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Chinese Philosophy

In: Philosophy and Psychology

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Chinese Philosophy (Confusisus) by Abraham Timothy on Saturday, December 13, 2008 at 3:18pm
Confusius membagi manusia menjadi seorang gentleman (jun zi - 君子) yaitu orang yang memiliki karakter agung, jiwa yang besar, pengertian, serta warisan tata krama yang baik dan orang kecil (xiao ren - 小人). Seorang gentleman adalah orang yang bertanggung jawab atas segala sesuatu yang dia kerjakan dan dia betul-betul meneliti dan menjalankan kebajikan sejauh yang dia tahu, sedangkan orang kecil selalu sembunyi-sembunyi, tidak pernah terbuka atau jujur.

Confusius mengajarkan perbedaan antara seorang gentleman dan orang kecil:
1. Jun zi yu yu yi, xiao ren yu yu li (君子俞於義, 小人俞於利)
Seorang gentleman mementingkan kebenaran dan keadilan, sedangkan orang kecil mementingkan keuntungan semata. Di dunia ini untung-rugi seringkali menutupi benar-salah. Kita perlu tahu kebenaran untuk membentuk kita menjadi orang yang lebih bertanggung jawab. Yesus berkata, "Kalau kebenaranmu tidak melampaui kebenaran orang Farisi, engkau tidak bisa masuk kerajaan Surga." Apakah kita mengutamakan keuntungan atau kebenaran?

2. Jun zi shang da, xiao ren xia da (君子上達, 小人下達)
Seorang gentleman selalu berjuang untuk maju, sedangkan orang kecil selalu melihat ke bawah, yang dipikirkan selalu hal yang remeh dan kecil. Seorang gentleman memiliki hasrat untuk maju walaupun banyak kesulitan. Walaupun membutuhkan banyak tenaga dan pengorbanan, hal ini justru membentuk karakter yang semakin baik. Janganlah kita menjatuhkan diri dalam hal yang tidak beres hanya karena lebih enak dan lancar. Meluncur ke bawah itu gampang, mendaki gunung itu sulit.

3. Jun zi you san wei (君子有三畏)
Seorang gentleman mempunyai perasaan takut akan 3 hal, yaitu:
• Wei tian ming 畏天命) artinya takut kepada mandat surgawi. Kehendak Tuhan harus dilakukan, mandat surgawi tidak boleh ditunda.
• Wei ta ren (畏大人) artinya takut dan hormat kepada atasan yang agung.
• Wei sheng ren zhi yan (畏聖人之言) artinya takut kepada perkataan orang suci.
Dalam kekristenan rasa takut ini dapat diartikan sebagai takut kepada Allah, takut kepada nabi, dan takut kepada pengajaran orang besar.

4. Jun zi qiu zhu ji, xiao ren qiu zhu ren (君子求諸己, 小人求諸人)
Seorang gentleman senantiasa menuntut, mengajar, dan mendisiplinkan diri sendiri. Orang kecil senantiasa menuntut dan menyalahkan orang lain. A gentleman demands from himself, a small man only demands from others. Orang Farisi menyuruh orang lain kerja ini dan itu, tetapi dia sendiri satu jari pun tidak bergerak. Kong Fu Zi mengatakan, “Yang tidak kamu inginkan, jangan kamu lakukan pada orang lain.” Tapi Yesus mengatakan, “Yang kamu inginkan, lakukan dulu pada orang lain.”

5. Jun zi bu qi (君子不器)
Seorang gentleman tidak hanya berguna untuk satu hal saja. Qi disini adalah suatu alat, seperti halnya suatu bejana dibuat untuk minum dan tidak bisa dipakai untuk hal yang lain. Kegunaannya terbatas. Seorang gentleman harus belajar sebanyak mungkin sehingga banyak gunanya. Ada satu buku berjudul "Between Japanese and Jewish" yang ditulis oleh seseorang yang ayahnya adalah seorang Yahudi dan ibunya berkebangsaan Jepang. Dia menyimpulkan, "Orang Timur itu generalis, tidak spesialis. Orang Barat itu spesialis, tidak generalis. Hanya orang Israel satu-satunya yang mengatakan semua harus dipelajari. Pertama mereka akan belajar sebagai generalis, semua harus dimengerti. Sesudah itu memuncak untuk belajar satu spesialisasi. Sehingga mereka memiliki keahlian yang tinggi dalam satu bidang. Tetapi kalau tidak bekerja di bidang itu, bidang yang lain pun bisa. Orang Jepang mengikuti hal ini, walau tidak sehebat orang Yahudi.”

