Free Essay

Chilren Health Pattern

In: Science

Submitted By jassamol
Words 855
Pages 4
A comprehensive assessment is done to establish a data base for developmental assessment and for nursing diagnosis and treatment. Information is needed on (1) the development of each functional pattern and anatomical growth, (2) current health patterns, and (3) family health and the home environment in which the infant or child is developing. The questions/items listed below can be used selectively for problem screening. Questions should be directed to the primary care giver.
NURSING HISTORY
1. Health-perception – health management pattern
Parents’ report of:
a. Mother’s pregnancy/labor/delivery history (of this infant, of others)?
b. Infant’s health status since birth?
c. Adherence to routine health checks for the infant/child? Immunizations?
d. Infections/illnesses in the infant/child? Child’s absences from school/day care? e. If applicable: Infant’s/child’s medical problems, treatment, and prognosis?
f. If applicable: Actions taken by parents when signs and/or symptoms were perceived? g. If appropriate: Has it been easy to follow doctors’ or nurses’ suggestions?
h. Preventive health practices (e.g., diaper change, clean clothes, hand washing)?
i. Do parents smoke? Around children?
j. Accidents? Types? Frequency?
k. Infant’s crib toys (safety)? Child's toys? Carrying safety? Car safety?
l. Parents’ safety practices (e.g., household products and medicines)
Parents (self):
a. Parents’/family’s general health status? Illnesses? Injuries?
2. Nutritional-metabolic pattern
Parents’ report of the infant’s/child’s:
a. Breast/bottle feeding? Intake (estimated)? Schedule? Sucking strength?
b. Appetite? Feeding discomfort? Gas? Burping?
c. 24-hour intake of nutrients? Supplements?
d. Eating behavior? Food preferences? Conflicts over food?
e. Birth weight? Current weight?
f. Skin problems: For example, rashes, lesions, others?
Parents (self):
a. Parents’/family’s nutritional status? Height/Weight? Problems?
8
3.
Elimination pattern
Parents’ report of the infant’s/child’s:
a. Bowel elimination parents and children? (Describe) Frequency? Character discomfort? b. Diaper changes? Potty training – bowel, bladder? (Describe routine)
c. Urinary elimination pattern? (Describe) Number of wet diapers per day?
(Estimate amount) Stream (strong, dribble)?
d. Excess perspiration? Odor?
Parents (self):
a. Elimination pattern? Problems?
4. Activity-exercise pattern
Parents’ report of:
a. Bathing routine? (When, how, where, and what type of soap?)
b. Dressing routine? (Clothing worn, changes inside/outside home)
c. Typical day’s activity for the infant/child (e.g., hours spent in crib, being carried, playing; type of toys used)?
d. Infant’s/child’s general activity level? Tolerance?
e. Perception of infant’s/child’s strength (“strong” or “fragile”)?
f. Child’s self-care ability (bathing, feeding, toileting, dressing, grooming)?
Parents (self):
a. Activity/exercise/leisure pattern? Child care? Home maintenance?
5. Sleep-rest pattern
Parents’ report of:
a. Sleep pattern of the infant/child: Estimated hours?
b. Infant’s/child’s restlessness? Nightmares? Nocturia?
c. Infant’s sleep position? Body movements? Nighttime routine?
Parents (self):
a. Sleep pattern?
6. Cognitive-perceptual pattern
Parents’ report of:
a. General responsiveness of the infant/child?
b. Infant’s response to talking? Noise? Objects? Touch?
c. Infant’s following of objects with eyes? Response to crib toys?
d. Ability to learn (changes noted)? What is being taught to the infant/child?
e. Noises/vocalizations? Speech pattern? Words? Sentences?
9
f. Use of stimulation: For example, talking, games, what else?
g. Vision, hearing, touch, kinesthesia of the infant/child?
h. Child’s ability to tell name, time, address, telephone number?
i. Infant’s/child’s ability to identify needs (hunger, thirst, pain, discomfort)?
Parents (self):
a. Problems with vision, hearing, touch, other senses?
b. Difficulties making decisions? Judgments?
7. Self-perception – self-concept pattern
Parents’ report of:
a. Infant’s/child’s mood, state (irritability)?
b. Child’s sense of worth, identity, competency?
Child’s report of:
a. Mood state?
b. Many/few friends? Liked by others?
c. Self-perception (“good” most of time? Hard to be “good”?)
d. Ever lonely?
e. Fears (transient/frequent)?
Parents (self):
a. General sense of worth, identity, competency?
b. Self-perception as parents?
8. Role-relationship pattern
Parent’s report of:
a. Family/household structure?
b. Family problems/stresses?
c. Interactions among family members and infant (or child)?
d. Infant’s/child’s response to separation?
e. Child: Dependency?
f. Child: Play pattern?
g. Child: Temper tantrums? Discipline problems? School adjustment?
Parents (self):
a. Role engagements? Satisfaction?
b. Work/social/marital relationships?
9. Sexually-reproductive pattern
10
Parents’ report of child’s:
a. Feeling of maleness/femaleness?
b. Questions regarding sexuality? How parent responds?
Parents (self):
a. If applicable: Reproductive history?
b. Sexual satisfaction/problems?
10. Coping – stress-tolerance pattern
Parents’ report of:
a. What produces stress in child? Level of stress tolerance
b. Child’s pattern of handling problems, frustrations, anger?
Parents (self):
a. Life stressors? Family stress?
b. Patterns for handling problems? Stress? Anger? Support systems?
11. Value-belief pattern
Parents’ report of:
a. Child’s moral development, choice behavior, commitments?
Parents (self):
a. Things important in life (values, spirituality)? Desires for the future?
b. If appropriate: Perceived impact of disease on goals?
12. Other
a. Any other things that we haven’t talked about that you’d like to mention? Any
questions?

