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China Unique Thinking

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勸學篇荀子
君子曰:學不可以已。青、取之於藍,而青於藍;冰、水為之,而寒於水。木直中繩,輮以為輪,其曲中規,雖有槁暴,不復挺者,輮使之然也。故木受繩則直,金就礪則利,君子博學而日參省乎己,則知明而行無過矣。

故不登高山,不知天之高也;不臨深溪,不知地之厚也;不聞先王之遺言,不知學問之大也。幹、越、夷、貉之子,生而同聲,長而異俗,教使之然也。詩曰:"嗟爾君子,無恆安息。靖共爾位,好是正直。神之聽之,介爾景福。"神莫大於化道,福莫長於無禍。

吾嘗終日而思矣,不如須臾之所學也。吾嘗跂而望矣,不如登高之博見也。登高而招,臂非加長也,而見者遠;順風而呼,聲非加疾也,而聞者彰。假輿馬者,非利足也,而致千里;假舟楫者,非能水也,而絕江河。君子生非異也,善假於物也。

南方有鳥焉,名曰蒙鳩,以羽為巢,而編之以發,系之葦苕,風至苕折,卵破子死。巢非不完也,所繫者然也。西方有木焉,名曰射干,莖長四寸,生於高山之上,而臨百仞之淵,木莖非能長也,所立者然也。蓬生麻中,不扶而直;白沙在涅,與之俱黑。蘭槐之根是為芷,其漸之滫,君子不近,庶人不服。其質非不美也,所漸者然也。故君子居必擇鄉,遊必就士,所以防邪闢而近中正也。

物類之起,必有所始。榮辱之來,必像其德。肉腐出蟲,魚枯生蠹。怠慢忘身,禍災乃作。強自取柱,柔自取束。邪穢在身,怨之所構。施薪若一,火就燥也,平地若一,水就濕也。草木疇生,禽獸群焉,物各從其類也。是故質的張,而弓矢至焉;林木茂,而斧斤至焉;樹成蔭,而眾鳥息焉。醯酸,而蚋聚焉。故言有招禍也,行有招辱也,君子慎其所立乎!

積土成山,風雨興焉;積水成淵,蛟龍生焉;積善成德,而神明自得,聖心備焉。故不積蹞步,無以致千里;不積小流,無以成江海。騏驥一躍,不能十步;駑馬十駕,功在不捨。鍥而捨之,朽木不折;鍥而不捨,金石可鏤。螾無爪牙之利,筋骨之強,上食埃土,下飲黃泉,用心一也。蟹八跪而二螯,非蛇蟺之穴,無可寄託者,用心躁也。是故無冥冥之志者,無昭昭之明;無惛惛之事者,無赫赫之功。行衢道者不至,事兩君者不容。目不能兩視而明,耳不能兩聽而聰。螣蛇無足而飛,梧鼠五技而窮。詩曰:"屍鳩在桑,其子七兮。淑人君子,其儀一兮。其儀一兮,心如結兮。"故君子結於一也。

昔者瓠巴鼓瑟,而流魚出聽;伯牙鼓琴,而六馬仰秣。故聲無小而不聞,行無隱而不形。玉在山而草木潤,淵生珠而崖不枯。為善不積邪,安有不聞者乎!

學惡乎始?惡乎終?曰:其數則始乎誦經,終乎讀禮;其義則始乎為士,終乎為聖人。真積力久則入。學至乎沒而後止也。故學數有終,若其義則不可須臾舍也。為之人也,舍之禽獸也。故書者、政事之紀也;詩者、中聲之所止也;禮者、法之大兮,類之綱紀也。故學至乎禮而止矣。夫是之謂道德之極。禮之敬文也,樂之中和也,詩書之博也,春秋之微也,在天地之間者畢矣。
君子之學也,入乎耳,著乎心,布乎四體,形乎動靜。端而言,蝡而動,一可以為法則。小人之學也,入乎耳,出乎口;口耳之間,則四寸耳,曷足以美七尺之軀哉!古之學者為己,今之學者為人。君子之學也,以美其身;小人之學也,以為禽犢。故不問而告謂之傲,問一而告二謂之囋。傲、非也,囋、非也;君子如向矣。

學莫便乎近其人。禮樂法而不說,詩書故而不切,春秋約而不速。方其人之習君子之說,則尊以遍矣,周於世矣。故曰:學莫便乎近其人。

學之經莫速乎好其人,隆禮次之。上不能好其人,下不能隆禮,安特將學雜識志,順詩書而已耳。則末世窮年,不免為陋儒而已。將原先王,本仁義,則禮正其經緯蹊徑也。若挈裘領,詘五指而頓之,順者不可勝數也。不道禮憲,以詩書為之,譬之猶以指測河也,以戈舂黍也,以錐餐壺也,不可以得之矣。故隆禮,雖未明,法士也;不隆禮,雖察辯,散儒也。

問楛者,勿告也;告楛者,勿問也;說楛者,勿聽也。有爭氣者,勿與辯也。故必由其道至,然後接之;非其道則避之。故禮恭,而後可與言道之方;辭順,而後可與言道之理;色從而後可與言道之致。故未可與言而言,謂之傲;可與言而不言,謂之隱;不觀氣色而言,謂瞽。故君子不傲、不隱、不瞽,謹順其身。詩曰:"匪交匪舒,天子所予。"此之謂也。

百發失一,不足謂善射;千里蹞步不至,不足謂善禦;倫類不通,仁義不一,不足謂善學。學也者,固學一之也。一出焉,一入焉,塗巷之人也;其善者少,不善者多,桀紂盜蹠也;全之盡之,然後學者也。

君子知夫不全不粹之不足以為美也,故誦數以貫之,思索以通之,為其人以處之,除其害者以持養之。使目非是無欲見也,使口非是無欲言也,使心非是無欲慮也。及至其致好之也,目好之五色,耳好之五聲,口好之五味,心利之有天下。是故權利不能傾也,群眾不能移也,天下不能盪也。生乎由是,死乎由是,夫是之謂德操。德操然後能定,能定然後能應。能定能應,夫是之謂成人。天見其明,地見其光,君子貴其全也。

荀子《勸學篇》翻譯
[第一部分闡明學習可以使人增長知識才幹,修養品性,全身遠禍。]

君子說:學習是不可以停止的。靛青,是從藍草中提取的,卻比藍草的顏色還要青;冰,是水凝固而成的,卻比水還要寒冷。木材筆直,合乎墨線,(如果)它把烤彎煨成車輪,(那麼)木材的彎度(就)合乎圓的標準了,即使再乾枯了,(木材)也不會再挺直,是因為經過加工,使它成為這樣的。所以木材經過墨線量過就能取直,刀劍等金屬製品在磨刀石上磨過就能變得鋒利,君子廣泛地學習,而且每天檢查反省自己,那麼他就會聰明多智,而行為就不會有過錯了。

所以,不登上高山,就不知天多麼高;不面臨深澗,就不知道地多麼厚;不懂得先代帝王的遺教,就不知道學問的博大。幹、越、夷、貉之人,剛生下來啼哭的聲音是一樣的,而長大後風俗習慣卻不相同,這是教育使之如此。《詩》上說:"你這個君子啊,不要老是想著安逸。認真對待你的本職,愛好正直的德行。神明聽到這一切,就會賜給你巨大的幸福。"精神修養沒有比受道德薰陶感染更大了,福分沒有比無災無禍更長遠了。

我曾經整天思索,(卻)不如片刻學到的知識(多);我曾經踮起腳遠望,(卻)不如登到高處看得廣闊。登到高處招手,胳臂沒有比原來加長,可是別人在遠處也看見;順著風呼叫,聲音沒有比原來加大,可是聽的人聽得很清楚。借助車馬的人,並不是腳走得快,卻可以行千里,借助舟船的人,並不是能游水,卻可以橫渡江河。君子的本性跟一般人沒什麼不同,(只是君子)善於借助外物罷了。

