Free Essay

Children's Depression Inventory

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By judith1022
Words 1259
Pages 6
Children's Depression Inventory
One common mental disorder in the world is depression. Recognizing and treating depression at an early age can assist in a productive adulthood. Children are doors to the future and without knowledge and help some children will suffer with life’s struggles and no understanding or help in developing coping mechanism with or without medication. One assessment widely known is the Children’s Depression Inventory, which assesses the severity and presence of depression in children in hopes of developing a treatment plan. This assessment is commonly place in service at clinics, schools, and by mental health facilitators.
This paper will follow and evaluate two articles discussing Children’s Depression Inventory. The difference in results between children and adults will provide an insight into results. The first article measures and examines the invariance results of the Children’s Depression Inventory, of children with and without depression disorders (Kavocs, 2012). This will provide guidance in search of defining the scale of depression and the comparison to mood disorders. The second article provides a statistical insight into Depression Inventories for children and adults. The assessments will permit professionals the measurement of symptoms and characteristics of depression on a scale (Gomez & Gomez, 2012). This would benefit in understanding the age range of depressive levels in children, adolescents, and adults. The test can be administered in a groups or individual cases lasting 10 to 20 minutes to complete (Gomez & Gomez, 2012). Professionals test children with a “yes” or “no” formality of questions and adults are testing on a five-point scale responding with always, sometimes, seldom, usually, or never. In the final portion of this research paper will explore the validity and reliability of studies (Gomez & Gomez, 2012).
The use of Children's Depression Inventory
Although the Children’s Depression Inventory is not designed to diagnose depression in children it can be second-hand as a tool in identifying negative moods. By recognizing the presence and severity of depression or depressive symptoms steps can be in use to develop a treatment plan. “Half of all current studies focusing on childhood depression use the CDI” (Fristad, Emery, & Beck, 1997, p. 701); however, professionals using the test should also make use of other, multiple assessment, measures. The CDI is just one step in the process of helping children handle depression whether the child has a depressive disorder or not. Children and adolescents suffer academically because of the misdiagnosis of depression; that can carry over to adulthood and present more complications. “For a diagnosis of clinical depression, detailed assessment using multiple measurements such as structured clinical interviews is required” (Fristad, Emery, & Beck, 1997, p. 699), the CDI has been second-hand as an indicator of self-reported distress in children, yet it does not have the sensitivity or the specificity to assist in the diagnosing of depression. The CDI can describe, “a 27-item self-report questionnaire that is used extensively for distinguishing children and adolescents with and without depressive disorders” (Gomez, Vance, & Gomez, 2012, p. 1). For each of the 27 items participants are asked to choose a statement. There are three choices, and it is the one that best describes the participant within the last two-week (Gomez, Vance, & Gomez, 2012). The age range for this test is seven-17 years with an administration time of five-15 minutes (Kavocs, 2012). “The CDI is commonly used in schools, clinics, guidance centers, and medical pediatric settings by psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and mental health professionals” (Kovacs, 2012, para. 1), although there are other ways this test can be given as well. The CDI can be administered in several ways by a parent, a teacher, or even by the child and formats include online, software, and hand scored testing (Kavocs, 2012).
Qualifications for administering and interpreting the Children's Depression Inventory
According to Giannakopoulos, et al. (2009) the Children’s Depression Inventory can be administered by teachers in schools. The test also can be administered by the parents of the child taking the test. When the test was set to a sample of 650 Greek children in 2006, the selection of students is random to have the test administered by their parents at home. The parents were to fill out an information letter, a consent form, and a parental questionnaire giving information about socio-demographic parameters.
Furthermore; according to Giannakopoulos, et al. (2009), it is said that the test results are read by qualified professionals. These professionals can elaborately and educationally determine the internal reliability of the Children’s Depression Inventory. They can also determine test-retest reliability, determination of socioeconomic status, gender, and age effects, and internal reliability. The people reading the interpretation of the test results of the Children’s Depression Inventory are professionals in child psychology. The test results are weigh against other psychiatric test results and observations. They are also compared to observations of the child and records available about that child.
The most efficient setting for a child to take the Children’s Depression Inventory is at school in a group setting. The test can be administered to many children at one time that way. However, this can make interpreting the results a bit more difficult. Because the test results of each child need to be measure up to his or her available records and other psychological test scores, taking on the task of interpreting a mass quantity of tests can cause some of the results to be unseen. A slower process, such as allowing the tests to be administered by the parents at home may be more appropriate and yield more accurate interpretations of the tests.
Valid and invalid results of the Children's Depression Inventory
The testing ages for Child’s Depression Inventory is between seven to 17 years. This test is set to individuals as well as groups of adolescents and teenagers. It is important to have an understanding of who is drawn in with the CDI test. The different populations of participants will influence the validity of the test. Internal and external influential factors to the test are viable.
According to Gomez & Gomez (2012) there were 795 children and adolescents participating for the study. Four hundred and twelve of the participants had not been diagnose with depression, whereas 383 participants had been diagnose with this mental disorder. The test asked the participants to answer questions about his or her parents, home life, and family history. Maternal factors are at times pass down to children and the early detection can assist with diagnosing and creating a plan to help. Parents were to complete a separate interview and test at the same time as his or her child. This test took place over a two- day period. Teachers and researchers used questionnaires and checklists to obtain data. In this study invariance’s could are obvious between individuals with depression and those without. Female participants scored higher on social problems and biological deregulation whereas, males scored higher on externalizing factors. It is hard to showcase the validity of the test because it was administered to only one group of people (Gomez & Gomez, 2012).
The second article uses two forms for testing. The first is in use for children grades 2nd through 9th in this tests individuals are asked to answer a series of yes or no questions. The second test is complete of a series of questions using a five point scale. This test was particular on a test-retest basis and the results reflected a stable and recurring score. Construct validity was not accepted for this test because of the ‘built in’ use of items to measure depression (Battle, 1988).