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Family Health Assessment Using Functional Health Patterns

...Running head: FAMILY HEALTH ASSESSMENT USING FUNCTIONAL HEALTH Family Health Assessment using Functional Health Patterns Micaela Simon Grand Canyon University Family Centered Health Promotion NRS-429V Melanie Escobar RN, MSN September 6, 2012 Family Health Assessment using Functional Health Patterns Assessment is the first tool in the nursing process in formulating health care plans for the individual as well as the family. A through assessment lays groundwork to promote family health (Edelman & Mandle, 2010, p. 175). The purpose of this paper is to examine one familys view of their health. The author will use several family focused questions addressing the 11 health patterns outlined by Gordon’s functional health patterns ("Functional Health", 2010). With completion of the family assessment, s summarization of findings and wellness nursing diagnoses will be formed. The questions addressing all 11 functional health patterns (Appendix) and how it related to the family. The older couple chosen for this assignment are from English, Irish decent living most of there life in Nebraska now reside in Arizona. Husband 73, wife 68 married 43 years with three grown children a oldest son 43, daughter 41 and youngest son 39. Two of the children are out of the house, have spouses and children of there own. The oldest son is not married and lives out of state solely supported by his parents and has developmental and psychological issues from a childhood traumatic......

Words: 2025 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Children’s Functional Health Pattern Assessment

...Children’s Functional Health Pattern Assessment Functional Health Pattern Assessment (FHP) | Toddler 1-3 Erickson’s Developmental Stage: * | Autonomy versus shame and doubt | | Preschool-Aged 4-5 Erickson’s Developmental Stage: Initiative versus guilt | School-Aged 5-12 Erickson’s Developmental Stage: * | Industry versus inferiority | | Pattern of Health Perception and Health Management: List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group. List two potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group. | Healthy patterns are established such as brushing their teeth prior to getting dressed and at bedtime Learning to recognize when to wash their hands, | Parents allow preschooler to assist with small task in the kitchen to encourage a healthy lifestyle Preschooler is encouraged to learn basic hygiene. | Child is aware that dirty hand causes illnesses but not why. Parents encourage healthy hygiene such as hand washing and proper bathing | | Parents do not in cooperate toddler in healthy routines like oral hygiene Parents do not help toddler recognize when hand washing is needed. | Parents do no encourage preschoolers to learn about healthy living. Preschooler is not encouraged to maintain basic hygiene | Child disregards dirty hands frequently with no comprehension on why they need to be clean Parents have......

