Premium Essay

China and Japan Essay

In: Historical Events

Submitted By Christy66
Words 804
Pages 4
China and Japan Essay

As oriental countries, the West often perceives China and Japan as two countries with similar politics, economics, and social norms. What many Westerners may not realize, however, is that starting in the 19th century, Japan ended its traditional isolationist policies while China sought to become isolationist, and that this distinction strongly influenced both Japan and China's political, economic, and social responses to modernization and westernization. Politically, China and Japan's reaction to Western ideas dramatically differed. When President Fillmore sent Commodore Matthew C. Perry to Japan, the ho-shogun and his advisers first resisted the visit, but finally agreed to trade with the United States upon signing the Treaty of Kanagawa in 1858. (Cohen)As a result, Western diplomats soon inundated the Land of the Rising Sun in order to persuade the nation politically, but more importantly to them, economically. The political-diplomatic, cultural-intellectual, and socio-economic relation that followed was christened the Meiji Restoration. In general, the Japanese gradually became very receptive to the concepts of democracy, liberalism, and laissez-faire, but Meiji leaders planned to remain free of Western imperialism by negotiating with Western diplomats. They did not abandon their isolationist policies of over 200 years under the Tokugawa Shogunate only to be absorbed as a European colony; instead, they wanted to learn Western military and industrialization tactics so that they could compete with Westerners politically and economically in the future. (Craig) China, however, was just the opposite. After experiencing the stresses of the Taiping Rebellion, often dubbed the world's bloodiest civil war, and then latter the horrors of the Opium Wars with Britain, China needed a political recess. They had already been deceived by the British…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Japanese Eperialism

...for Japan and Asia: One Road to Pearl Harbor” (1970)1 Introduction While the events of Pearl Harbor (1941) became “a date which will live in infamy” for the Americans, it is doubted by many if the attack was to be expected due to the rigid U.S. policy toward Japan. Crowley argues that by not acting against the 1931 Japanese intervention in Manchuria the U.S. “condemned itself to Pearl Harbor and the Pacific War”. In the perspective of the Vietnam War the aspects of Asian nationalism, the heritage of colonialism, communist ideology & national movement emerged. America’s role in Asia should be reassessed, and a better understanding of Asian racism and nationalism is needed. In this perspective Pearl Harbor will be seen as a by-product of Asian nationalism and as a conflict between an Asian country and the Occidental nationalism. As he assumes for the Japanese Pearl Harbor portrayed “a blow against the efforts of the Occidental powers to strangle Japan”. He quotes Tokutomi Sohō’s comment on the Imperial Declaration of War: “We must show the races of East Asia that order, tranquillity, peace... can be gained only by eradicating... [the Anglo-Saxons] ...and by making Nippon the leader of East Asia.” The essay of Crowley aims to help the better understanding of nationalism, colonialism, communism and imperialism in the Asian setting. The post-WW1 situation 1 Besides this essay, I relayed on the Wikipedia articles of historical events as my source. 1 The essay......

Words: 1491 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

East Asia History

...name] AK [company name] H120 Introduction to the History of East Asia Essay 3 Andy Ricci 622624 Word Count: 2018 H120 Introduction to the History of East Asia Essay 3 Andy Ricci 622624 Word Count: 2018 Why do we sometimes refer to the events of 1868 in Japan as a 'restoration', but to those of the years following 1911 in China as 'revolutions'? Introduction The Meiji Restoration of 1868 in Japan and the Chinese Revolution of 1911 were responsible for producing an enormous amount of upheaval in both countries. Both nations were immersed in social, political and economic backwardness. In this context, both political episodes should be construed as an attempt to reverse decline and set the course for modernization. The main thesis of this essay is based on the notion that whilst there are some similarities between both political events, the main difference resides in the fact that the Meiji Restoration began the centralization of the mechanisms of governance and induced the social and economic modernization of the country. At the same time, the Chinese Revolution of 1911 did not succeed in engendering a sound system of government capable of reversing the country’s decline. The first part of the essay will deal with the main characteristics of the Meiji restoration of 1868. The second section of the essay will outline the main features pertaining to the Chinese Revolution of 1911. The third part of the essay will examine the similarities and differences between these two......

