Free Essay

China

In: Historical Events

Submitted By HANNAH06
Words 1994
Pages 8
March 21, 2011

The Nuclear Crisis in Japan

Daniel Okimoto • Alan Hanson • Kate Marvel

The Fukushima Daiichi Incident
1. 2. 3. 4. Plant Design Accident Progression Radiological releases Spent fuel pools

The Fukushima Daiichi Incident – March 21, 2011

The Fukushima Daiichi Incident
1. Plant Design
" Fukushima Daiichi (Plant I)
 Unit I - GE Mark I BWR (439 MW), Operating since 1971  Unit II-IV - GE Mark I BWR (760 MW), Operating since 1974

The Fukushima Daiichi Incident – March 21, 2011

The Fukushima Daiichi Incident
" Building structure
 Concrete Building  Steel-framed Service Floor

1. Plant Design
" Containment
 Pear-shaped Dry-Well en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Browns_Ferry_Nuclear_Power_Plant  Torus-shaped Wet-Well

nucleartourist.com
The Fukushima Daiichi Incident – March 21, 2011

The Fukushima Daiichi Incident
1. Plant Design
" Service Floor

The Fukushima Daiichi Incident – March 21, 2011

The Fukushima Daiichi Incident
1. Plant Design
" Lifting the Containment closure head

The Fukushima Daiichi Incident – March 21, 2011

The Fukushima Daiichi Incident
1. Plant Design
" Reactor Service Floor (Steel Construction) " Concrete Reactor Building (secondary Containment)

Spend Fuel Pool

Fresh Steam line Main Feedwater

" Reactor Core " Reactor Pressure Vessel " Containment (Dry well) " Containment (Wet Well) / Condensation Chamber
The Fukushima Daiichi Incident – March 21, 2011

The Fukushima Daiichi Incident
2. Accident progression

" 11.3.2011 14:46 - Earthquake
 Magnitude 9  Power grid in northern Japan fails  Reactors itself are mainly

undamaged

" SCRAM
 Power generation due to Fission

of Uranium stops
 Heat generation due to radioactive

Decay of Fission Products
• After Scram • After 1 Day • After 5 Days ~6% ~1% ~0.5%

The Fukushima Daiichi Incident – March 21, 2011

The Fukushima Daiichi Incident
2. Accident progression
" Containment Isolation
 Closing of all non-safety related

Penetrations of the containment
 Cuts off Machine hall  If containment isolation succeeds,

a large early release of fission products is highly unlikely

" Diesel generators start
 Emergency Core cooling systems

are supplied

" Plant is in a stable save state

The Fukushima Daiichi Incident – March 21, 2011

The Fukushima Daiichi Incident
2. Accident progression
" 11.3. 15:41 Tsunami hits the plant
 Plant Design for Tsunami height of

up to 6.5m
 Actual Tsunami height >7m  Flooding of
• Diesel Generators and/or • Essential service water building cooling the generators

" Station Blackout
 Common cause failure of the

power supply
 Only Batteries are still available  Failure of all but one Emergency

core cooling systems

The Fukushima Daiichi Incident – March 21, 2011

The Fukushima Daiichi Incident
2. Accident progression
" Reactor Core Isolation Pump still available
 Steam from the Reactor drives a

Turbine
 Steam gets condensed in the

Wet-Well
 Turbine drives a Pump  Water from the Wet-Well gets

pumped in Reactor
 Necessary:
• Battery power • Temperature in the wet-well must be below 100°C

" As there is no heat removal from the building, the Core isolation pump cant work infinitely

The Fukushima Daiichi Incident – March 21, 2011

The Fukushima Daiichi Incident
2. Accident progression
" Reactor Isolation pump stops
 11.3. 16:36 in Unit 1

(Batteries empty)
 14.3. 13:25 in Unit 2

(Pump failure)
 13.3. 2:44 in Unit 3

(Batteries empty)

" Decay Heat produces still steam in Reactor pressure Vessel
 Pressure rising

" Opening the steam relieve valves
 Discharge Steam into the Wet-Well

" Descending of the Liquid Level in the Reactor pressure vessel
The Fukushima Daiichi Incident – March 21, 2011

The Fukushima Daiichi Incident
2. Accident progression
" Reactor Isolation pump stops
 11.3. 16:36 in Unit 1

(Batteries empty)
 14.3. 13:25 in Unit 2

(Pump failure)
 13.3. 2:44 in Unit 3

(Batteries empty)