Words: 2497 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Gordon's 11 Health Patterns

...Gordon’s 11 Functional Patterns – Assessment Questions. john brown Pattern of Health Perception and Health Management How would you rate your overall health? Do you have any past or present medical problems? Any past injuries? Is there a family history of disease or medical problems? Are you taking any action to improve or maintain your health? Nutritional – Metabolic Pattern What do you typically eat on a normal day? When do you eat/how many times a day? What do you drink on a normal day? Pattern of Elimination How many times do you urinate a day? Do you have difficulty urinating? Do you experience pain while urinating? How many times do you have a bowel movement each day? Can you describe your bowel movements? Pattern of Activity and Exercise How often do you exercise each week? What type of exercise/recreation do you participate in? What type of activity do you perform for your work? Cognitive – Perceptual Pattern Do you have any problems with vision, hearing, sensation? Do you have any mental disabilities, history of depression/psychiatric issues? What is your highest level of education? Pattern of Sleep and Rest How many hours of sleep do you get each day? Do you feel rested after sleep? Pattern of Self Perception and Self Concept How would you describe yourself? How satisfied are you with your body image, career choices? Role – Relationship Pattern What is your living situation? Do you feel as though......

Words: 358 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Children's Functional Health Pattern Assessment

...Children’s Functional Health Pattern Assessment Childrens Functional Health Pattern Assessment Functional Health Pattern Assessment (FHP) | Toddler 1-3 Ericksons Developmental Stage: * | Autonomy... Save Paper Children's Functional Health Pattern Assessment Functional Health Pattern Assessment (FHP) | Pattern of Health Perception and Health Management: * How does the person describe current health... Save Paper Children's Functional Health Exam Childrens Functional Health Pattern Assessment |Functional Health Pattern Assessment |Toddler |Preschool-Aged... Save Paper Childrens Functional Health Assessment Childrens Functional Health Pattern Assessment |Functional Health Pattern Assessment |Toddler |Preschool-Aged... Save Paper Children Functional Pattern Assessment Childrens Functional Health Pattern Assessment Functional Health Pattern Assessment (FHP) | Toddler Ericksons Developmental Stage: AUTONOMY VS SHAME &... Save Paper Functional Health Assessment Childrens Functional Health Pattern Assessment |Functional Health Pattern |Toddler |Preschool-Aged... Save Paper Functional Health Pattern your health, the health of your children and the health of your Community (EPA, 2011). [pic] Environmental Tobacco smoke is Dangerous to the Health of... Save Paper Functional Health Guide Functional Health Patterns Community Assessment Guide * Functional Health Pattern (FHP) Template Directions: This FHP......

Words: 312 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Gordon's 11 Functional Health Patterns

...Functional Health Patterns: Assessment of a Family Jennifer Rannells Grand Canyon University Family-Centered Health Promotion Patricia King May 02, 2013 Gordon's 11 Functional Health Patterns: Assessment of a Family Health promotion is at the center of healthcare today. Healthy People 2010 provides a framework for health promotion and prevention of disease. Gordon’s 11 functional health patterns provides a foundation for gathering information through assessment of the individual and family which helps to identify lifestyle patterns. These patterns help to guide nursing diagnoses and interventions for actual or potential problems to promote health and wellbeing (Edelman & Mandle, 2010). This paper will outline two to three questions for each pattern used to assess the family and interpret the findings of a family assessment using Gordon’s 11 functional health patterns. The family interviewed consists of a husband and wife and their adolescent daughter. A brief summary of the findings for each health pattern will be discussed. From this information, two wellness and family diagnoses will be developed and presented. Summarize Findings for Each Functional Health Pattern 1. Health Perception-Health Management Pattern In this first patter, the family could identify a primary care physician and reported that each member has annual wellness checks. Exploration of healthy behaviors regarding diet and exercise revealed healthy patterns. The sleep pattern......