南方有一種叫"蒙鳩"的鳥,用羽毛編織作窩,系在嫩蘆葦上,風一吹就墜落了,鳥蛋全部摔爛。不是窩沒編好,而是不該系在蘆葦上面。西方有種叫"射干"的草,只有四寸高,卻能俯瞰百里之遙,不是草能長高,而是因為它長在了高山之巔。蓬草長在麻地裡,不用扶持也能挺立住,白沙混進了黑土裡,就再不能變白了,蘭槐的根叫香艾,一但浸入臭水裡,君子下人都會避之不及,不是艾本身不香,而是被浸泡臭了。所以君子居住要選擇好的環境,交友要選擇有道德的人,才能夠防微杜漸保其中庸正直。

事情的發生都是有起因的,榮辱的降臨也與德行相應。肉腐了生蛆,木朽了生蟲,忘記做人準則就會招禍。太堅硬物體易斷裂,太柔弱了又會自身束縛,與人不善會惹來怨恨,乾柴易燃,低窪易濕,草木叢生,野獸成群,萬物皆以類聚。所以靶子設置好了就會射來弓箭,樹長成了森林就會引來斧頭砍伐,樹林繁茂蔭涼眾鳥就會來投宿,醋變酸了就會惹來蚊蟲,所以言語可能招禍,行為可能受辱,君子為人處世不能不保持謹慎。
[第二部分闡明正確的學習態度是專心致志,持之以恆。]

堆積土石成了高山,風雨就從這兒興起了;匯積水流成為深淵,蛟龍就從這兒產生了;積累善行養成高尚的品德,那麼就會達高度的智慧,也就具有了聖人的精神境界。所以不積累一步半步的行程,就沒有辦法達到千里之遠;不積累細小的流水,就沒有辦法彙成江河大海。駿馬一跨躍,也不足十步遠;劣馬拉車走十天,(也能走得很遠,)它的成功就在於不停地走。(如果)刻幾下就停下來了,(那麼)腐爛的木頭也刻不斷。(如果)不停地刻下去,(那麼)金石也能雕刻成功。蚯蚓沒有銳利的爪子和牙齒,強鍵的筋骨,卻能向上吃到泥土,向下可以喝到泉水,這是由於它用心專一啊。螃蟹有八隻腳,兩隻大爪子,(但是)如果沒有蛇、蟮的洞穴它就無處存身,這是因為它用心浮躁啊。因此沒有刻苦鑽研的心志,學習上就不會有顯著成績;沒有埋頭苦幹的實踐,事業上就不會有巨大成就。在歧路上行走達不到目的地,同時事奉兩個君主的人,兩方都不會容忍他。眼睛不能同時看兩樣東西而看明白,耳朵不能同時聽兩種聲音而聽清楚。螣蛇沒有腳但能騰空飛起,鼫鼠有五種本領卻還是沒有辦法生存。《詩》上說:"布穀鳥築巢在桑樹上,它餵養七隻幼鳥也能有條不紊。善良的君子們,行為要專一不偏邪。行為專一不偏邪,意志才會如磐石堅。"所以正人君子的意志必須始終堅定專一。

古有瓠巴彈瑟,水中魚兒也浮出水面傾聽,伯牙彈琴,拉車的馬會停食仰頭而聽。所以聲音不會因為微弱而不被聽見,行為不會因為隱秘而不被發現。寶玉埋在深山,草木就會很滋潤,珍珠掉進深淵,崖岸就不會乾枯。行善也可以積累,哪有積善成德而不被廣為傳誦的呢!
[第三部分闡明學習的主要內容是《詩》、《書》、《禮》、《樂》、《春秋》等儒家著作,學習時應善於向賢者求教,並善於教人。]

學習究竟應從何入手又從何結束呢?答:按其途徑而言,應該從《尚書》入手到《禮經》結束;就其意義而言,則從做書生入手到成為聖人結束。長期積累才能深入探究出其中的奧秘,學到死方能後已。所以學習的教程雖有盡頭,但進取之願望卻不可以有片刻的懈怠。畢生好學才成其為人,反之又與禽獸何異?《尚書》是政事的記錄;《詩經》是心聲之歸結;《禮經》是法制的前提、各種條例的總綱,所以要學到《禮經》才算畢業,才算達到了道德之頂峰。《禮經》敬重禮儀,《詩經》《尚書》博大廣闊,《春秋》微言大義,它們已經將天地間的大學問都囊括其中了。

君子學習,要聽在耳裡,記在心裡。傾注全部的心血,表現在一言一行,哪怕是極細微的言行,都可以垂範於人。小人學習是從耳聽從嘴出,相距不過四寸而已,怎麼能夠完美於他的七尺之驅呢?古人學習是自身的需求,現在的人學習則只是為了炫耀於人。君子學習是為了完善自我,小人學習是為了賣弄和譁眾取寵。所以,沒人求教你而去教導別人叫做浮躁;問一答二的叫羅嗦;浮躁羅嗦都是不對的,君子答問應象空穀回音一般,不多不少、恰到好處。

學習沒有比親近良師更便捷的了。《禮經》《樂經》有法度但嫌疏略;《詩經》《尚書》古樸但遠離現實;《春秋》簡略但不夠周詳;仿效良師學習君子學問,既崇高又全面,還可以通達世理。所以說學習沒有比親近良師更便捷的了。

崇敬良師是最便捷的學習途徑,其次那就是崇尚禮儀了。若上不崇師,下不尚禮,僅讀些雜書,解釋一下《詩經》《尚書》之類,那麼充其量不過是一介淺陋的書生而已。要窮究聖人的智慧,尋求仁義的根本,只有學習禮儀才能做到。就像提起皮袍的領子,用五指梳理皮毛一樣順理成章。如果不究禮法,僅憑《詩經》《尚書》去辦事情,就如同用手指測量河水,用戈矛舂黍米,用錐子紮銅壺一樣是費力不討好的。所以,崇尚禮儀,即使不太透徹,也算是禮儀之士;不尚禮儀,即使聰穎善辯,也不過是一介散漫不羈的書生而已。

如果有人前來向你請教不合禮法之事,不要答理;前來傳播不合禮法之事,別去追問;在你面前評論不合禮法之事,不要參與;態度野蠻的,別與他爭執。所以,一定要是合乎道的標準,才給予禮遇;不按道的標準,就迴避他;因此,對於恭敬有禮的人,才可與之談道的宗旨;對於言辭和順的人,才可與之談道的內容;有明顯感應的人,才可與之論及道的精深極致。所以,跟不可與之交談的交談,那叫做浮躁;跟可與交談的不談那叫怠慢;不看對方回應只顧滔滔不絕長談的叫盲目。因此,君子不可浮躁,也不可怠慢,更不可盲目,要謹慎地對待每位前來求教的人。《詩經》說:"不浮躁不怠慢才是天子所感激的。"說的就是這回事。

[第四部分闡明學習的最高目標是善始善終,達到全面純粹的境界。]
射出的百支箭中有一支不中靶,就不能算是善射;從千里之外駕馭車馬只差半步卻停下了,這也不能算是善駕;對各類事物不能融會貫通、對仁義不能堅守如一、當然不能算是善學。學習本是件很需要專心至致的事情,學一陣又停一陣那是小人才犯的低級錯誤。塗巷之人中間好的少,壞的多,像桀、紂、拓就是屬於這一類型的人,能夠全面徹底地把握所學的知識,才算得上是個學者。