Words: 2686 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Investing in East Asia

...EAS6211: Investing in East Asia (as 28 September 2015) Dr Harald CONRAD (Japan, Module Organizer) Dr ZHANG Zhong (China) MODULE OBJECTIVES: This module will introduce students to key theoretical issues relating to globalization, foreign direct investment and the activities of multinational corporations. The module will then consider in detail foreign direct investment, business culture, employment and human resource management, seen from the perspective of multinationals investing in Japan and China. The module will provide students with a well-rounded knowledge of the issues facing firms seeking to establish global networks and the managers within those firms charged with the task of running the overseas operations and managing workers in a different cultural context. The module will encourage students to think more deeply about the process of overseas investment and the challenges of managing and working in the global economy, thus equipping them with some of the key skills and knowledge required of managers in global firms. Dr Harald Conrad – Contact Details: 6/8 Shearwood Road, Room B-07 Ext: 28431 Email: h.conrad@sheffield.ac.uk Dr Zhang Zhong – Contact Details: 6/8 Shearwood Road, Room A-02 Ext: 28339 Email: zhong.zhang@sheffield.ac.uk The lecturers’ office hours will be posted on their office doors during Week 1 of Semester 1. MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS: Regular attendance is required at all lectures and seminars; students should read the...

Words: 8282 - Pages: 34

Free Essay

Sino -Japanese War

...Edward J. Drea, Hans J. van de Ven, eds. The Battle for China: Essays on the Military History of the Sino-Japanese War of 1937-1945. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2010. Illustrations, maps. 664 pp. $65.00 (cloth), ISBN 978-0-8047-6206-9. Reviewed by Roger H. Brown (Saitama University) Published on H-War (December, 2012) Commissioned by Margaret Sankey The Sino-Japanese War of 1937-45 was immense both in its scale and consequences. Nevertheless, Western military histories of World War II have focused overwhelmingly on the campaigns of the European and Pacific theaters, and those specialized studies of the conflict that do exist deal primarily with such matters as diplomacy; politics; mass mobilization; and, in more recent years, Japanese atrocities and public memory. Indeed, as the editors of the volume under review attest, “a general history of the military operations during the war based on Japanese, Chinese, and Western sources does not exist in English” (p. xix). In 2004, Japanese, Chinese, and Western scholars gathered to remedy this situation and in the belief that such a close study of the operations and strategy of the Sino-Japanese War would “illustrate that, in this period, warfare drove much of what happened in the political, economic, social, and cultural spheres in China and Japan.” They further recognized that because “much of the best scholarship on WWII in East Asia is naturally produced in China and Japan,” there was a need to “bring the fruits of......

Words: 3443 - Pages: 14

Free Essay

Japan and China's Reaction Towards Western Culture

...Joaquin Caceres AP WORLD HISTORY ESSAY: Japan & China Between the years 1750 and 1900, China and Japan had different reactions towards the influence of western culture. Both nations had movements that incorporated Western influence and had opened a few ports in order to establish a trading connection with the western economies. However, Japan avoided a military conflict and remained powerful while China didn’t accept Western influence causing a western revolution. Also, China refused to introduce foreign influence which led to many revolts and wars while Japan continued accepting this influence. Both China and Japan had movements that introduced western ideas. In Japan, the Meji restoration was based on a German model with a democratic constitution. Some of these influences were seen in their army that incorporated western technology and in the businessmen that started to use western methods. In China during the self-strengthening movement the western influence had an impact on their society. They incorporated railroads, small scale industries, arsenal factories and they improved structure in many fields. Both nations opened ports for western trade. Japan at first had a limited interaction with western people by establishing just one port for trading. Later on the Japanese government realized that this wasn’t a smart move for their economy since trade was extremely important. The Canton System was the base on which the Chinese relied on. They set strict......