Words: 1746 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Health Patterns: the Taylor Family

...Health Patterns: The Taylor Family Amber D. Yancoskie Grand Canyon University: NRS-429 Family Centered Health Promotion December 9, 2012 Gordon’s Functional Health Patterns is a system that was created by Marjorie Gordon in 1987. This system served as a guide to establishing a broader nursing database. Gordon’s 11 functional health patterns consist of values/health perception, nutrition, sleep/rest, elimination, activity/exercise, cognitive, self perception, role relationship, sexuality, and coping. Assessment is the first tool in the nursing process in formulating health care plans for the individual as well as the family. A thorough assessment lays groundwork to promote family health (Edelman & Mandle, 2010). The patterns of functional health can be used to determine how a family interacts with one another and deals with their everyday life. According to Catherine Ross, a professor at the University of Illinois; “It is in the family that the macro-level social and economic order affects individual physical and emotional well-being” (Mirowsky, Goldsteen & Ross, 1990 para.1). This essay will describe the health patterns of the Taylor family by using specific questions personalized to each of the 11 functional health patterns. The Taylor family is comprised of Judy, 52 years old and David, 53 years old. The two have been separated for more than fifteen years and have three adult children and five grandchildren. Joshua, the eldest is 28 years old and......

Words: 1670 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Gordon's Functional Health Patterns

...Family Health Assessment Grand Canyon University: NRS-429V May 21, 2013 Gordon’s functional health patterns has been used since the late 1980s and serves as a guide for nurses in the nursing process. It was created by Marjory Gordon to help provide a framework to aide in the promotion of family health (“Gordon’s functional health, 2013”). Gordon’s functional health patterns consists of 11 categories that help nurses determine how each individual functions. An interview was conducted on a Caucasian family consisting of 4 individuals to determine their patterns of behavior. The family of four consisted of a 56 year old father, 54 year old mother, 21 year old son, and a 19 year old daughter. The father is currently employed by the United States Army where he has served his country for more than 20 years. The mother is a stay at home mom/wife. This couple has been married for 35 years. Both the son and the daughter attend the University of Texas at El Paso and currently live at home with their parents while attending school. When the family was asked about their overall health perception/health management they all agreed that they are in pretty good health. The father is an active military member and states that a healthy lifestyle is adamant for survival. No one in the family takes medications on a daily basis and they all rate their overall health as “good”. When the family was asked about their eating habits the children seemed to have a different style of eating......

Words: 1204 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Children’s Functional Health Pattern Assessment

...Children’s Functional Health Pattern Assessment Functional Health Pattern Assessment (FHP) | Toddler Erickson’s Developmental Stage: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt Toddlers acquire new abilities and a chance to shape self-confidence and independence. | Preschool-Aged Erickson’s Developmental Stage: Initiative vs. Guilt The longing to do what adults to creates awkward circumstances. | School-Aged Erickson’s Developmental Stage: Industry vs. Inferiority Cultivate fresh abilities and understandings, which lead to industry. | Pattern of Health Perception and Health Management: List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group. List two potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group. | 1. Are capable of distinguishing and naming few parts of the body 2. Afraid to visit hospitals. When sick, they like to be cared by everyone | 1. Have a very good idea about the human body 2. Can easily term common organs like the heart, stomach, etc. | 1. Better knowledge about human anatomy and about taking care of it. 2. Afraid of being ill | | 1. Wounds 2. Infections | 1. Are nervous about parts of the body 2. Afraid of injury and loss of life | 1. Malnourishment. 2. Infection and illness. | Nutritional-Metabolic Pattern: List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group. List two potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group. | 1. Eat only food which is......

Words: 283 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Children's Function Health Pattern Assessment

...Children’s Functional Health Pattern Assessment Functional Health Pattern Assessment (FHP) | Toddler Erickson’s Developmental Stage: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt | Preschool-Aged Erickson’s Developmental Stage: Initiative vs. Guilt | School-Aged Erickson’s Developmental Stage: Industry vs. Inferiority | Pattern of Health Perception and Health Management: List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group. List two potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group. | Toddlers have little if any understanding of health, but do perform or request to do activities such as brushing their teeth (Edelman & Mandle, 2010). Toddlers depend on their parents for health management (Edelman & Mandle, 2010). | Child is extremely curious about the body of a member of the opposite sex (Edelman & Mandle, 2010). Child contributes to health management by brushing their teeth, wearing weather appropriate clothing, taking medication, etc. (Edelman & Mandle, 2010). | Child understands an abstract definition of health and sometimes the factors that cause illness (Edelman & Mandle, 2010). Child may believe that a misdeed or misbehavior caused their illness (Edelman & Mandle, 2010). | | Toddler does not brush his or her teeth. Toddler does not try many new foods, because parents don’t eat a wide variety of foods in their diet (Edelman & Mandle,...

