable with and this is the pre-kindergarten age group. There are several theories that guides this curriculum which include but not limited to Erikson’s development stages, Brokfenbrenner’s Theory of Ecological Systems, Paiget’s development theory and Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences. The combination of one or two of these theories allows the teacher to choose appropriate learning strategies suited for the class. The philosophies, ideas and concepts in early childhood classrooms are very important in preschool education since these allows the students to experience the classroom setting that will later aid them in coping up with higher educational level in high school and college. It is necessary that both in home and in school that the child is supported in their growth and development by providing them with the best information and practice that will prepare them in their classes and succeed in attaining the needed educational skills. The different development and learning domains are interrelated and should be considered as one set which include physical, social, emotional and cognitive domains. The event or influences that affect one domain could also influence another domain...

Words: 527 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Children Under 7 Case Study

...Running head: Case Study Children Under 7 Case Study Anjeana Epps Liberty University Online - APA Abstract The paper will discuss the myelination and the corpus callosum and define and discuss the prefrontal cortex as well as the limbic systems as it relates to the development of a child under the age of 7. Further this paper will explore Paget's theories on of how children under the age of 7 experience different cognitive developments which don't support critical thinking, and Erickson's theory that children under the age of 7 must resolve several crisis that involve the need of the individual conflicting with the needs of society. This papers perspective will show that a child under the age of 7 is not capable of being criminally responsible. Children under the age of 7 should not be held criminally responsible for crimes due to the biological underdevelopment of their brains, the immaturities of their thought processes and the lack of resolution of their psychosocial stages. By ages 6 children have less myelination (fatty tissue that speeds the transmission from neuron to neuron) than teenagers. During this time, myelination areas focus on the motor and sensory area not on information processing that is significantly slower (page 220). Myelination also affects the development of the corpus callosum which affects communication between the right an left hemispheres of the brain. Another biological issue is the lack of maturation of the prefrontal cortex. ...

Words: 1046 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Middle Childhood and Adolescence

...Middle Childhood and Adolescence Paper PSY/280 April 17, 2013 Rosita Rodriguez Middle Childhood and Adolescence Paper Childhood years can be one of the most wonderful times in life. These years can be full of fun. At this age of innocence a child is most impressionable by learning from their surrounding environment. The beginning of a child’s life can be broken down into different stages leading into an adult. In this paper the focus will be on the middle childhood and adolescence. The research will focus on evaluating the effect of functional and dysfunctional family dynamics on development such as family structure, function, and shared and non-shared environments. Examination of additional pressures that are faced in adolescence versus middle childhood, also the research will help to determine the positive and negative impact of peers and changes in peer relations from middle childhood to adolescence. The research will then discuss the development of moral values from middle childhood and adolescence. “It is human to have a long childhood; it is civilized to have an even longer childhood. Long childhood makes a technical and mental virtuoso out of man, but it also leaves a life-long residue of emotional immaturity in him.” — Erik Homburger Erikson (1902-1994) Erik Erikson a theorist believes that our temperament traits are inborn. Other characteristics such as competency or inferiority can be learned according to the challenges or support an individual receives...

Words: 1432 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Theories and Theorists

...Theories and Theorists Zsofia Kappelman-Arany Walden University Theories and Theorists I am completing a master’s degree in Culture of Psychology. One of my goals is working with children in the future. Therefore, it is crucial to understand human development theories that I will be able to use in my work. Human development theories can help professionals examining how a person’s behavior and personality improves during the lifespan (Berk, 2010). For this assignment, I chose two key theories that address human development. I will introduce and analyze Piaget’s cognitive-developmental theory and Erikson’s psychosocial theory. I will identify similarities and differences. Finally, I will discuss how these theories relate to my goals in research. Piaget’s Cognitive-Developmental Theory Jean Piaget (1896-1980) was a Swiss theorist who conducted research studies on cognitive development. Although he observed his own children, his theory is one of the key theories of human development. Piaget published several books on childhood development, psychology, moral judgment, and intelligence (Berk, 2010). Few of his major works that I will use for this assignment are: The Moral Judgment of the Child (1948), The Early Growth of Logic in the Child (1964), Biology and Knowledge (1971). Piaget’s four stages address infancy, early childhood, middle childhood, and adolescence (Mussen, 1983). Piaget believed that there is a significant connection between biological and......

Words: 1137 - Pages: 5