Words: 446 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Effect of Tienanmen Square

...psyche Essay should focus on 3 parts: 1. Western bloc (US representing the greater part of the Western Bloc and their relations with China) a. US-China relations: i. Most dynamic – affect Japanese and China relations ii. Not a two way street iii. Defined by the actions of the present and past presidents iv. Pro-China: Mao and Kissinger v. Carter – Human Relations focused Foreign Policies 1. Didn’t apply to China to monitor reliability vi. Nixon – Carter b. Japan: vii. Nixon and Reagan found linking with Japan c. Nixon and Ford took advantage of the China-Soviet Split viii. Got out of Vietnam ix. Played the meditator d. Nixon (1968-1972) + Ford (couldn’t afford due to publicity of post-watergate) + Carter (1966-1980) + Reagan (1980 – 1988) 2. Japan e. Asian State x. L/t cultural difference xi. State in similar territory f. If Nixon assists China – peace through the US (Trade b/w Japan and the US) g. Nervous of China and US relationship h. Schultz – pro-Japan – Reagan Secretary of State 3. Soviets i. Less influential j. Less so after split k. Soviet Collapse in 1989 – made China nervous (if it happened to the Soviets, what about us?) xii. Especially of the back of Tiananmen l. Effect was more from the Soviets on China ......

Words: 275 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Ecological Footprint

...the way to deal with the human development and also preserve the natural resources. The definition of the ‘ecological footprint’ is a way of measuring our impact on the natural environment as a result of our resource use(WWF, n.d). The purpose of this essay is to find out the ecological footprint in different countries and how resources being used and give to my personal suggestions. This essay, will compare the ecological footprint between two countries, Japan which is developed country and China --- developing country. China consumes 15% of the global biocapacity, and is in the second place in the world but also has the largest population. In 2003, China’s ecological footprint was 1.6(China Ecological Footprint Report, 2012), under the global per capita average of ecological footprint. Carbon footprint occupies half of the whole ecological footprint. From the same year’s figure of The Ecological Footprint Countries (China Ecological Footprint Report, 2012), Japan 4.4 per capita is in the first of Asian countries. Japanese mountain accounted for 73% of total land area, in addition to agricultural land, one percent of the land for ninety percent of the population. It is one of the highest population densities in the world. China has built its transportation system since 1980s. With the reform and open, many Chinese people have become much richer than before. Therefore, they have changed their way of going out. People prefer motorized travel, whether public transport or......

Words: 1070 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Tesco

...Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………….…..8 * References…………………………………………………………………………………9 Introduction Tesco is a very famous supermarket and it has stores all around the world(Clark 2008). There are a lot of entry strategies for one country to enter its brand to another country, so it is sure that Tesco and entry strategies can be combined together. This essay focused on the entry strategies that Tesco used to enter Hungary more than enter other countries. This essay introduced to you a few popular entry strategies, and explained why Tesco chose a particular entry mode to enter a country among all the possible choices. It also introduced to you what kinds of strategies Tesco had used to enter Hungary. The entry strategies do not always work, it sometimes failed. This essay also discussed Tesco’s failure, and the reason why caused Tesco’s failure. In other words, this essay is about introducing the entry strategies of Tesco. To make Tesco’s entry strategies as the topic, the first thing to do is to know Tesco very well. There are so many questions about Tesco’s background, for example: Who founded Tesco? The first part of this essay is about Tesco Hungary’s background. In order to know Tesco’s entry strategies well, knowing Tesco’s background well is important. The second part is about introducing a few of popular entry strategies and the way how Tesco enter Hungary. The third part continued to introduce Tesco’s entry strategies in order to enter other......