我們已經知道了學得不全不精就不算是完美,所以要常用朗讀和訓釋去融會貫通,用思考和探索去理解,用尋師訪友來把握,從而達到排除所有乾擾去潛心修煉。使眼不再看不該看的、耳不再聽不該聽的,嘴不再說不該說的,心不再想不該想的,以達到完全醉心於學習的理想境地。如同眼好五色,耳好五聲,嘴好五味那樣,一門心思就只想著如何造福天下。如果做到了這般地步,那麼,在權利私慾面前你就不會有邪念,人多勢眾你也不會屈服的,天下萬物都不能動搖你的信念。活著是如此,到死也不變。這就叫做有德行、有操守。有德行和操守,才能做到堅定不移,有堅定不移然後才有隨機應變。能做到堅定不移和隨機應變,那就是完美的人生了。到那時上天會為你顯現它的光明,大地會為你顯現它的廣闊,君子最應該珍惜的就是自身德行的完美了。

荀子生平
荀卿(約周郝王二年313BC-秦始皇九年235BC),名況,字卿,趙國郇邑(今山西臨猗、解縣一帶)人,戰國後期著名思想家、教育家,人稱荀子。漢朝人避宣帝諱,又稱其為孫卿。他從小就非常聰明,十歲時就被人稱做神童。關於荀子的記載很少,而且頗有出入。荀子是繼孔子、孟子以後最大的儒學的,並把法家思想注入儒學之中。他的思想集中體現同《荀子》一書中,對中國兩千多年的封建社會產生了廣泛而深遠的影響。
荀子曾經遊歷燕國,可惜卻沒有受到燕王的賞識,更沒有受到重用,及後荀卿遊學齊稜下學宮,後來勸諫齊閔王無效,離齊到楚。齊襄王(283BC-265BC在位)時,回到新恢復的稷下學宮,因德高望重,他在齊國非常受到齊王的尊敬,學問淵博而三次被推為祭酒,也被封為「列大夫」,故荀子便在齊國學宮著書議論,可惜最後因為遭到其他人嫉妒而被迫離開齊國。荀子便開始奔走於列國,大約在秦昭襄王四十四年(266BC)應聘至秦,對秦王講大儒「勢在人上,則王公之材也;在人下,則社稷之臣、國君之寶也」。對秦相范睢稱,秦國百姓樸實,百吏肅然,佚而治,約而祥,不煩而動,是治世的典範。回齊多年後被人讒害,又離齊赴楚。春申君用他為蘭陵(今山東蒼山縣蘭陵鎮)令。因讒言被春申君辭謝後,荀卿赴趙。趙孝成王以他為上卿,荀卿對趙孝成王講,「善附民者是乃善用兵者也」。幾年後,回楚國,重任蘭陵令。楚考烈王二十五年(238BC),春申君被殺,荀卿被免官,這時候的他已經是位八十多歲的白髮老人,他再也沒有精力去遊歷四方,後家居蘭陵至死。
在蘭陵時荀子開始教書與寫書,有名的韓非和李斯就是他這時候的學生,他也在這段時間完成他的代表作品-《荀子》一書。荀子雖是儒家之繼承人,但他並沒有盲目地將儒家學說全盤接收。反之,荀子將儒家學說融會貫通、加以發揮,提出了「性本惡」等影響後世深遠的學說。
荀子學說大要
荀卿的思想,凝聚於《荀子》一書中。經西漢末年劉向校定,該書共三十二篇,除《大略》、《宥坐》、《子道》、《法行》、《哀公》、《堯問》為弟子所述外,其餘都是荀子自著。荀卿不滿世道和學術的混亂,他要通過對諸子的批判,發揚儒家的思想和精神。荀子是具有開拓性的大思想家,他在對戰國以來諸子百家進行全面總結的基礎上,建立了自己的思想體系。
宇宙觀
荀子的天論
荀子的天論極為特出,我們可以說從儒家重視人文化成的方向而言,這似乎是一個可以理解的理論發展方向,然而也因此,更遠離了人性中必須有道德主體性的理論型態。
明於天人之分
天有特出常規的變化,但沒有目的性,故而人民不需要恐懼。天體運行有自己的常規,這種規律是客觀存在的,它不依人的意志為轉移。人世之治亂現象,是為政者的傑作,不是天之所為,所以治亂勿求於天,而應求諸人「天行有常,不為堯存,不為桀亡,應之以治則吉,應之以亂則凶。」《天論篇》他反對把天看作是有意識的主宰,也反對天能幹預人事的天命論的思想,主張「明於天人之分」。
宗教
在上位者的宗教性祈天活動只是人事禮儀,有教化風俗之目的,並非真有一有人格意志的天之在上得以應允所求。對於自然的怪像與亂象,人類並沒有要求改變的管道。祭祀因而沒有根本的崇高意義,只是一套活動形式而已,孔孟對祭祀的尊重精神已不復見。在孔孟哲學中仍保存的遠古的天信仰,在荀子的體系中已無存在的地位。
戡天役物
而天是「不見其事而見其功」,是「無形」,千萬不要向天要求什麼,它只是存在,而決不能成為任何行動的對象。且天地自有其常道常數,且完全與人之好惡無關,「君子道其常,而小人計其功。」《天論篇》君子所重者,在體此常道常數,戡天役物制天而用之,小人卻緊緊地計算自己作了多少好事能得多少報賞,顯見荀子已明白地劃開了天人關係,天人各有其常,人性論的問題也不用向天尋求保證了。
故此人的生存命運完全掌握在自己的手中,「故水旱不能使之飢,寒暑不能使之疾,祅怪不能使之凶。」所以荀子的學說具有冷靜的科學精神,毫無迷信色彩。
天有其常
是故天有天職,人不能爭,人有人治,是所以參,不務於人,而務於天,是則惑矣。天有其常,在象在宜在數在知,人知此常以用天,這是荀子冷靜的態度。故有「明於天人之分,則可謂至人矣。」君子與小人之別在於求之於己或求之於天,求於己者,日有所進,求於天者,日有所退,此一為君子一為小人之關鍵。
荀子此說,完全由人獨立地撐起存在的實在意義,天完全是客觀的存在,人的生活目標完全來自於自己,人的生存意義也不是由天的安排與保護下才有的,這是一個絕對的人本主義宣言。
是以,荀子的最大貢獻是提出「天人相分」、「天行有常」和「制天命而用之」的思想且認為天與人各有自己的職分、特點,因此不能互相代替。天是自然的,沒有意識,但人卻有思想、有目的、有意識。因此在天人關係上,荀子主張「制天命而用之」,即主張在自然介面前,發揮人的主觀能動性,掌握並運用規律為人類造福。荀子的這一思想,是中國歷史上最早出現的「人勝天論」思想。
然而,荀子之說仍自成一格,前後一致,而其所以為儒者之地位,仍在荀子書中及其生平中有其地位。
倫理觀
這裏將處理荀子的人性理論,嘗試釐清其理論內涵及與其他荀子學說的關係,以作為儒學人性論發展脈絡中一個重要關節的打通。
「性惡論」
就人性論而言,荀子建立了普遍的人性理論,性惡,而且針對孟子道性善作直接的批評,他的性惡論如何建立,是後學需要討論的主題,對於這樣的人性理論的理論合法性及影響面,後學亦應重視。
本論
荀子建立性惡論有兩個步驟,首先,定義出性的本義為何,其次,從人事情狀的諸多面向中建立「人之為惡乃其性也」的理論命題。以下先論性的定義;荀子認為自然界與人類各有其職分,天是物質的客觀的,人是社會的能動的,人要發揮能動作用,制天命而用之。荀子的性的定義是由性偽之分中說明的,荀卿批判孟子的性善論,認為「人之性惡,其善者偽也。今人之性,生而有好利焉,順是,故爭奪生而辭讓亡焉;生而有疾惡焉,順是,故殘賊生而忠信亡焉;生而有耳目之欲,有好聲色焉,順是,故淫亂生而禮義文理亡焉。然則從人之性,順人之情,必出於爭奪,合於犯分亂理而歸於暴。故必將有師法之化,禮義之道,然後出於辭讓,合於文理,而歸於治。用此觀之,然則,人之性惡,明矣。其善者偽也。」《性惡篇》即人天生便自然有為惡的本性。
