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Chinese Daoist

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Chinese 4402 04/16/2013 Prof. Patricia Sieber Extra Credit
Jin and Yuan Literati Hagiographies of Daoist Quanzhen Masters
By means of attending the extra credit lecture on April 12, 2013, the speaker Mark Halperin, Associate Professor of Chinese Literature, mainly talked about Jin and Yuan Literati Hagiographies of Daoist Quanzhen Masters. Since that, I have some basic ideas about the beginning of the Daoist as well as the development of the Daoist Quanzhen Masters. In particular, Quanzhe is the most important sect of the Daoist, and it was founded in the beginning of Jin Dynasty by Wang Zhe whose Daoist monastic name was Chongyang as well as who is one of prestigious Quanzhen masters. After Wang Chongyang accepted seven disciples, the Quanzhen was founded formally. These disciples were called Ma Yu, Tan Chuduan, Liu Chuxuan, Qiu Chuji, Wang Chuyi, Hao Datong, and Sun Buer.
Qiu Chuji was the most prestigious and famous from seven disciples. He was the founder of the Dragon Gate sect of Taoism attracting the largest following in the streams of traditions flowing from the sects of the disciples. From The Legend of The Condor Heroes《射雕英雄傳》and The Return of the Condor Heroes《神雕俠侶》which was created by Jin Yong, Qiu Chuji was described as a highly skilled Taoist, this is why he was popular and well-known among Chinese people. In Chinese history, Qiu Chuji played as an important role to create positive effects on Chinese politics as well as Chinese society. As a Daoist Quanzhen Master, he made the development of Daoist Quanzhen at the height of power and splendor. In addition, Qiu Chuji was deeply respected by the dominators of Jin and Yuan dynasty.
In particular, Qiu Chuji had a good relationship and deep effects on Yuan dynasty. Genghis Khan, the first emperor of Yuan dynasty, had invited Qui Shuji to Mongolia Empire in order to ask him the strategy of governing the country and the way of keeping good health. Qiu Chiji told Genghis Khan that people with a pure heart and few desires is important to keep a long life, and emperor with respect and love is necessary condition to unify the whole world (要长生,须清心寡欲;要一统天下,须敬天爱民). In addition, he taught Genghis Khan the Confucianism to persuade him stopping slaughter of civilians and captures. Then, Genghis Khan released more than 30,000 Han and Jurchen slaveries by approve of Genghis Khan. During Qiu Chuji’s life, he saved thousands number people by using his theory to persuade Genghis Khan.
At the ending of Yuan dynasty, the emperor did not attach important to Daoist QuanZhen anymore, and Quanzhen books were burned up. Daoist QuanZhen almost ended at the height of power and splendor. During Ming Dynasty, QuanZhen almost collapsed and branch to several small sects. Basically, these small sects were leaded by the theories of Wang Chongyang’s seven disciples. Additionally, the theory of practice from Quanzhen also is an important part to attract me. Specifically, they believe human’s body could be died but human’s spirit could exist forever. Quanzhen encourage people to retreat and to practice humanity by decreasing people’s desire. Then, lots of Quanzhen disciples would like to find faraway and secluded mountain or forest to retreat by reading Quanzhen books to obtain the apperception from the book. To sum up, Mark Halperin provided us detailed opinions and ideas about Literati Hagiographies of Daoist Quanzhen Masters during Jin and Yuan dynasty. In addition, by taking this lecture I have a better understand about the history of Daoist.

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