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Chinese Painting

In: Historical Events

Submitted By taylor0222
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Final Project: Art Timeline
The Art of Chinese Painting
“Landscapes”
Axia College University of Phoenix
Art /101

Chinese paintings can be found dating as far back as the Neolithic period. These paintings incorporate a combination of Western and Chinese painting styles. There is one category of Chinese painting that has increasingly become more interesting to artist and viewers. It is Chinese landscape painting. “Chinese Landscape painting is the most popular style of painting in the rich artistic legacy of traditional China” (Art Realization, 2005). This particular category of painting includes two schools of painting, Northern and Southern. The Northern school includes professional and court painters, while the Southern school includes amateur and gentle man painters. (Ethnicpaintings, 2011). Artist expressed themselves by painting the natural world around them. The view of nature allowed people to seek comfort and safety. Dong Qichange was a controversial politician regarded as an outstanding Chinese landscape painter. He was born in 1555 in what is known today as Shanghai, China. In addition to being a painter he was also a calligrapher and theoretician. His most remarkable contribution to art was introducing new ways to present thoughts in painting landscape views. Thus, you have the Northern and Southern styles of art. The Northern school of art taught about obtaining truth through art, and the Southern School stressed an “intuitive understanding” (Arthistory Archive.com, 2011).

Timeline of Chinese Landscape Paintings

[pic]
Riverbank
Artist: Dong Yuan (930-960s)
Hanging Scroll: ink and slight color on silk
The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Location: New York, New York

Riverbank, was painted by artist Dong Yuan during the Southern Tang Dynasty. Under this new dynasty Dong Yuan emerged a new style of “southern” landscape painting. The painting Riverbank is an exact illustration of what the southern style of painting reflects. This painting was created on a hanging silk scroll using ink and little color. The formal elements of art used by Dong Yuan were contour lines, and delicate colors of ink. Consistent with his other paintings Dong Yuan used “soft-rubbed texture strokes” in order to show the details of the hills and slopes in China (Metropolitan

Museum, 2010). As time has passed the scroll has become increasingly darker, however to date it is the tallest early Chinese Landscape painting.

[pic]
Summer Mountains
Artist: Qu Ding (1023-1056)
Northern Song Dynasty (960-1127)
Hand scroll; ink and pale color on silk
The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Location: New York, New York

Summer Mountains, was painted by artist Qu Ding during the Northern Song Dynasty. This painted was created on a silk hand scroll with the use of ink in pale colors. Qu Ding used the formal elements of textured strokes and ink wash to create the depth in the mountains. The fullness of the forest and smoky look of the mountains provide the viewer with a since of tranquility. The artist is allowing the viewer to dwell in the landscape. This painting has the characteristics of Northern style painting by allowing viewers to identify with the scene and seek truth in life. These are historical features that Chinese landscape art is known to portray.

[pic]
Cloudy Mountains
Artist: Mi Youren (1074-1151)
Northern Song Dynasty (960-1127)
Hand scroll; ink on paper
The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Location: New York, New York

Cloudy Mountains, was painted by artist Mi Youren during the Northern Song Dynasty. “The early Northern Song dynasty witnessed the flowering of one of the supreme artistic expressions of Chinese civilization: monumental landscape painting” (Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2001). Mi Youren was the son of a painter whom he learned much of his techniques. In this painting, the blurry mountains are just one example of a formal element that Youren inherited from his father. This painting is on a paper hand scroll using wek ink dots. The use of ink dots gives the significance of the artist ability to mentally express himself.

[pic]
Scholar by a Waterfall
Artist: Ma Yuan (1190-1225)
Southern Song Dynasty (1127-1279)
Album leaf; ink and color on silk
The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Location: New York, New York

Scholar by a Waterfall was painted by artist Ma Yuan during the Southern Song Dynasty. This is an example of southern style landscape painting. One of the characteristics consistent with painting in the South is that it is unorthodox. It is unconventional and does not conform to the styles of other types of paintings. This painting depicts a young man in a garden. The waterfall and trees provide a serene and peaceful view. This is consistent with the scholar who appears to be in a quiet mood. The artist has used formal elements of jagged strokes for the trees and deep ink textures for a smooth natural looking garden.