Words: 2319 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Compare and Contrast Japanese and Western Imperialism in Asia and the Pacific

...Compare and Contrast Japanese and Western Imperialism in Asia and the Pacific 23 October 2013 at 18:10 The Japanese pursuit for an empire in South East Asia helped changed the balance of world power away from Europe, by taking their most lucrative colonies. Soon after the Japanese defeat in World War II, most of the colonies won their independence from their European masters. This essay will be arguing that despite the vast geographical distance and cultural, racial differences, as well as the different time periods involved, Japanese and European intentions were very similar, and that these similarities contributed to the weakening of Imperialism as a doctrine. To do so, this essay will be examining the reasons for the Japanese conducting policies of imperialism, when they expanded, what methods they use to expand and the systems of government. Japanese Imperialism will be compared to those of a well known European power active in the region, Britain. J.A Hobson’s seminal work Imperialism: A Study puts forward the idea of the ‘Economic Taproot of Imperialism’. A taproot is the largest root in some plants and is the plant’s primary source of nourishment. Military aggression is simply capitalist expansion. He described it as “As one nation after another enters the machine economy and adopts advanced industrial methods, it becomes more difficult for its manufacturers, merchants and finaciers to dispose profitably of their economic resources and they are tempted more and more......

Words: 3840 - Pages: 16

Free Essay

Mr.Xu

...cooperation among Asian countries is necessary for healthy economic development. Many countries try to deepen their cooperation by establishing agreement and carrying out negotiation or discussion (Kawai 2004). Besides, the East Asian countries want to have their own institutions where they have vital voice in decision making after the financial crisis. As a consequence, the regional economic integration become an inevitable trend. The structure of this essay is organized as follows. The first part of this essay will discuss the driving forces of East Asia’s regional economic integration, including the failure of the WTO and APEC, and the financial crisis. The second part will illustrate how regional organizations of East Asia are developed in aspect of trade cooperation and financial cooperation and then followed by the difficulties in creating a regional economic union, such as the resistance from the United States and the great diversity in economy and society among East Asian countries. Lastly, a brief conclusion of this essay will be introduced. According to Yip (2001), the forces for economic integration of East Asian countries can be classified into three reasons: the failure of the WTO and APEC; a widening and deepening regional integration in Europe and North American; the Asian Finance crisis. The failure to organize a new trade negotiation in WTO made many East Asian countries start to think about another way to realize trade......

Words: 2796 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

Economic Essay

...Economic Essay China has a population of approximately 1.34 billion (World Bank 2012) which has been rising at a continuous rate. Chinas economic freedom score is 51.2 this therefore makes the overall Chinese economy the 138th freest in the 2012 index (heritage 2012). During Hu Jintao’s rein China has enjoyed a substantial industrial growth becoming the 2nd largest in the world after America (BBC 2012). In order to underpin the overall economic state of China I will divide my report up into three paragraphs which are entitled: the national output, the employment/unemployment rate and the fiscal policy. To address national output I will look at the subheading under two separate measures. Starting with Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Which in 2011 it was $7.30 trillion (World Bank 2012). The second measure is Gross National Product (GNP), this figure stands at $11.36 trillion (World Bank 2012). The GNP figure suggests that the Chinese population are very wealthy and the GDP figure suggests that the overall country is very prosperous. These figures can be compared to Japan which holds the third highest ranking. Japans GDP figure is $5.86 trillion whilst its GNP figure is $4.54 trillion. (World Bank 2012) The employment rate is measured by the percentage of the population that are in employment. It is usually contrasted against the countries unemployment rate which is the percentage of a population that is out of work. For China the unemployment rate is 4.1% (China......

Words: 834 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Aaaa

...LANG371 – MAJOR ESSAY Sino-Japanese Territorial Dispute & The Media An examination of how the media portrays the dispute between Japan and China over the sovereignty of the Senkaku Islands. Chelsea Fraser 3647213   In what is seen as the most volatile issue in Sino-Japanese relations at the present time, the dispute over ownership of a group of islands in the East China Sea continues. The islands, known as the Senkaku Islands in Japanese and the Diaoyu in Chinese are central to a territorial dispute between Japan and the People’s Republic of China. The archipelago contains five uninhabited islands and 3 barren rocks. Interestingly, neither China nor Japan are pursuing sovereignty of the islands for the land but rather for the territorial waters that are contained within the area. These waters are not only a major fishing area, but a 1969 report by The United Nations Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East speculates that there may be untapped oil reserves under the surface. The Japanese Government’s is view that the Senkaku Islands are “clearly an inherent territory of Japan, in light of historical facts and based upon international law,” and the Senkaku Islands “are under the valid control of Japan”. With access to information at the click of a mouse, the world’s media plays a critical role in influencing the debate surrounding the sovereignty of the islands. This report will examine news articles from Japan, China and abroad in order to ...