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Pshyc Measure

...Each articles use of the Children’s Depression Inventory concluded that the test was reliable in indicating depressive symptoms in children. Both articles used the Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI) to identify correlations between the inventory and other factors specific to each articles’ study. The first article’s results detected that there is a CDI factor associated with school achievements but had the potential to influence obtained results, concluding that the CDI and insufficient method for this study (Fránová, Lukavský, & Preiss, 2008). The results from the second article suggested that CDI should be used as an additional tool in the diagnosing process and not as used as the...

Words: 1266 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Iq Responses

...IQ The paper is an abridgement of the Beck Depression Inventory, which is used to test individuals for depression. BDI was meant a model for CDI, but CDI proves unreliable. The BDI is used all over the world because the reliability of the constant results. In China, there has been a new version of Beck Depression Inventory. The test was done on second graders and adjustments were made to correlate with the students cognitive processing. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) is a test with two versions produced in 1961 and 1978. The studies were performed on psychiatric patients. The (1961) total of 598 inpatients and outpatients underwent testing in 1961 resulting with the alpha coefficient 0.88, in 1978 the alpha coefficient for 248 outpatients was 0.86 (Sloan, Marx, Bradley, Strauss, Lang, & Cuthbert, (2002). The testing results are consistent between 17 year intervals. The consistency in both versions of BDI prove equivalent. Shek (1990), introduces valuable information on studies of the Chinese version of Beck Depression Inventory. The results present a discovery of high coefficients of congruence and therefor suggest the Chinese version of BDI (C-BDI) carries satisfactory psychometric properties and support to the validity in Chinese version of BDI. Therefore, support given to Becks view of depression being complex, which is proven by factor analytic data....