化性起偽
「性」是不能學習而得也不能操作而得的,反之,可學可事者為「偽」。此一定義本極清處,也易於為人接受。問題是出在對於何者「能」何者「不能」,以及何者「事」何者「不事」之決定觀點上。故認為人的本性是惡,所謂善都是人為(偽)的。人們在後天環境的陶冶下,通過主觀的學習和修養,可以化惡性為善德,形成高尚的道德人格。這就是「化性起偽」。
性偽
而荀子在《性惡篇》亦言「若夫目好色,耳好聲,口好味,心好利,骨體膚理好愉佚,是皆生於人之情性者也,感而自然,不待事而後生之者也。夫感而不能然,必且待事而後然者,謂之生於偽。是性偽之所生,其不同之徵也。」說明瞭人的欲望是性偽。
禮義教化
荀子認為人之出於治及合於善者,都是在聖人以禮義教化之後才有的,荀子又以比喻的方式說明他的理論,若以樹木之曲直為例,則直者不用矯正,而本來就直,但曲者卻需矯正才得為直,今人需聖王教化才為善,故其性非善者明矣,故性惡焉。以此說為性惡之另一論證,是以需矯正後為善之事實說明性之為惡者。
聖人固得人之先以倡禮義於前
但如果有人以聖人為例,說聖人能以禮義為標的,自動學習,故禮義是聖人自生者,故有聖人為性善者之說以駁荀子,則荀子的回答是:聖人固得人之先以倡禮義於前,然而禮義與聖人的關係還是聖人外在地將禮義作出來的,禮義仍非聖人之性中自有者。這種將禮義當作外在修飾的概念規定,便將人性的內涵與禮義的內涵永遠不能同一,於是人性的內涵只好另途它求,而衡諸現實中眾人為惡的現象,則人性的內涵為性惡便不得不然了。
人欲為善也正是性惡的證明
荀子以概念的分析方式辯稱,人欲為善也正是性惡的證明「凡人之欲為善者,為性惡也。夫薄願厚,惡願美,狹願廣,貧願富,賤願貴。苟無之中者,必求於外;故富而不願財,貴而不願埶;苟有之中者,必不及於外。用此觀之,人之欲為善者,為性惡也。今人之性固無禮義,故彊學而求有之也;性不知禮義,故思慮而求知之也。然則生而已,則人無禮義,不知禮義。人無禮義則亂,不知禮義則悖。然則生而已,則悖亂在已。用此觀之,人之性惡明矣。」《性惡篇》
人需要聖王用禮義,則證人性為惡者,因如無聖王禮義之作,則民亂之矣,故性惡明矣。若民性惡,則需由聖人制禮義,否則為亂的前提就算為真,也不能由聖人確實制禮義的事實,反證民之性惡。不過,正由聖人與禮義的重要關連性,使我們找到兩條重要的討論脈絡,一為聖人論,一為禮義的思路,聖人論後文再述,由荀子重禮義的現象,可以讓我們對先秦儒學的幾個大家的思想,建立檢別的分析脈絡,也正是檢討荀子強調要主張性惡論的心理來源問題的重要線索。
如果荀子永遠只守在這樣的說明脈絡下來界定他的性偽之分的話,那麼此性仍是自然本能中之性,其與善惡之價值判斷無關,然而荀子倡性惡明矣,因此對於何為性能中事者,必另有其特別的規定在,使其得以合法地說性為惡說善為偽。
性惡說與重禮義的關係
隆禮重法
荀子從「性惡論」出發,提出「隆禮重法」的主張,大講「禮」、「法」的重要。他在一定程度上看到了社會物質生活與社會政治制度的關係,認為人生來都有物質慾望要求,如果這種慾望要求沒有限制,就會發生爭奪,造成社會混亂。為了防止爭奪和混亂,就要建立「禮儀」、「法度」等社會制度和社會規範。他更強調重禮來矯正人性是最有效的方法,成為處理「仁」,執行「義」時不可缺少的東西。
社會禮制
荀子的性惡說皆從禮義上立論,這才正是孔孟荀言人性論差異的關鍵,然而荀子重視的是具體的社會禮制,荀子一書討論的都是具體的政治社會建構的問題,因此對於人性論的討論,並不以之為社會禮儀的主觀主角,社會禮儀自有其客觀確立的內涵,社會建設也自有其客觀努力的事業需待進行,這才是荀子用心的理論世界,因此,以禮義為第一序的思考脈絡下,人性便正是禮義要對治的對象,在禮義優位的理論脈絡上,人性自然是惡的,孔子言仁,孟子言仁義內在,荀子重客觀的禮,這才是造成人性論差異的心理因素,如果從此一運思心靈出發,將有助於理解諸說的源起,當然,這不能作為諸說的證明,甚至否證。至於性惡說的理論根據,則要從聖人論中去尋找,因為對治性惡的禮義,正是由聖人制定者。
禮義的來源與理據
聖人論荀子性惡論出,留下了重要的問題,要由聖人的理論來解決,那就是禮義的來源與理據的問題,荀子的處理就是以禮義乃由聖人之制定者,這說出了來源的問題,禮義是聖人之制者。又由於人性是惡,禮義非人性中事,故而禮義之作是起偽之事。由是之說,其實已可隱見聖人之性的解說了。聖人之制禮義是起偽,偽者非本真,是故亦非聖人之本真,禮義亦非聖人之性者。
性之善惡
在性的層次上,聖人亦與人同,這是符合荀子對性的定義的,性之善惡本就是普遍性的命題,聖人本應與人同,只是聖人能制禮義的來源又為何呢?聖人能夠異於眾人的是這個偽的工程,聖人如何能先於眾人而有這個偽的知能呢?這裏有兩個不同層次的基礎在支持聖人的制禮義,一為聖人發出大清明心把禮義的內容理解清楚,二為聖人透過自己的努力把禮義的言行實踐在自己身上。
心有否價值判斷能力
發動大清明心之後可以制禮義,「經緯天地而材官萬物,制割大理,而宇宙裏矣。」,聖人發動這個心則可以做制禮義的工程,那麼這個心有否價值判斷能力呢?有,但是不是以道德心為之,而只是虛一而靜的清明心而已,它只是虛心容受萬物,在道德主動性上,此心沒有決定性、方向性、主動性、內容性,最通澈的心只為大清明心,大清明心是開通、容眾、冷靜的「虛壹而靜」,此心可定禮義是以其客觀現實之解析能力上的清明,而非以其道德價值之選擇意志上的決斷,所以,能讓荀子的聖人製作禮義的決定力量,仍是外在的需求,而非主觀的要求,主觀的能動力量只出現在客觀分析之後的積健之努力上,即制出禮義之後的勉力行之之上。
性不是善的,禮義的制定也不依賴善的意志,而只依據清醒的分析頭腦,這樣的理論脈絡,是極為符合荀子的性惡之預設的,但是我們總要逼問禮義的來源的問題,就是要把道德性的目的因素凸顯,看看到底在哪個位階上,荀子終於必須祭出道德主動性,以作為理論體系的根據,因為這是孔子之仁,孟子之仁義內在,易傳中庸之德性天道觀一致的方向,從先秦儒家的立論中,道德意志的主動性都在理論體系之中,難道荀子獨能免於?然而,荀子將禮義推給聖人之制之後,聖人卻不是以道德心制禮義,因此,禮義的目的性又不能從聖人的人性論中成為第一序的主動力量,而予提出者,那麼聖人制禮義的目的性何在?只要找出這個目的性,就可以解決這個問題,處理這個問題也有兩個方向,一為聖人以知能得禮義,
教育理論
關於荀子的教育理論,起於性惡論,故人必須受教,其方法見於《荀子‧勸學》中的「積跬步﹐無以至千里﹔不積小流﹐無以成江海。」意即為為學要「積」和「專一」。
「積」和「專一」