6. Jun zi zhou er bu bi, xiao ren bi er bu zhou (君子周
而不比, 小人比而不周)
Seorang gentleman menyatukan keseluruhan dan tidak mendirikan partai kecil untuk kelompoknya sendiri, contohnya negarawan. Orang kecil hanya baik dengan kelompoknya sendiri, tetapi keseluruhan diabaikan. Dalam lingkungan rohani pun, banyak orang yang hanya mau bergaul dengan orang yang cocok dengan dirinya sendiri.

7. Jun zi jin er bu zheng, jin er bu dang 君子衿而不
筝,衿而不黨)
Seorang gentleman menyatukan keseluruhan dengan tegas. Dia tidak mencari muka dan tidak menyenangkan orang-orang tertentu saja.

8. Jun zi he er bu tong, tong er bu he (君子和而不同,
同而不和)
Seorang gentleman harmonis dengan semua orang, tetapi tidak menyetujui pendirian yang salah. Walaupun dia tidak setuju dengan teori orang lain dan tetap berpegang teguh pada pendiriannya sendiri, tetapi dia tetap dapat hidup berdamai dan saling menghormati.

9. Jun zi tai er bu jiao, xiao ren jiao er bu tai (君子泰而不驕,
小人驕而不泰)
Seorang gentleman memiliki jiwa yang stabil, mantap, tidak sombong, dan tidak membanggakan diri. Sedangkan orang kecil selalu menyombongkan dan membanggakan diri sendiri, tetapi itu justru menyatakan bahwa dia tidak punya kestabilan jiwa. Dalam keadaan bahaya pun, seorang gentleman tidak menjadi gelisah, dia tetap mantap dan tenang.

10. Jun zi na yu yan, er min yu xing 君子納於言, 而
敏於行)
Seorang gentleman bicaranya tidak lancar tetapi sangat rajin dan lincah dalam melakukan sesuatu.Dia lebih pandai melakukan apa yang dia tahu daripada membicarakan teorinya.

11. Jun zi zhen er bu liang 君子貞而不諒)
Seorang gentleman kokoh mempertahankan kebenaran dengan tidak kompromi. Orang yang selalu memperhatikan hal-hal kecil mungkin lebih rapi, bersih, dan bagus, tetapi tidak pernah memberikan sumbangsih yang besar kepada dunia. Mungkin seorang gentleman itu lalai dalam hal-hal kecil, tetapi ia berkonsentrasi kepada hal-hal yang lebih besar dan mulia.

12.Jun zi tan dang dang, xiao ren chang qi qi (君子坦
蕩蕩,小人長戚戚)
Seorang gentleman memiliki hati yang lapang, sedangkan orang kecil menggerutu sepanjang hari dan tidak pernah merasa puas. Kita sebagai orang Kristen dalam kondisi apa pun seharusnya tidak boleh bersungut- sungut ataupun mengomel, tetapi mengatur diri untuk senantiasa mengucap syukur kepada Tuhan.

13. Jun zi gu qiong, xiao ren qiong si lan yi (君子固窮,
小人窮斯懢矣)
Seorang gentleman juga ada waktunya mengalami kemiskinan. Tetapi di dalam kesusahan dia tetap mempertahankan sifat dan karakternya yang agung. Sedangkan orang kecil kalau mengalami kemiskinan akan terlihat karakternya yang hancur-hancuran, misalnya langsung pergi mencuri. Sebaliknya, jika kaya raya tetap saja karakternya hancur, misalnya pergi melacur. Paulus mengatakan, “Aku tahu bagaimana menghadapi kekayaan dan bagaimana menghadapi kemiskinan.”

14. Jun zi cheng ren zhi mei, xiao ren fan zhi (君子成之美, 小人反`之)
Seorang gentleman selalu menginginkan orang lain bahagia, sedangkan orang kecil tidak suka melihat orang lain menjadi sukses. Kalau ada seseorang yang memiliki rencana agung lalu memberitahu kamu, apa yang akan kamu lakukan? Jangan iri! Restui dia! Kalau perlu bantu dia. Kalimat ini jelas dapat membedakan mana orang yang agung dan mana yang bukan. Kalau melihat orang kecil, doakan dia agar dia dapat menjadi orang yang agung. Dan yang paling penting, kita sendiri harus menjadi orang agung yang mempengaruhi dan mendidik anak kita sehingga memupuk karakter mereka menuju keagungan. Ketika kita melihat bagaimana orang lain diberkati melalui kita, maka kita akan mendapatkan sukacita yang tidak bisa dibeli dengan uang, karena memang sungguh luar biasa ketika kita yang remeh ini bisa dipakai oleh Tuhan.