Words: 424 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Comparison of Childhood Depression Measures

...Comparisons of Childhood Depression Measures Depressive disorders are now recognized as a relatively prevalent problem in adolescents as it is one of the causes of morbidity and mortality in this age group (Birmaher, et al., 1996). Thus initial detection of depression should be as early as possible in order to mitigate the impact of the disorder in an individual’s life by positively amending the long-term course of depression. Current research of depression in adolescents have introduced various assessment tools in diagnosing the disorder in children and adolescents. However, determining the most appropriate measure of depression involves several considerations rather than merely selecting one as a test that lacks compatibility in its reliability and validity may result to a false positive or false negative diagnosis (Reynolds & Mazza, 1998). This paper aims to draw on three self-report assessments for depression in adolescents, naming the Child Depression Inventory (CDI), Beck’s Depression Inventory 2nd Edition (BDI-II) and Reynold’s Adolescents Depression Scale (RADS) in reviewing, comparing and contrasting their psychometric properties. Conclusion on the most appropriate assessment for depression in adolescents will be drawn. Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI) CDI was originally adapted from Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) by altering its format and language, to measure severity of depression in children age 7 and older (Brooks & Kutcher, 2001)....

Words: 3118 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Depression in Children

...Children Depression Inventory 2 The Children Depression Inventory 2 (CDI 2) is a revision of the Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI). The CDI 2 is used in educational and clinical situations to evaluate depressive warning signs in children and adolescents from ages seven to 17. Dr. Maria Kovacs, a world renowned researcher of childhood and adolescent depressive disorders, made adjustments in the CDI 2; however, the CDI 2 retains much of the critical topographies of the CDI 1. The CDI 2 introduces a number of extensions in reliability. These improvements include items, which focus on the essential aspects of childhood depression, and new objectivity in scales ("CDI 2 Children Depression Inventory 2", 2004-2014). The CDI 2 is an inclusive assessment of depressive indications in children aged seven to 17 years ("CDI 2 Children Depression Inventory 2", 2004-2014). Combining the CDI 2 with other inventories of verified information, provides the means of early identification of depressive symptoms, earlier diagnosis of depression and any associated disorders ("CDI 2 Children Depression Inventory 2", 2004-2014). One other provisional advantage for correlation of the CDI 2 with other inventorys is the monitoring of treatment effectiveness ("CDI 2 Children Depression Inventory 2", 2004-2014). Early reports from children up to adolescents (full/short length) used by the CDI 2 quantifies depressive symptomatology ("CDI 2 Children Depression Inventory 2", 2004-2014)....

Words: 314 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Concept Analysis

...However, due to side effects of treatment medications sometimes makes it difficult to properly identify and diagnosis the onset of depression. Therefore, the concept of depression in the adolescent oncology patient requires a multidisciplinary analysis to examine symptoms expressed by these patients to properly identify and provide early intervention for their depression. Review of Literature Depression in adolescence and...

Words: 4707 - Pages: 19

Free Essay

Psychological Measure

...Psychological Measure Paper Psy 475 May 18, 2015 Psychological Measure Paper It is well known fact that people suffer from various kinds of depression. They might be from some health problems that they have developed and some issues associated with factors that are attributed to the way they feel about themselves. There are many ways to measure depression or how to scale it on the degrees of danger. In our Paper we are analyzing depressions psychological measures. The measure that is analyzed by us is the Depression Inventory for adolescents. The Depression Inventory for adolescents is an auto- report tool that employs a twenty seven item questions. We will be choosing 2 articles that explain the use of the Depression Inventory for adolescents. In our paper, we will be describing who are qualified for administering and interpreting the setting and measure. This means academic, counseling or occupational in which we optimize the usage of the measure. At the end of our paper, we will classify among the populations for whom the Depression Inventory for adolescents is valid or not valid as a psychological measure. Article One Becks Depression Inventory is used to measure many different depression circumstances. Above it (what is it?) discusses how the inventory is used and the measurement of how deep depression can go based on Becks inventory....

Words: 1615 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Behavioral Health

...The behavioral health issues I dealt with this semester include: anxiety, depression, dementia, smoking cessation, and insomnia. The goal during the interaction with patients with psychiatric issues was focused on improving my communication skills when taking history and performing physical assessments. Of particular note were the differences in approach between a behavioral health patient and the non- behavioral health patient. I noticed that for a successful interaction to occur, one has to be knowledgeable and skillful in how they approach patients with depression and dementia. Dealing with the psychiatric patient and those with alcohol and drug abuse issues calls for special skills in order to effectively assess and treat the presenting conditions appropriately. This is an area that I have a goal of improving on by increasing the time spent in clinical settings that have more interactions and treatment modalities aimed at the behavioral health patient. The vastness and diversity of the behavioral health field has resulted in more awareness and a focus aimed at increasing my knowledge base on treatments and management of psychiatric disorders. The following pages will highlight the different mental issues I dealt with this semester and how they were managed....