[pic]
Twin Pines, Level Distance
Artist: Zhao Mengfu (1254-1322)
Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368)
Hand scroll; ink on paper
The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Location: New York, New York

Twin Pines, Level Distance was painted by artist Zhao Mengfu during the Yuan Dynasty. During the Yuan Dynasty, “highly educated scholar-artists, brushwork became calligraphic and assumed an autonomy that transcended its function as a means of creating representational forms” (Metropolitan Museum, 2001). The formal elements of this painting consist of calligraphic brushwork. Calligraphy was an essential representation of the Yuan Dynasty. Zhao Mengfu was able to capture the “heightened sense of life energy” by using brush strokes consistent with those of calligraphy. The artist was able to maintain balance in the painting effectively spacing the pine tree, mountains and land.

[pic]
Wang Xizhi Watching Geese
Artist: Qian Xuan (1235-1307)
Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368)
Hand scroll; ink, color, on gold paper
The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Location: New York, New York

Wang Xizhi Watching Geese was painted by artist Qian Xuan during the Yuan Dynasty. After the Southern Song dynasty collapsed Xuan lived as a yimin. This painting depicts the life of Wang Xizhi. The brush strokes in this painting are in synch with the background of Wang Xizhi who was a calligraphy master. “Using his richly archaistic “blue-and-green” painting style, the artist deliberately employed a primitive manner to allude to a lost immortal’s realm” (Metropolitan Museum, 2001). The use of the blue and green light shades of color provides the viewer with a peaceful and relaxing feeling. The artist has surrounded Wang Xizhi with natures simplest forms; trees, mountains, flowers, and rocks.

[pic]
Garden of the Unsuccessful Politician
Artist: Wen Zhengming (1470-1559)
Ming Dynasty (1551)
Album of 8 paintings with calligraphy; ink on paper
The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Location: New York, New York

Garden of Unsuccessful Politician was painted by artist Wen Zhengming during the Ming Dynasty. During the early Ming Dynasty painters took a more professional and realistic style of painting. Also during this Dynasty painters shifted from using art as a hobby of expression to using art as a main occupation (Art Realization, 2005). The Garden of Unsuccessful Politician is actually an album containing eight views of the garden. The first album included 31 views of the garden along with poems and notes. The artist was able to fuse poetry, calligraphy and painting, to create a memorable moment in the garden. At the age of 81, the artist still reflects on the unpleasant time in his life spent in Beijing.

[pic]
Landscapes
Artist: Dong Qichang (1555-1636)
Ming Dynasty (1368-1644)
Album of 8 paintings; ink on paper
The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Location: New York, New York

Landscapes is a collection of eight paintings in an album. The paintings were created by artist Dong Oichang during the Ming Dynasty. This collection of paintings reflects the artist view of Song and Yuan styles. Formal elements of contrasting brushstroke are consistent throughout each painting. The eight paintings maintain a level of uniqueness but also have similarities in the design of the landscapes. There are round and parallel brushstrokes as well as angular and oblique ones. These variations in strokes add a traditional style element to the collection. In this collection the viewer is able to stroll through a spiritual encounter in reflection to the art.

[pic]
The Kangxi Emperor’s Southern Inspection Tour;
Scroll Three: Ji’nan to Mount Tai
Artist: Wang Hui and Assistants
Qing Dynasty
Hand scroll; ink and color on silk
The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Location: New York, New York

The Kangxi Emperor’s Southern Inspection Tour; Scroll Three: Ji’nan to Mount Ta, was painted by artist Wang Hui and his assistants during the Quing Dynasty. This painting was done on a silk hand scroll using ink and color. This painting is a commemoration of the journey of Kangxi tour of inspection through Beijing. The artist painted twelve scrolls that show the path of this journey. The various hand scrolls show people following the command of the ruler. The artist incorporated the texture of the land by detailing the mountains, hills and vegetation. There is a balance of color used to enhance the natural tone to the paintings. It also provides a more realistic view of people.