學習要有信心,有決心,但必須從點滴學起,通過一點一滴的漸次積累,才能形成知識才幹,才能有所成就。這就是荀子在《勸學》中曰:「不積跬步,無以至千里。不積小流,無以成江海。」意思是說,不積累一步半步,就不能到達千里之遠﹔不彙聚涓涓細流,就不能形成長江大海。古人稱人走路,舉足一次為"跬",舉足兩次為"步","跬"就是半步。
學習是一件長期艱苦的事,在某種程度上可以看作是一個水滴石穿的過程,每一個有志於學習的人都應該有這樣的思想準備。荀子說﹕「騏驥一躍,不能十步。」先天條件優越如千里馬,也不可能一躍而致千里。任何人對於學習,都不能寄幻想於"一造而盡獲"而應該像朱熹所說的"銖積寸累做將去"(《朱子語類》)。
重師法
且荀子重師法,因有師法則可以隆績,故士要擇賢師而事才可以為善。同時也言「君子居必擇鄉,遊必就士,所以防邪僻,而近中正也。」《荀子‧勸學》故亦言學習環境對為學的重要
而為學之經則為《詩》、《書》、《樂》、《春秋》。但最重《禮》,有謂「始於誦經,終乎讀禮。」
其他
此外,荀子還提出「虛壹而靜」的認識論,「化性起偽」的人性論,「青取之於藍而勝於藍」的教育思想。而為學之最高理想則是成為聖人。
政冶理論
尊君
在政治上,因荀子認為人性本惡,故荀卿主張禮法兼治、王霸並用,以克服人之惡性。且人有智,故人無群而不能生,且無道德不能為群;所以便要隆禮,以禮作為區別等級、劃分名分和職分的標準。荀子雖是儒者,但其所言之禮為規則條文、典章制度,故其所言之禮與法相近,故要明法,以法律、政令作為衡量曲直、判斷是非的準繩。強調行仁和親民,賢王應該尚賢使能,強本節用,開源節流,裕民富國,兼利天下。
荀子認為君主應有合乎禮儀的尊威和權位,來有效地執行政務。另一方面,君主也要「尚賢使能」,做到「無德不貴,無能不官,無功不賞,無罪不罰」,這樣才能把國家統治好。
歷史觀
在歷史觀上,荀子主張法後王,認為「舍後王而道上古,譬之是猶舍己之君而事人之君」,人們要以近知遠,善言古者必有節於今。這與孟子的「王道」大致一樣。
舟水之喻
荀子繼承了儒家的民本思想,提出了著名的「舟水之喻」。他說:「君者,舟也,庶人者,水也。水則載舟,水則覆舟。」統治者與人民的關係,猶如船與水的關係一樣,水能載船,但一旦掀起巨浪,水也能把船打翻甚至吞沒。
社會理論
在社會觀上,他用「明分使群」來說明國家制度和倫理道德的起源,人之所以區分於禽獸在於人能群,而人之所以能群是因為人有富貴貧賤之分,明分必須依靠禮義。群體性和等級制的統一,是最理想的和諧的社會結構。
另一方面,荀子強調人類社會「群」與「分」的重要。他說:人的氣力不如牛,走路不如馬,但為什麼人卻能支配和使用牛馬呢﹖這是因為人能「群」﹙即組成社會﹚。但為什麼人能夠組成社會呢﹖是因為人能夠"分"﹙等級區分和職業區分﹚。人所以能夠實行「分」,又是因為有一定的社會制度和道德規範﹙義﹚的保證和約束。
他作為先秦諸子哲學的集大成者,對後來的影響是多方面的。由於他廣泛吸收先秦諸子百家思想,不囿於一曲之說和一偏之見,所以他的思想一直被排斥在儒學正統之外。總之,荀卿主要繼承、發揮了孔子「外王」的方面,注重於推行王道於天下,成就裕民富國的事功,從而形成了獨樹一幟的荀學。但他的「性惡論」不為世所接納。而他的學說亦發展成為法家思想,而到了清中葉,開始有較多人效法他的學說。
荀子性惡論和孟子性善論比較
打從春秋戰國諸子百家爭鳴以來,孟子的「性善論」與荀子的「性惡論」一直就是思想家討論人性的焦點,孟子認為人性本善,善源來自於惻隱之心,而荀子卻以為人性本來就是惡的,所有的善都來自於後天的人為。孟子的性善論有本源、有主張,而且可以解釋人之所以性善的可能,而荀子的性惡論卻屢被後世的思想家批評不夠周延,而且無法自圓其說!到底問題出再那兒呢?
人性
「人性」的最大爭議大概是先秦時的孟、荀間的善、惡說,先談孟子的「性善論」。孟子的性善論由兩種方式展開,首先是「人之所以異於禽獸者,幾希。」這就是所謂的「類差法」,人和禽獸都是動物,而其中的差別在於,人之所以為人,乃是人有「四端」,也就是「性善」。其次是「今人乍見孺子將入於井,皆有怵惕惻隱之心…。」這就是以先驗的直覺來立論,這才是孟子和其他論性的思想家所不同的關鍵之處,影響至為深遠,一直到陸九淵、王陽明,又重新受人瞭解。
荀子的「性惡論」
至於荀子的「性惡論」,其實荀子並非完全主張性惡,而是說:「今人之性,飢而欲飽,寒而欲暖,勞而欲休,此人之情性也。」他對性的定義在於「自然和本能」,而性惡如何產生?」今人之性,生而有好利焉,順是,故爭奪生而辭讓亡焉…。」就是當人無法克制自己的欲望時,如同禽獸一般,失去道德,惡便由此而生。荀子只是從人和禽獸間相同之處著眼,如此便人和禽獸無異。以孟子的論點而言,首先注意到人、獸之異故人的特出之處被凸顯,其次在善的可能(根源)之處,孟子將它歸於每個人的普遍善性,不假外求,而且注意,並非人一出生就有全德,就是聖人,故孟子說四端,便只是性的起點,所以還需後天的擴充功夫才行。
而荀子一開始便把人、獸之間的差別混淆,並且在善的可能上無法安置,因為他不理解孟子的說法,而又不願意將善歸於天(因為荀子的天是自然天),而他在解釋如何修養的時候,只是說向聖人學習。但是聖人的善又是如何修養來的?是天生的嗎?若是,那和孟子又有何不同?不是,那聖人在成為聖人之前,又是向誰學習的?向前一個聖人?那前一個聖人又是向誰學的?如此的問題將沒完沒了,若荀子願意像董仲舒一樣,將"善的可能"歸於神秘的天(天的意義,從古到今,從西方到東方,一直有不同的詮釋。),那麼問題也就解決了,所以荀子的立論,是很有問題的。
或許有人會問:「善的可能(根源)為何如此重要?」長久以來,從孔子開始,所注重的是道德修養問題,若不為"善"找到根源,那麼代表著我再怎麼努力,也不見得達到善的境界。如此修養功夫又有何必要呢?所以善的形上定義是非常重要的,如同西方哲學家對上帝觀念一樣的地位,只不過善在中國從來沒被否定過,而上帝卻被許多十八世紀以後的哲學家,如尼採、羅素……等懷疑,甚至否定。但無論如何,善和上帝不管肯定或否定,都是大部份思想家、哲學家展開其系統的重要起點。
總結
最後,孟子推論「性善」的先驗觀念,和禪宗十分相像。沒錯,基本上是相差無幾的,故在整個宋明理學的發展中,若依勞思光先生的「一系說」來看,理學家的糾結在於,一方面要以亞聖孟子為權威(荀子的學說,一直要到清代才被重視,至少在整個宋明時期,其權威性遠不如孟子),一方面卻面臨到他思想中「近禪」危機(指先驗的直覺一點),如此糾結矛盾,是因為他們沒有確切瞭解孟子和禪宗的不同,其相異之處至少在於性是否完全的症結之上。正如之前所說的,孟子的性善只是四端,意指仍須要後天的修養功夫才能保全,而禪宗的性卻是生來就完全的,不需修養,其心自明,此點可從六祖慧能的「菩提本無樹…。」中看出。而理學家們卻未把握住其中的要點,故當陸、王學說一出,攻訐聲音四起,痛批他們「近禪」,而不知「心即理」的立論和整個儒家原始的心性修養要求,並未衝突。