Words: 2993 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

Gordons Health Patterns

...Gordon's Functional Health Patterns: Family Assessment With the various detailed questions related to the health perception, M. Houston perceives her level of health as generally healthy, but with numerous unhealthy patterns. With no history of colds/flu over the last few years, she denies ever taking flu vaccines, nor has her health ever been the cause for lost work hours. A smoker of at least 33 years, she currently reports smoking approximately 10 cigarettes per day, a significantly amount less compared to previous years. Physician recommendations have been to stop smoking, but she reports this as, "not being easy but I never really tried to stop" (personal communication, Aside from the extensive smoking history, there were other health related entities to take into consideration. Weight management is a health concern where much focus was given. When obtaining information about the things that are most important for her health, maintaining a healthy weight was given highest priority second was blood pressure and cholesterol control. This was interesting because the family has a significant history for heart disease, and hypertension, both of which medications are being prescribed for. However, blood pressure and cholesterol control was not given as much priority as weight management. Since years of elementary school, teachers have instructed their students on the importance of a good night’s rest. Somehow as adults we often forget these basic principles instilled......

Words: 934 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

11 Funtional Health Pattern

...Health Promotion and the Individual CHAPTER 6 161 Box 6-1 Functional Health Patterns Assessment (Adult) Functional Health Patterns Assessment (Adult) d. Perceived ability (code for level) for: Feeding Dressing Cooking Bathing Grooming Shopping Toileting General mobility Bed mobility Home maintenance Functional Level Codes: Level 0: full self-care Level I: requires use of equipment or device Level II: requires assistance or supervision from another person Level III: requires assistance or supervision from another person and equipment or device Level IV: is dependent and does not participate 2. Examination a. Demonstrated ability (code listed above) for: Dressing Cooking Feeding Bathing Grooming Shopping Toileting General mobility b. Gait ________ Posture Absent body part? (Specify.) c. Range of motion (joints) Muscle firmness d. Hand grip Can pick up a pencil? e. Pulse (rate) (rhythm) Breath sounds f. Respirations (rate) (rhythm) Breath sounds g. Blood pressure h. General appearance (grooming, hygiene, and energy level) HEALTH PERCEPTION-HEALTH MANAGEMENT PATTERN 1. History a. How has general health been? b. Any colds in past year? When appropriate: absences from work? c. Most important things you do to keep healthy? Think these things make a difference to health? (Include family folk remedies when appropriate.) Use of cigarettes, alcohol, drugs? Breast self-examination? d. Accidents (home, work, driving)? e. In past, been easy to find ways to follow suggestions......

Words: 1023 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Children's Functional Health Assessment Pattern

...Children’s Functional Health Pattern Assessment Functional Health Pattern Assessment (FHP) | Toddler Erickson’s Developmental Stage: Autonomy vs. Shame (Edelman, Kudzma,&Mandle, 2010) | Preschool-Aged Erickson’s Developmental Stage: Initiative vs. Guilt (Edelman, Kudzma,&Mandle, 2010) | School-Aged Erickson’s Developmental Stage: Industry vs. Inferiority (Edelman, Kudzma,&Mandle, 2010) | Pattern of Health Perception and Health Management: List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group. List two potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group. | Child learns to be more independent and acquires new skills. He/she relies on the caregiver for the health management. -Choosing a toy to play with. -Not afraid to walk away from their parent | Child explores his/her interpersonal skills via initiating activities, know parts of their body. -Able to verbalize pain -Leading others | Child develops sense of pride in his/her achievements, understand the need for healthy checkups. -Know how to read and write -Confident and able to achieve goals. | | -Accidental injuries -Poor dental hygiene | -Feeling guilty for being nuisance. -Become slow in interacting with others | - Feeling of inferiority -Frequent illnesses | Nutritional-Metabolic Pattern: List two normal assessment......