" Decay Heat produces still steam in Reactor pressure Vessel
 Pressure rising

" Opening the steam relieve valves
 Discharge Steam into the Wet-Well

" Descending of the Liquid Level in the Reactor pressure vessel
The Fukushima Daiichi Incident – March 21, 2011

The Fukushima Daiichi Incident
2. Accident progression
" Reactor Isolation pump stops
 11.3. 16:36 in Unit 1

(Batteries empty)
 14.3. 13:25 in Unit 2

(Pump failure)
 13.3. 2:44 in Unit 3

(Batteries empty)

" Decay Heat produces still steam in Reactor pressure Vessel
 Pressure rising

" Opening the steam relieve valves
 Discharge Steam into the Wet-Well

" Descending of the Liquid Level in the Reactor pressure vessel
The Fukushima Daiichi Incident – March 21, 2011

The Fukushima Daiichi Incident
2. Accident progression
" Reactor Isolation pump stops
 11.3. 16:36 in Unit 1

(Batteries empty)
 14.3. 13:25 in Unit 2

(Pump failure)
 13.3. 2:44 in Unit 3

(Batteries empty)

" Decay Heat produces still steam in Reactor pressure Vessel
 Pressure rising

" Opening the steam relieve valves
 Discharge Steam into the Wet-Well

" Descending of the Liquid Level in the Reactor pressure vessel
The Fukushima Daiichi Incident – March 21, 2011

The Fukushima Daiichi Incident
2. Accident progression
" Reactor Isolation pump stops
 11.3. 16:36 in Unit 1

(Batteries empty)
 14.3. 13:25 in Unit 2

(Pump failure)
 13.3. 2:44 in Unit 3

(Batteries empty)

" Decay Heat produces still steam in Reactor pressure Vessel
 Pressure rising

" Opening the steam relieve valves
 Discharge Steam into the Wet-Well

" Descending of the Liquid Level in the Reactor pressure vessel
The Fukushima Daiichi Incident – March 21, 2011

The Fukushima Daiichi Incident
2. Accident progression
" Measured, and here referenced Liquid level is the collapsed level. The actual liquid level lies higher due to the steam bubbles in the liquid " ~50% of the core exposed
 Cladding temperatures rise, but still

no significant core damage

" ~2/3 of the core exposed
 Cladding temperature

exceeds ~900°C
 Balooning / Breaking of the

cladding
 Release of fission products form

the fuel rod gaps
The Fukushima Daiichi Incident – March 21, 2011

The Fukushima Daiichi Incident
2. Accident progression

" ~3/4 of the core exposed
 Cladding exceeds ~1200°C  Zirconium in the cladding starts to

burn under Steam atmosphere
 Zr + 2H20 ->ZrO2 + 2H2  Exothermal reaction further

heats the core
 Generation of hydrogen
• Unit 1: 300-600kg • Unit 2/3: 300-1000kg

 Hydrogen gets pushed via the

wet-well, the wet-well vacuum breakers into the dry-well

The Fukushima Daiichi Incident – March 21, 2011

The Fukushima Daiichi Incident
2. Accident progression
" at ~1800°C [Unit 1,2,3]
 Melting of the Cladding  Melting of the steel structures

" at ~2500°C

[Block 1,2]

 Breaking of the fuel rods  debris bed inside the core

" at ~2700°C eutectics [Block 1]

 Melting of Uranium-Zirconium

" Restoration of the water supply stops accident in all 3 Units
 Unit 1: 12.3. 20:20 (27h w.o. water)  Unit 2: 14.3. 20:33 (7h w.o. water)  Unit 3: 13.3. 9:38 (7h w.o. water)

The Fukushima Daiichi Incident – March 21, 2011

The Fukushima Daiichi Incident
2. Accident progression
" Release of fission products during melt down
 Xenon, Cesium, Iodine,…  Uranium/Plutonium remain in core  Fission products condensate to

airborne Aerosols

" Discharge through valves into water of the condensation chamber
 Pool scrubbing binds a fraction of

Aerosols in the water

" Xenon and remaining aerosols enter the Dry-Well
 Deposition of aerosols on surfaces

further decontaminates air
The Fukushima Daiichi Incident – March 21, 2011

The Fukushima Daiichi Incident
2. Accident progression
" Containment
 Last barrier between Fission