修身篇第二原文譯文(之一) | 原文:見善,修然必以自存也;見不善,愀然必以自省也;善在身,介然必以自好也;不善在身,菑然必以自惡也。故非我而當者,吾師也;是我而當者,吾友也;諂諛我者,吾賊也。故君子隆師而親友,以致惡其賊;好善無厭,受諫而能誡,雖欲無進,得乎哉?小人反是,致亂,而惡人之非己也;致不肖,而欲人之賢己也;心如虎狼,行如禽獸,而又惡人之賊己也;諂諛者親,諫諍者疏,修正為笑,至忠為賊,雖欲無滅亡,得乎哉?《詩》曰:“噏噏呰呰,亦孔之哀。謀之其臧,則具是違;謀之不臧,則具是依。”此之謂也。譯文:看到善良的行為,一定一絲不苟地拿它來對照自己;看到不好的行為,一定心懷恐懼地拿它來反省自己;善良的品行在自己身上,一定因此而堅定不移地愛好自己;不良的品行在自己身上,一定因此而被害似地痛恨自己。所以指責我而指責得恰當的人,就是我的老師;贊同我而贊同得恰當的人,就是我的朋友;阿諛奉承我的人,就是害我的賊人。君子尊崇老師、親近朋友,而極端憎恨那些賊人;愛好善良的品行永不滿足,受到勸告就能警惕,那麼即使不想進步,可能麼?小人則與此相反,自己極其昏亂,卻還憎恨別人對自己的責備;自己極其無能,卻要別人說自己賢能;自己的心地像虎、狼,行為像禽獸,卻又恨別人指出其罪惡;對阿諛奉承自己的就親近,對規勸自己改正錯誤的就疏遠,把善良正直的話當作對自己的譏笑,把極端忠誠的行為看成是對自己的戕害,這樣的人即使想不滅亡,可能麼?《詩》雲:“亂加吸取亂詆毀,實在令人很可悲。謀劃本來很完美,偏偏把它都違背;謀劃本來並不好,反而拿來都依照。”就是說的這種小人。原文:扁善之度,以治氣養生,則身後彭祖;以修身自強,則名配堯、禹。宜於時通,利以處窮,劄信是也。凡用血氣、志意、知慮,由禮則治通,不由禮則勃亂提僈;食飲、衣服、居處、動靜,由禮則和節,不由禮則觸陷生疾;容貌、態度、進退、趨行,由禮則雅,不由禮則夷固僻違,庸眾而野。故人無禮則不生,事無禮則不成,國家無禮則不寧。《詩》曰:“禮儀卒度,笑語卒獲。”此之謂也。譯文:使人無往而不善的是以禮為法度,用以調氣養生,就能使自己的壽命僅次於彭祖;用以修身自強,就能使自己的名聲和堯、禹相媲美。禮義才真正是既適宜於顯達時立身處世,又有利於窮困中立身處世。大凡在動用感情、意志、思慮的時候,遵循禮義就和順通達,不遵循禮義就顛倒錯亂、懈怠散慢;在吃喝、穿衣、居住、活動或休息的時候,遵循禮義就諧調適當,不遵循禮義就會觸犯禁忌而生病;在容貌、態度、進退、行走方面,遵循禮義就顯得文雅,不遵循禮義就顯得鄙陋邪僻、庸俗粗野。所以人沒有禮義就不能生存,事情沒有禮義就不能辦成,國家沒有禮義就不得安寧。《詩》雲:“禮儀全都合法度,說笑就都合時務。”說的就是這種情況。原文:以善先人者謂之教,以善和人者謂之順;以不善先人者謂之諂,以不善和人者謂之諛。是是、非非謂之知,非是、是非謂之愚。傷良曰讒,害良曰賊。是謂是、非謂非曰直。竊貨曰盜,匿行曰詐,易言曰誕,趣舍無定謂之無常,保利棄義謂之至賊。多聞曰博,少聞曰淺。多見曰閑,少見曰陋。難進曰偍,易忘曰漏。少而理曰治,多而亂曰秏。譯文:用善良的言行來引導別人的叫做教導,用善良的言行來附和別人的叫做順應;用不良的言行來引導別人的叫做諂媚,用不良的言行來附和別人的叫做阿諛。以是為是、以非為非的叫做明智,以是為非、以非為是的叫做愚蠢。中傷賢良叫做讒毀,陷害賢良叫做殘害。對的就說對、錯的就說錯叫做正直。偷竊財物叫做盜竊,隱瞞自己的行為叫做欺詐,輕易亂說叫做荒誕,進取或退止沒有個定規叫做反復無常,為了保住利益而背信棄義的叫做大賊。聽到的東西多叫做淵博,聽到的東西少叫做淺薄。見到的東西多叫做開闊,見到的東西少叫做鄙陋。難以進展叫做遲緩,容易忘記叫做遺漏。措施簡少而有條理叫做政治清明,措施繁多而混亂叫做昏亂不明。原文:治氣、養心之術:血氣剛強,則柔之以調和;知慮漸深,則一之以易良;勇膽猛戾,則輔之以道順;齊給便利,則節之以動止;狹隘褊小,則廓之以廣大;卑濕重遲貪利,則抗之以高志;庸眾駑散,則劫之以師友;怠慢僄棄,則炤之以禍災;愚款端愨,則合之以禮樂,通之以思索。凡治氣、養心之術,莫徑由禮,莫要得師,莫神一好。夫是之謂治氣、養心之術也。譯文:理氣養心的方法是:對血氣剛強的,就用心平氣和來柔化他;對思慮過於深沉的,就用坦率善良來同化他;對勇敢大膽兇猛暴戾的,就用不可越軌的道理來幫助他;對行動輕易急速的,就用舉止安靜來節制他;對胸懷狹隘氣量很小的,就用寬宏大量來擴展他;對卑下遲鈍貪圖利益的,就用高尚的志向來提高他;對庸俗平凡低能散漫的,就用良師益友來管教他;對怠慢輕浮自暴自棄的,就用將會招致的災禍來提醒他;對愚鈍樸實端莊拘謹的,就用禮制音樂來協調他,用思考探索來開通他。大凡理氣養心的方法,沒有比遵循禮義更直接的了,沒有比得到良師更重要的了,沒有比一心一意地愛好善行更神妙的了。這就是理氣養心的方法。 | 性惡篇第二十三原文譯文(之一) | 人之性惡,其善者偽也。譯文:人的本性是邪惡的,他們那些善良的行為是人為的。原文:今人之性,生而有好利焉,順是,故爭奪生而辭讓亡焉;生而有疾惡焉,順是,故殘賊生而忠信亡焉;生而有耳目之欲,有好聲色焉,順是,故淫亂生而禮義文理亡焉。然則從人之性,順人之情,必出於爭奪,合於犯分亂理,而歸於暴。故必將有師法之化、禮義之道,然後出於辭讓,合于文理,而歸於治。用此觀之,然則人之性惡明矣,其善者偽也。譯文:人的本性,一生下來就有喜歡財利之心,依順這種人性,所以爭搶掠奪就產生而推辭謙讓就消失了;一生下來就有妒忌憎恨的心理,依順這種人性,所以殘殺陷害就產生而忠誠守信就消失了;一生下來就有耳朵、眼睛的貪欲,有喜歡音樂、美色的本能,依順這種人性,所以淫蕩混亂就產生而禮義法度就消失了。這樣看來,放縱人的本性,依順人的情欲,就一定會出現爭搶掠奪,一定會和違犯等級名分、擾亂禮義法度的行為合流,而最終趨向於暴亂。所以一定要有了師長和法度的教化、禮義的引導,然後人們才會從推辭謙讓出發,遵守禮法,而最終趨向于安定太平。由此看來,人的本性是邪惡的就很明顯了,他們那些善良的行為則是人為的原文:故枸木必將待檃栝烝矯然後直,鈍金必將待礱厲然後利。今人之性惡,必將待師法然後正,得禮義然後治。今人無師法,則偏險而不正;無禮義,則悖亂而不治。古者聖王以人之性惡,以為偏險而不正、悖亂而不治,是以為之起禮義、制法度,以矯飾人之情性而正之,以擾化人之情性而導之也。使皆出於治、合於道者也。今之人,化師法、積文學、道禮義者為君子,縱性情、安恣睢而違禮義者為小人。用此觀之,然則人之性惡明矣,其善者偽也。譯文:所以彎曲的木料一定要依靠整形器進行薰蒸、矯正,然後才能挺直;不鋒利的金屬器具一定要依靠磨礪,然後才能鋒利。人的本性邪惡,一定要依靠師長和法度的教化才能端正,要得到禮義的引導才能治理好。人們沒有師長和法度,就會偏邪險惡而不端正;沒有禮義,就會叛逆作亂而不守秩序。