Words: 1130 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

How Has Confucianism Influenced Modern Economic Development in East Asia

...followed by China, has given rise to the spectrum of a distinctly East Asian economic development model. The pioneering economic success of in particular, Singapore, South Korea and Japan since the 1970’s has highlighted the need to evaluate and distinguish how such economies achieved such successive growth. A variety of possible factors can explain or highlight possibilities for the successive development of East Asia. A particularly unique factor that has to be taken into account is Confucianism. The interplay between culture and development can help explain how in particular Japan and South Korea, which were relatively closed societies, have risen to attain the status of newly industrialized countries. This essay will investigate and evaluate, through the presentation of arguments and examples, the extent to which Confucianism has influenced modern economic development in East Asia. This will be achieved by firstly providing a working definition of Confucianism; then locating its positive impact within a broader debate concerning a distinctly Asian development model; investigating and analyzing the challenges presented by Confucianism in the economic development of East Asia; evaluating both the negative and positive implications of Confucianism in East Asian economies and finally assessing to what extent Confucianism has played a role in the development of East Asia’s economies. Confucianism attained its name from Confucius, who was a scholar, in Eastern China......

Words: 1810 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Gend 110 Paper

...Migration by Japan on the Chinese Society Introduction The Sino-Japanese Wars were the largest wars in the Asian battlefield during the World War II. The Sino-Japanese Wars were conflicts between China and Japan in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. There were two Sino-Japanese Wars: the first one lasted from July 1894 to April 1895; the Second one, which was known in China as the war of resistance against Japan, lasted from the outbreak of the fighting on 7 July 1937 to 14 August 1945—although recent Chinese historiography tends to date the war from the Japanese occupation of Manchuria in 1931. Both wars were crucial in the formation and ultimate defeat of Japanese imperial expansion in East Asia and in the development of a sense of Chinese nationalism. Although the Sino-Japanese Wars were end in 1945 with the victory of China, it made up more than 50% of the casualties in the Pacific War if the 1937–1941 periods are taken into account. The impacts of invasion and migration by Japan on Chinese society are various. This essay will present these impacts on three aspects, which are politics, economy and culture. The Impacts on the Chinese Politics During the invasion and migration of Japan, Sino-Japanese War broke the confrontation between pre-war China's major political parties and other parties. As the Japanese attempt to monopolize China and launch a comprehensive war against China, it made a fundamental change among the class relations in China; the......

Words: 1229 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Early and Late Industrialisation

...describe two main types of national businesses that existing in developed and developing countries, which explains the key institutional and organizational differences among countries in particular to some extend. Each country has fallowed different pathway and carried out their industrialization in different period. It is known that the UK is the first country that achieved early industrialization revolution, which was followed by the US. And then in the late twentieth century, Germany, Japan and China implemented their industrialization process with dramatic change on their economic performance. The purpose of this essay is to use the conception of ‘early’ and ‘late’ industrialization to explain the key institutional and organizational characteristics of national business systems by comparative perspective. First of all, the theories of industrialization will be displayed. Then this paper will concentrate on five main comparative countries, which are United States, Japan, Britain, Germany and China, to clarify major differences of national business systems. Moreover, further implications and debates upon these countries long-term national competitiveness will be given to assess the effectiveness of industrialization. Theories of ‘early’ and ‘late’ industrialization The UK was regarded as the pioneer that initially experienced early industrialization in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, which shifted its national economic structure from agricultural to industrial......

Words: 5330 - Pages: 22