Products and Environment
 Wall thickness ~3cm  Design Pressure 4-5bar

" Actual pressure up to 8 bars
 Normal inert gas filling (Nitrogen)  Hydrogen from core oxidation  Boiling condensation chamber

(like a pressure cooker)

" Depressurization of the containment
 Unit 1: 12.3. 4:00  Unit 2: 13.3 00:00  Unit 3: 13.3. 8.41

The Fukushima Daiichi Incident – March 21, 2011

The Fukushima Daiichi Incident
2. Accident progression
" Positive und negative Aspects of depressurizing the containment
 Removes Energy from the Reactor

building (only way left)
 Reducing the pressure to ~4 bar  Release of small amounts of

Aerosols (Iodine, Cesium ~0.1%)
 Release of all noble gases  Release of Hydrogen

" Gas is released into the reactor service floor
 Hydrogen is flammable

The Fukushima Daiichi Incident – March 21, 2011

The Fukushima Daiichi Incident
2. Accident progression
" Unit 1 und 3
 Hydrogen burn inside the reactor

service floor
 Destruction of the steel-frame roof  Reinforced concrete reactor

building seems undamaged
 Spectacular but minor safety

relevant

The Fukushima Daiichi Incident – March 21, 2011

The Fukushima Daiichi Incident
2. Accident progression
" Unit 2
 Hydrogen burn inside the reactor

building
 Probably damage to the

condensation chamber (highly contaminated water)
 Uncontrolled release of gas from

the containment
 Release of fission products  Temporal evacuation of the plant  High local dose rates on the plant

site due to wreckage hinder further recovery work

" No clear information's why Unit 2 behaved differently

The Fukushima Daiichi Incident – March 21, 2011

The Fukushima Daiichi Incident
2. Accident progression
" Current status of the Reactors
 Core Damage in Unit 1,2, 3  Building damage due to various

burns Unit 1-4
 Reactor pressure vessels flooded

in all Units with mobile pumps
 At least containment in Unit 1

flooded

" Further cooling of the Reactors by releasing steam to the atmosphere " Only small further releases of fission products can be expected

The Fukushima Daiichi Incident – March 21, 2011

The Fukushima Daiichi Incident
3. Radiological releases

" Directly on the plant site
 Before Explosion in Unit Block 2
• Below 2mSv / h • Mainly due to released radioactive noble gases • Measuring posts on west side. Maybe too small values measured due to wind

 After Explosion in Unit 2 (Damage of the Containment)
• • • • • Temporal peak values 12mSv / h (Origin not entirely clear) Local peak values on site up to 400mSv /h (wreckage / fragments?) Currently stable dose on site at 5mSv /h Inside the buildings a lot more

 Limiting time of exposure of the workers necessary

The Fukushima Daiichi Incident – March 21, 2011

The Fukushima Daiichi Incident
3. Radiological releases

The Fukushima Daiichi Incident – March 21, 2011

The Fukushima Daiichi Incident
3. Radiological releases
" Outside the Plant site
 As reactor building mostly intact

=> reduced release of Aerosols (not Chernobyl-like)
 Fission product release in steam

=> fast Aerosol grows, large fraction falls down in the proximity of the plant
 Main contribution to the radioactive dose outside plant are the radioactive

noble gases
 Carried / distributed by the wind, decreasing dose with time  No „Fall-out“ of the noble gases, so no local high contamination of soil

" ~20km around the plant
 Evacuations were adequate  Measured dose up to 0.3mSv/h for short times  Maybe destruction of crops / dairy products this year  Probably no permanent evacuation of land necessary

The Fukushima Daiichi Incident – March 21, 2011

The Fukushima Daiichi Incident
3. Radiological releases

GRS.de

" ~50km around the plant
 Control of Crop / Dairy products  Usage of Iodine pills

(Caution, pills can interfere with heart medicine)

The Fukushima Daiichi Incident – March 21, 2011

The Fukushima Daiichi Incident
4. Spend fuel pools
" Spend fuel stored in Pool on Reactor service floor
 Due to maintenance in Unit 4 entire

core stored in Fuel pool
 Dry-out of the pools
• Unit 4: in 10 days • Unit 1-3,5,6 in few weeks

 Leakage of the pools due to

Earthquake?