古代聖明的君王認為人的本性是邪惡的,認為人們是偏邪險惡而不端正、叛逆作亂而不守秩序的,因此給他們建立了禮義、制定了法度,用來強制整治人們的性情而端正他們,用來馴服感化人們的性情而引導他們。使他們都能從遵守秩序出發、合乎正確的道德原則。現在的人,能夠被師長和法度所感化,積累文獻經典方面的知識、遵行禮義的,就是君子;縱情任性、習慣於恣肆放蕩而違反禮義的,就是小人。由此看來,那麼人的本性是邪惡的就很明顯了,他們那些善良的行為則是人為的。 | 性惡篇第二十三原文譯文(之二) | 原文:孟子曰:“人之學者,其性善。”曰:是不然。是不及知人之性,而不察乎人之性、偽之分者也。凡性者,天之就也,不可學,不可事。禮義者,聖人之所生也,人之所學而能、所事而成者也。不可學、不可事而在人者,謂之性;可學而能、可事而成之在人者,謂之偽;是性、偽之分也。今人之性,目可以見,耳可以聽。夫可以見之明不離目,可以聽之聰不離耳。目明而耳聰,不可學明矣。譯文:孟子說:“人們要學習的,是那本性的善良。”我說:這是不對的。這是還沒有能夠瞭解人的本性,而且也不明白人的先天本性和後天人為之間的區別的一種說法。大凡本性,是天然造就的,是不可能學到的,是不可能人為造作的。禮義,才是聖人創建的,是人們學了才會、努力從事才能做到的。人身上不可能學到、不可能人為造作的東西,叫做本性;人身上可以學會、可以通過努力從事而做到的,叫做人為;這就是先天本性和後天人為的區別。那人的本性,眼睛可以用來看,耳朵可以用來聽。那可以用來看東西的視力離不開眼睛,可以用來聽聲音的聽力離不開耳朵。眼睛的視力和耳朵的聽力不可能學到是很清楚的了。原文:孟子曰:“今人之性善,將皆失喪其性故也。”曰:若是則過矣。今人之性,生而離其樸、離其資,必失而喪之,用此觀之,然則人之性惡明矣。所謂性善者,不離其樸而美之,不離其資而利之也。使夫資朴之于美、心意之于善若夫可以見之明不離目、可以聽之聰不離耳。故曰目明而耳聰也。譯文:孟子說:“人的本性是善良的,他們的作惡一定都是喪失了他們的本性的緣故啊。”我說:像這樣來解釋就錯了。孟子所謂本性善良,是指不離開他的素質而覺得他很美,不離開他的資質而覺得他很好。那天生的資質和美的關係、心意和善良的關係就像那可以看東西的視力離不開眼睛、可以聽聲音的聽力離不開耳朵一樣罷了。所以說資質的美和心意的善良就像眼睛的視力和耳朵的聽力一樣。如果人的本性生來就脫離他的素質、脫離他的資質,一定會喪失它的美和善良,由此看來,那麼人的本性是邪惡的就很明顯了。 | 性惡篇第二十三 原文 譯文(之三) | 原文: 故善言古者,必有節於今;善言天者,必有征於人。凡論者,貴其有辨合、有符驗。故坐而言之,起而可設,張而可施行。今孟子曰:人之性善,無辨合符驗,坐而言之,起而不可設,張而不可施行,豈不過甚矣哉?故性善,則去聖王、息禮義矣;性惡,則與聖王、貴禮義矣。故檃栝之生,為枸木也;繩墨之起,為不直也;立君上,明禮義,為性惡也。用此觀之,然則人之性惡明矣,其善者偽也。 譯文: 善於談論古代的人,一定對現代有驗證;善於談論天的人,一定對人事有應驗。凡是議論,可貴的在於像契券般可核對、像信符般可檢驗。所以坐著談論它,站起來就可以部署安排,推廣出去就可以實行。現在孟子說:人的本性善良,沒有與它相契合的證據及可以驗證的憑據,坐著談論它,站 起來不能部署安排,推廣出去不能實行,這難道不是錯得很厲害了嗎?認為人的本性善良,那就會摒除聖明的帝王、取消禮義了;認為人的本性邪惡,那就會擁護聖明的帝王、推崇禮義了。整形器的產生,是因為有彎曲的木料;墨線墨斗的出現,是因為有不直的東西;置立君主,彰明禮義,是因為人的本性邪惡。由此看來,那麼人的本性是邪惡的就很明顯了,他們那些善良的行為則是人為的。 原文: 直木不待檃栝而直者,其性直也。枸木必將待檃栝烝矯然後直者,以其性不直也。今人之性惡,必將待聖王之治、禮義之化,然後皆出於治、合於善也。用此觀之,然則人之性惡明矣,其善者偽也。 譯文: 筆直的木材不依靠整形器就筆直,因為它的本性就是筆直的。彎曲的木材一定要依靠整形器進行薰蒸矯正然後才能挺直,因為它的本性不直。人的本性邪惡,一定要依靠聖明帝王的治理、禮義的教化,然後才能都從遵守秩序出發、合乎善良的標準。由此看來,那麼人的本性是邪惡的就很明顯了,他們那些善良的行為則是人為的。 原文: 問者曰:禮義積偽者,是人之性,故聖人能生之也。” 應之曰:是不然。夫陶人埏埴而生瓦,然則瓦埴豈陶人之性也哉?工人斲木而生器,然則器木豈工人之性也哉?夫聖人之于禮義也,辟亦陶埏而生之也,然則禮義積偽者,豈人之本性也哉?凡人之性者,堯、舜之與桀、蹠,其性一也;君子之與小人,其性一也。今將以禮義積偽為人之性邪,然則有易貴堯、禹,曷貴君子矣哉?凡所貴堯、禹、君子者,能化性,能起偽,偽起而生禮義;然則聖人之于禮義積偽也,亦猶陶埏而生之也。用此觀之,然則禮義積偽者,豈人之性也哉?所賤於桀、蹠、小人者,從其性,順其情,安恣睢,以出乎貪利爭奪。故人之性惡明矣,其善者偽也。 譯文: 有人問:“積累人為因素而制定成禮義,這也是人的本性,所以聖人才能創造出禮義來啊。” 回答他說:這不對。製作陶器的人攪拌揉打粘土而生產出瓦器,那麼把粘土製成瓦器難道就是陶器工人的本性麼?木工砍削木材而造出器具,那麼把木材製成器具難道就是木工的本性麼?聖人對於禮義,打個比方來說,也就像陶器工人攪拌揉打粘土而生產出瓦器一樣,那麼積累人為因素而制定成禮義,難道就是人的本性了麼?凡是人的本性,聖明的堯、舜和殘暴的桀、蹠,他們的本性是一樣的;有道德的君子和無行的小人,他們的本性是一樣的。如果要把積累人為因素而制定成禮義當作是人的本性吧,那麼又為什麼要推崇堯、禹,為什麼要推崇君子呢?一般說來,人們所以要推崇堯、禹、君子,是因為他們能改變自己的本性,能作出人為的努力,人為的努力作出後就產生了禮義;既然這樣,聖人對於積累人為因素而制定成禮義,也就像陶器工人攪拌揉打粘土而生產出瓦器一樣。由此看來,那麼積累人為因素而制定成禮義,哪裡是人的本性呢?人們所以要鄙視桀、蹠、小人,是因為他們放縱自己的本性,順從自己的情欲,習慣於恣肆放蕩,以致做出貪圖財利爭搶掠奪的暴行來。所以人的本性邪惡是很明顯的了,他們那些善良的行為則是人為的。 原文: 天非私曾、騫、孝己而外眾人也,然而曾、騫、孝己獨厚於孝之實而全於孝之名者,何也?以綦於禮義故也。天非私齊、魯之民而外秦人也,然而于父子之義、夫婦之別,不如齊、魯之孝具、敬父者,何也?以秦人之從情性、安恣睢、慢於禮義故也,豈其性異矣哉? 譯文: 上天並不是偏袒曾參、閔子騫、孝己而拋棄眾人,但是唯獨曾參、閔子騫、孝己豐富了孝道的實際內容而成全了孝子的名聲,為什麼呢?因為他們竭力奉行禮義的緣故啊。上天並不是偏袒齊國、魯國的人民而拋棄秦國人,但是在父子之間的禮義、夫妻之間的分別上,秦國人不及齊國、魯國的孝順恭敬、嚴肅有禮,為什麼呢?因為秦國人縱情任性、習慣於恣肆放蕩而怠慢禮義的緣故啊,哪裡是他們的本性不同呢? |