Words: 1184 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Gun Violence and the Impact on Children and Teens

...According to the Children’s Defense Fund, there are more infants, toddlers, and preschool children killed than officers who are in the line of duty. Firearm deaths in the United States stated that in 2010, there were 2,711 infant, children, and teens killed by gun violence (CDC 2012). Between 1981 and 2010, gun violence killed 112.375 infants, children, and teens. This is 25,000 more deaths than the number of soldiers killed in Korea, Vietnam, Iraq, and Afghanistan combined (Children’s Defense Fund 2013). Of these deaths, 1,982 were murders by gun violence. Every state between 2000 and 2010 lost children to gun violence with the deadliest of these in Alaska with an 8.7 gun deaths for every 100,000 children (Children’s Defense Fund 2013). The deadliest state was Alaska with 8.7 gun deaths for every 100,000 children and teens each year, more than twice the nationwide rate of 3.6. While Alaska was 21 times more deadly for children and teens, the safest state in the nation is Hawaii. While all the states in this country has dealt with children’s’ death from gun violence suicide is also on the rise. More kids are suffering from depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, substance abuse, and bullying has given rise to gun violence against one’s self. Each day in America, five children or teens commit suicide. GUN VIOLENCE ON CHILDREN AND TEENS Gun violent statistics states that 19,393 suicides in the United States in 2010 constituted almost...

Words: 1849 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Psy 480 Week 2 Quiz

...Another type of personality test would be Beck Depression Inventory (BID). This test is used to see if individuals are suffering from severe depression....

Words: 747 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Personal Model of Helping

...PERSONAL MODEL OF HELPING Karen Carr January 10, 2010 BSHS312 – Effective Models of Helping Dr. Princess Clarke \ How and why you formed this viewpoint In growing up I always wanted to help other people. I was the child who other children confided in or came to when they wanted to talk or needed help with a problem. When growing up it was not common for black people to go to counseling. Families kept secrets among themselves and sometimes those secrets came back to haunt people many years later. When faced with problems people relied on their spiritual beliefs, the support of the family, and sometimes close friends. If a girl had gotten pregnant and not married that would have been kept top secret. Usually a family member would raise the baby and no one would ever speak openly about it. My family had to deal with the death of two of my brothers at young ages. It hurt my mother deeply having to deal with the loss of two children because of violence. These tragedies were never discussed even as we became adults. As I became older I realized that my mother and our entire family should have gotten counseling. It was not until after my mother passed that my uncle shared with me the pain and agony that she had suffered but his emotional pain as well. Your view of helping As an adult I see the damage that family secrets and not having the capability to openly discuss problems, or seek professional help when needed can cause. I believe that helping people......

Words: 2650 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Bullying and the Environment

...Parents must be knowledgeable of their children’s development and provide constructive parenting; the schools need to provide a secure environment for children with no tolerance for bullying, and group norms which children are surrounded by need to be focused on positive interactions. According to (Burkhart, Knox, & Brockmyer, 2012), “Bullying is a relationship-based form of aggression, which involves the use of various behaviors to humiliate, dominate, and oppress others.” Approximately 30% of youth are either bullies or victims and have moderate or frequent involvement in the bully-victim relationship (Burkhart et al., 2012). The parents of individuals who bully or have been bullied play a large role in decreasing the chances of this happening to his or her child. This is strictly based on research showing that parents who lack knowledge about child development and positive parenting strategies often believe that a child’s misbehavior is fully under the child’s control and the result of negative intentions. This study conducted by (Burkhart et al., 2012) consisted of 117 parents who cared for a child between the ages of 4 and 10. Once these...