" Consequences
 Core melt „on fresh air “  Nearly no retention of fission

products
 Large release

The Fukushima Daiichi Incident – March 21, 2011

The Fukushima Daiichi Incident
4. Spend fuel pools
" Spend fuel stored in Pool on Reactor service floor
 Due to maintenance in Unit 4 entire

core stored in Fuel pool
 Dry-out of the pools
• Unit 4: in 10 days • Unit 1-3,5,6 in few weeks

 Leakage of the pools due to

Earthquake?

" Consequences
 Core melt „on fresh air “  Nearly no retention of fission

products
 Large release

The Fukushima Daiichi Incident – March 21, 2011

The Fukushima Daiichi Incident
4. Spend fuel pools
" Spend fuel stored in Pool on Reactor service floor
 Due to maintenance in Unit 4 entire

core stored in Fuel pool
 Dry-out of the pools
• Unit 4: in 10 days • Unit 1-3,5,6 in few weeks

 Leakage of the pools due to

Earthquake?

" Consequences
 Core melt „on fresh air “  Nearly no retention of fission

products
 Large release

" It is currently unclear if release from fuel pool already happened
The Fukushima Daiichi Incident – March 21, 2011

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...In February of 2012, as I was reviewing the information about the Darden’s GEMBA program, specifically the locations of the global residencies, it was hard for me to be excited about going to China. It would be my sixth time visiting the country. At the time, I was hoping for a more unique location, somewhere where I had not been, yet somewhere where, from a business perspective it would be a valid place to go. How about Japan or South Korea, I pondered. But no, it was China, a place that I explored on multiple occasions, and a place I learned to like. To make things worse, the destinations cities where the most obvious: Shanghai and Beijing. What else is out there, that I have not seen and what else I can learn from visiting it again? My fears were intensified by the assumption that the Darden residency will be sterile, that the group will be sheltered and will travel in a bubble, not being exposed to the true spirit of the country. “Well, I thought, at least we will go to Rio. In May 2012, while visiting Shanghai for the Solar Expo tradeshow I was invited to meet with the GEMBA 12 and the Darden community while the cohort was at their China residency. I was to attend an operations class with Professor Elliott Weiss, meet the students, faculty on staff. Oh, and there was free food involved; I was in! To be honest, the class session was pretty intimidating yet impressive. It was all about some Newsvendor model- a case study where a Charlottesville entrepreneur was selling......

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Google in China

...GOOGLE IN CHINA – A Case Analysis Situation The case talks about the severe backlash and international criticism that Google faced when it launched its search engine in China. At its launch, the company had decided to censor search results to gain the Chinese government’s approval and acceptance. This was however not in alignment with the company’s motto of “Don’t be evil”. Google so far, being very successful from its foundation in 1998, had always followed the mission of providing all relevant information and data to the users as per the user’s search criteria. It was the right of the people to have access to all the information that Google could deliver. But to tap the thriving Chinese economy and to garner a bigger share in the Chinese market, when the company launched its new website and search engine, Google came to an agreement with the government to filter the search and purge the results as per the government regulation. The management thought if they don’t agree, the Chinese government would filter from their end, making the process slow and unyielding. At least this way, people would have some fast access to the world information and also the company will churn out money. Stakeholder Analysis The stakeholders for this case would be the company itself; it’s employees, businesses that provide advertisement in Google and finally the end users. The filtration of the search results would affect directly the end users, as they......

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Poverty in China

...12/3/14 Poverty in China FRIDAY October seventeenth was China's first official “Poverty Alleviation Day”, a yearly assembly of "discussions and pledge drives", intended to rally deliberations to battle hardship. Obviously, because of China's quick financial advancement, the nation as of now assuages a great deal of destitution every day: a year ago the quantity of rustic poor fell by 16.5m or in excess of 45,000 individuals every day. However that still left 82.49m individuals stuck in country lack of sanitization toward the end of 2013, as indicated by official measurements. A few places in China are more awful off than they look. Their "luxurious city structures" mask devastated populaces, as per Xinhua, the state news office. Different parts of the nation are less poor than they let on. They would prefer not to be expelled from the rundown of "destitution stricken regions" due to the support and different profits they would relinquish. China's neediness is, in this way, a matter of some controversy and perplexity. In reality, China itself may not be as poor as its official media assume. Xinhua reports inaccurately that China's official destitution line is lower than the World Bank's worldwide standard of $1.25 a day. By that global standard, claims an alternate state-supported daily paper, the nation still has more than 200m destitute. In referring to that discouraging measurement, it echoes a discourse in June by Li Keqiang, China's chief, in which he said that......

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