[pic]
Splashed-color Landscape
Artist: Zhang Daqian
Traditional Chinese Painting in Twentieth Century
Hand scroll; ink and color on paper
The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Location: New York, New York

Splashed-Color Landscape was painted by artist Zhang Daqian in 1965. This abstract painting was done on a hand scroll using ink and many colors. The ink and color was used randomly splashed onto the paper. The contour lines were then added giving the landscape a “highly suggestive vision of storm-engulfed mountains suddenly illuminated by a burst of sunlight that has turned the somber clouds iridescent” (Metropolitan Museum, 2001). Although, storms can typically be interpreted as sorrow and darkness this painting still provides the viewer with a sense of relief. The storm is over and the sunshine starts to peak through to provide calmness and the sense that everything will be okay.

This timeline reflects the evolution of Chinese Landscape paintings. The artist all consistently used their feelings and personal experiences to represent the individual Dynasty the work was created in. The landscape paintings provided the artist and viewers with and escape from the troubles of everyday life. In these paintings one can find peace and tranquility. The paintings are a sincere representation of personal values and ideas of people in their daily life.

Reference:
Attributed to Dong Yuan: Riverbank (L.1997.24.1)". In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/L.1997.24.1 (September 2010)

"Attributed to Qu Ding: Summer Mountains (1973.120.1)". In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/1973.120.1 (October 2006)

Mi Youren: Cloudy Mountains (1973.121.1)". In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/1973.121.1 (June 2008)

Ma Yuan: Scholar by a Waterfall (1973.120.9)". In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/1973.120.9 (October 2006)

Zhao Mengfu: Twin Pines, Level Distance (1973.120.5)". In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/1973.120.5 (September 2010)

Qian Xuan: Wang Xizhi Watching Geese (1973.120.6)". In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/1973.120.6 (September 2010)

Wen Zhengming: Garden of the Unsuccessful Politician (1979.458.1)". In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/1979.458.1 (October 2006)

Dong Qichang: Landscapes (1986.266.5)". In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/1986.266.5 (March 2009)

Wang Hui and assistants: The Kangxi Emperor's Southern Inspection Tour, Scroll Three: Ji'nan to Mount Tai (1979.5)". In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/1979.5 (October 2008)

"Zhang Daqian: Splashed-color Landscape (1986.267.361)". In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/1986.267.361 (October 2006)

Ming Landscape Painting , The World of Chinese Art 1368-1644 http://www.artrealization.com/traditional_chinese_art/landscape_painting/ming/ming.htm Lachman, C. (2003). Landscape Art, Chinese. Encyclopedia of World Environmental History, 2756-759. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Chinese Landscape Paintings, “History of Chinese landscape paintings. Retrieved from http://www.ethnicpaintings.com/painting-by-themes/chinese-landscape-paintings.html

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Art 101 Final Project Timeline

...Art Timeline Author Axia College of University of Phoenix Art Timeline As curator of the museum I have been asked to develop an interactive timeline based on one art medium to improve the content of the museum website. Based on the criteria for the interactive timeline I have decided upon basing the timeline on paintings of Chinese nature and landscape to focus the timeline on an area of historic art that has managed to stay traditional while creating a new piece of artwork connected to its dynasty. Throughout time the Chinese dynasties have changed and evolved. The Interactive Timeline will take place during Classical Imperial China’s Song Dynasty consisting of the Northern Song Dynasty from A.D. 960 thru 1125 and the Southern Song Dynasty fro A.D. 1127 thru 1279 (Minnesota State University, n.d.). Nature and landscape paintings from the Song Dynasty develop a focal point within the painting that expresses the artist meaning throughout the painting. The artwork of the Northern Song Dynasty is defines as being traditional and conservative while the Southern Song Dynasty lacks the tradition and would be defined as drastic, often creative pieces of work that are unusual compared to what was the norm (Sayre, 2007). Continuing through the interactive timeline comparative artwork from the preceding Dynasties of the Yuan Dynasty from A.D. 1279 thru 1368, the Ming Dynasty from A.D. 1368 thru 1644, the Qing Dynasty from A.D. 1644 thru 1911, and finally ending with modern......

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