Words: 1285 - Pages: 6

Free Essay


...The effects of music on children and young people. 1. The effect of music on IQ Campabello, Nicolette; De Carlo, Mary Jane; O'Neil, Jean; Vacek, Mary Jill Music Enhances Learning. Dissertations/Theses; Tests/Questionnaires. 2002 An action research project implemented musical strategies to affect and enhance student recall and memory. The target population was three suburban elementary schools near a major midwestern city: (1) a kindergarten classroom contained 32-38 students; (2) a second grade classroom contained 23 students and five Individualized Education Program (IEP) students; and (3) a fifth grade classroom. Students exhibited difficulty recalling facts and information in a variety of subject areas evidenced through an inability to gain mastery of grade level skill areas. Research suggests that young students have difficulty understanding concepts and lack the ability and desire to learn. A successful program needs to be developed to teach these concepts. A review of solution strategies suggests that the following musical techniques proved to be helpful for increasing student recall because the songs helped with phonemic training, mnemonics, setting desired skills to familiar tunes, and linking connection to cultural themes. Research has shown that preschool children taught with an early exposure to music through games and songs showed an IQ advantage of 10 to 20 points over those children taught without exposure to the songs. In the same study, students at......

Words: 7591 - Pages: 31

Free Essay


...Meanwhile the questionnaire for personality was modified from the Junior Eysenck Personality Inventory (JEPI) that was created by H. J. Eysenck (1967). The descriptive statistics such as frequency, percentages, mean and standard deviation were used to analyze the dominant dimension in student’s self-concept. Other than that, inferential statistic such as t-test was used to analyze the difference between the self-concept and personality of students according to gender. Meanwhile, Pearson correlations...

Words: 1396 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Organizational Structure: Nordstrom

...They ventured into the clothing market and started selling fine apparel and added men’s clothing and children’s wear to expand the needs of their customers. In 1971 they went public, and the company was recognized as the largest-volume West Coast fashion specialty store, and the company name was formally changed to Nordstrom, Inc. From the beginning, John Nordstrom shared a business philosophy that was exceptional service, selection, quality, and value. Today the philosophy remains the same (“,” n.d.). The vertical structure is very apparent in the Nordstrom, Inc. organization. The company has key executives, board members, and executive key committees that run the organization. According to Bateman & Snell, (2011), corporate governance is a role of the corporation’s executive staff and board of directors in ensuring that the organizations activities meet the goals of the stakeholders. The board of directors’ selects, advises, and oversees management and is responsible for the day-to-day operations of the company. Although Nordstrom, Inc. is a vertical organization, its structure is quite unique and interesting. Their structure reflects outstanding service every day, one customer at a time (“,”n.d.). The Inverted Pyramid represents their philosophy and structure and reminds the executives to value those closest with their valued customers. Retrieved from: HTTP://ABOUT.NORDSTROM.COM/CAREERS/STRUCTURE.ASP According to Timberlake...

Words: 1360 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Job Analysis

...Job Analysis Berline Jean Baptiste PSY/435 July 22, 2013 Linda Seiford Job Analysis The reason for a job analysis is to study and evaluate the things that a job is supposed to involve. This is describing exactly what skills are needed to perform on the job, and what the exact qualifications are to fill the position. Job analysis is a method needed when the employee need to know the precise function. An example would be that an employee’s duties should be clearly stated. So, a jobs analyst is to observe the employee at his or her current duties. This is also helpful in deciding what the requirements are to perform this job more effectively. Because jobs continue to change, therefore a job analyst should watch for any changes so that things are kept up to date. However, the job analyst should be familiar with the job a well as the position. “The job analysis will lead directly to development of numerous other significant workers (tools): job requirements, job assessment as well as job performance criteria” (Spector, 2008). Today families are shattered, language barriers are high, violence is a standard, and their education does not get to high priority. Counselors typically deal with these types of students who have tangible needs, emotional troubles, and behavioral issues. Furthermore, counselors have an ear for listening; shoulders to cry on and a firm facilitator for regulations are what a school counselor should use. Before......

Words: 1427 - Pages: 6