Words: 1848 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Children’s Functional Health Pattern Assessment

...Functional Health Pattern Assessment Functional Health Pattern Assessment (FHP) | Toddler Erickson’s Developmental Stage: Autonomy vs. Shame/Doubt (Edelman & Mandle, 2010) | Preschool-Aged Erickson’s Developmental Stage: Initiative vs. Guilt (Edelman & Mandle, 2010) | School-Aged Erickson’s Developmental Stage: Industry vs. Inferiority. (Edelman & Mandle, 2010) | Pattern of Health Perception and Health Management: List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group. List two potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group. | They can vocalize when they are sick. Health management is dependent on caregivers. Brushing teeth and washing hands. | Preschoolers can verbalize pain and how they feel. Curiosity of their own body and its functions become present. Preschoolers tend to have more of an accurate perception of their own bodily parts and their function. They know what their bodily parts are responsible for doing. | School-age children have awareness of their bodily functions. Cultural influences may also add/give to the school-age child's perception of illness. They have more of an intellectual understanding of what health is and what can cause illness. | | No health history or screenings. Poor oral hygiene on the caregiver’s part can lead to further dental issues. Parental knowledge deficit can lead to poor......

Words: 3796 - Pages: 16

Premium Essay

Functional Health Pattern

...smoke-free homes pledge!(UMHS, 2011) Protect Infants from Environmental Tobacco Smoke and Prevent Health Hazards Caused by Second Hand Smoke Myths and Truths about Secondhand Smoke The ventilation myth My house has a good ventilation system. Opening a window or turning on a fan will clear the air of smoke, right? The Truth Unfortunately, opening a window or turning on a fan can’t completely remove the poisonous chemicals in secondhand smoke from the air. In fact, not even the most expensive air cleaning systems are able to clear the air of all poisons in secondhand smoke. The distance myth I make sure I don’t smoke in front of my kids. Smoke can’t harm my kids if they’re in another room or far enough away, right? The Truth No! When you smoke in your home or in your car, there is no safe distance between the smoke and your kids. No matter where a cigarette is smoked in your home, the entire house ends up sharing the air. The quit Myth If it’s not enough to smoke in another room, open windows, and get rid of the odor, then my only other option is to quit, right? The Truth While quitting smoking is the only way to completely protect kids from secondhand smoke in the home and car, there is another step you can take: stepping outside every time you smoke (Raisesmokefreekids, 2011) Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) OR Secondhand Smoke and the health of the infants • Environmental Tobacco smoke can cause Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, also known......

Words: 891 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Gordons Functional Health Patterns

...Gordon’s Functional Health Patterns Health perception-health management pattern – Perception of personal health & well being, & how health is managed; understanding of how health practices contribute to health status – Assess general health status & usual health behaviours • Nutrition-metabolic pattern – Patterns of food & fluid consumption relative to metabolic need; skin assessment, fluid volume, thermoregulation – Assess eating patterns, appraisal of appetite, weight loss or gain, changes in skin, hair or nails • Elimination pattern – Patterns of excretory function (bowel, bladder, skin) & patients perception of same – Assess bowel & bladder elimination habits, laxative use, excretory function of skin (eg excessive perspiration) • Activity-exercise pattern – Patterns of leisure, exercise, recreation & ADL; factors that interfere with desired or expected individual pattern – Assess mobility status, exercise routine, leisure activities, cardiovascular status • Cognitive-perceptual pattern – Adequacy of sensory modes (vision, hearing, taste, touch, smell), perceptual (pain) & cognitive functional activities – Assess cognitive function, ability to hear, see & speak, presence of pain, numbness or other sensations Rest-sleep pattern – Patterns of sleep, rest, relaxation periods, as well as quality & quantity – Assess regular sleep habits & routine • Self-perception – Self-concept pattern – Individuals attitudes about self, perception of abilities, body image, identity, general......

Words: 313 - Pages: 2