【譯 文】 大自然運行變化有一定的常規,不會因爲堯統治天下就存在,也不會因爲桀統治天下就消亡。用正確的治理措施適應大自然的規律,事情就辦得好;用錯誤的治理措施對待大自然的規律,事情就會辦糟。加強農業生産而又節約開支,那末天不可能使人貧窮;生活資料充足而又能適應天時變化進行生産活動,那末天也不可能使人生病;遵循規律而又不出差錯,那末天也不可能使人遭禍。所以水旱災害不可能使人受饑挨餓,寒暑變化不可能使人生病,自然界反常的現象不可能使人遭難。農業生産荒廢而又開支浪費,那末天就不可能使人富裕;生活資料不足而又不勤于生産活動,那末天就不可能使人健康;違背事物規律而胡亂行動,那末天就不可能使人得到好結果。所以水旱災害沒有到來就發生饑荒,嚴寒酷暑沒有迫近就發生疫病,自然界反常現象沒有出現就發生禍害。遇到的天時和太平時期相同,可是遭到的災禍卻與太平時期大不相同,這不能埋怨天,事物的規律就是這樣。所以說,明辨了自然界的規律和人應采取的行動,就可以稱得上聖人了。…… 社會的太平和動亂,是天決定的嗎?回答說:日月星等天體運行和曆法現象,這是夏禹和夏桀同有的自然條件,夏禹憑借這樣的自然條件把國家治理得很好,夏桀卻把國家搞亂了,所以太平和動亂不是天決定的。是時節變化決定的嗎?回答說:莊稼在春夏都生長茂盛起來,在秋冬則收獲儲藏起來,這又是夏禹和夏桀同有的自然條件,夏禹憑借它把國家治理好了,夏桀卻把國家搞亂了,所以治亂不是時節變化決定的。是地理條件決定的嗎?回答說:莊稼得到土地便生長,離開土地就死去,這又是夏禹和夏桀同有的自然條件,夏禹憑借它使國家大治,夏桀卻把國家搞亂了,所以治亂不是土地決定的。…… 流星墜落,樹木爆裂作響,國都裏的人都驚恐。問道:這是怎麽回事?答道:沒有什麽。這是自然界發生的變化,事物較少出現的現象。對它感到奇怪是可以的,害怕它就不對了。日蝕月蝕發生,刮風下雨不合時節,怪星偶然出現,這是沒有哪個時代不曾有過的。君主英明、政局安定,就是這些現象同時發生,也沒有危害。君主昏庸、政治暴虐,即使這些觀象一樣也不出現,也沒有好處。所以說,流星墜落,樹木作響,這是自然界發生的變化,事物較少出現的現象。認爲它奇怪是可以的,害怕它就不對了。…… 舉行求雨的祭祀便下了雨,這是爲什麽?答道:沒有什麽,就如同不舉行求雨的祭祀也下雨一樣。出現日蝕月蝕就敲擊鑼鼓去搶救,天旱就舉行求雨的祭祀,先占蔔然後才決定大事,不是用它來作爲得到所祈求的東西的手段,只不過用它爲政事作裝飾。所以君子把它看作是一種文飾,可是普通百姓卻把它看作神靈存在的具體表現了。認爲是一種裝飾手段就會有好處,認爲有神靈就有害處了。 在天上的東西,沒有什麽比太陽月亮更顯明的;在地上的東西,沒有什麽比水火更顯明的;在萬物中,沒有什麽比珠玉更顯明的;在人類所具有的東西中,沒有什麽比禮義更顯明的。所以說,太陽月亮如果不高懸空中,它的光輝就不會顯著;水火如果不積聚起來,它們的光輝和潤澤就不會廣大;珠玉的光采如果不顯現在外面,王公貴族就不會把它們當成寶貝;禮義如果不用在國家的治理上,執政者的功績和名聲就不會顯赫。所以人的生命受之于自然,國家的命脈決定于禮制。統冶別人的人,推崇禮制而又尊重賢人,就可以在天下稱王;重視法治而又愛護人民,就可以在諸侯中稱霸。如果貪圖私利、多用欺詐,就很危險;如果使用權術、顛覆、陰險等手段,那就徹底滅亡了。 與其尊崇天而思慕它,哪裏比得上把天當作物一樣蓄養起來而控制著它呢?與其順從天而贊美它,哪裏比得上控制自然的變化規律而利用它呢?與其盼望、等待天時,哪裏比得上適應天時而役使它呢?與其依順萬物的自然繁殖而求它增多,哪裏比得上施展人的才能而使它按著人的需要有所變化呢?與其思慕萬物而使它成爲能供自己使用的物,哪裏比得上管理好萬物而不失掉它呢?與其希望于萬物能自然生長出來,哪裏比得上掌握萬物的生長規律呢?所以放棄人的努力而只是寄希望于天,那就不能理解萬物的本性,也就不能去利用它了。

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