15.Jun zi bu ke xiao zhi, er ke da shou (君子不可小
知, 而可大受)
Seorang gentleman jangan dinilai dari kelemahannya yang kecil. Kalau kamu tahu kelemahan kecil seseorang, jangan langsung memvonis dia berdasarkan kelemahan kecil tersebut. Kalau dia memiliki pekerjaan-pekerjaan besar, hal-hal kecil jangan dinilai. Jangan berteman dengan orang yang selalu membicarakan kejelekan orang lain. Seorang gentleman apabila dipercayakan dengan hal yang besar, dia dapat mengerjakannya dengan tuntas dan baik. Xiao ren bu ke da shou (小人不可大受) artinya orang kecil jangan diberikan tugas yang besar karena besok akan dirusak semua.

16.Jun zi yi shi er nan ye ye (君子易事, 而難説也)
Seorang gentleman tidak menuntut banyak dalam hal materi dan kepribadiannya mudah dilayani. Tetapi sulit untuk menyenangkan dia, karena dia memiliki ide-ide yang terlalu tinggi. Jadi dalam pekerjaan, karakter, pelayanan, dan cara bertata krama ada tuntutan-tuntutan yang tinggi, tetapi pribadi orang itu tidak perlu dilayani dengan susah payah. Yesus tetap yang paling tinggi, karena Yesus datang bukan untuk dilayani, melainkan untuk melayani. Ye zhi bu yu dao, bu ye ye (説之不於道, 不説也) artinya kalau engkau berusaha menyenangkan seorang gentleman bukan dengan kebenaran, pasti dia akan marah. Shi ren ye qi zhi (使人也器之) artinya kalau seorang gentleman memperkerjakan seseorang, dia akan memakai orang itu sesuai dengan bakatnya dan akan membuat orang itu menjadi lebih berguna. Xiao ren nan shi, er yi ye ye (小人難事, 而易説也) artinya orang kecil susah sekali dilayani, tetapi mudah menyenangkan dia, contohnya asal diberi uang atau perempuan, dia sudah senang. Orang kecil tidak bicara soal benar atau tidak benar, yang penting dia mendapatkan keuntungan, kesenangan, dan seks. Yue zi sui bu yi dao, ye ye (説之雖不於道, 説也) artinya mau menyenangkan seseorang walaupun tanpa kebenaran. Dengan cara apakah kamu menyenangkan bosmu? Apakah dengan hasil pekerjaanmu yang baik atau dengan menyodorkan dia seorang perempuan? Hal inilah yang terjadi dalam dunia bisnis sekarang ini. Shi ren ye qiu quan bei (使人也求全備) artinya kalau memperkerjakan seseorang, dia menuntut harus menuruti kemauannya 100%.

17. Jun zi bo xue yi wen yue zhi yu li (君子博學於文,約之於礼)
Seorang gentleman mempunyai pengetahuan yang luas dan membatasi semuanya itu dengan tata krama. Semua pengetahuannya digunakan dengan peraturan yang betul-betul mengikat dan tidak sembarangan.

18. Jun zi huai de, xiao ren huai tu (君子壞德, 小人壞土)
Seorang gentleman memiliki moral di dalam jiwanya. Sedangkan orang kecil hanya memiliki keuntungan yang remeh saja.

19. Jun zi huai xing, xiao ren huai hui (君子壞刑, 小人壞惠)
Seorang gentleman takut akan hukuman di dalam hatinya. Sedangkan hati orang kecil hanya tahunya keuntungan pribadi. Kalau orang kecil diberi uang meski hanya sedikit, disuruh mengerjakan apa pun mau, walaupun itu melanggar hukum.

Pada bagian terakhir dari seri Chinese Philosophy ini, sekali lagi kita akan belajar bahwa yang ditulis/dikatakan oleh Kong Fu Zi bukanlah wahyu, melainkan hanya reaksi manusia terhadap wahyu.

by Pdt. Dr. Stephen Tong quote from: Buletin pillar agustus 2004

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...Laura Galan (DRAFT) Introduction to Philosophy Philosopher Paper - Chuang-Tzu "The Chinese philosopher Chuang Tzu (ca. 369-ca. 286 BC), also known as Chuang Chou, was the most brilliant of the early Taoists and the greatest prose writer of his time." http://www.bookrags.com/biography/chuang-tzu/ "Not much is known of the life of Chuang Tzu. The Shih Chi (Historical Records, written about 100 BC) tells us that he was a contemporary of King Hui of Liang (370-319) and King Hsüan of Ch'i (319-301). Thus Chuang Tzu seems to have been a contemporary of Mencius (372-289), but neither was mentioned by the other in his extant writings. The Shih Chi also says that Chuang Tzu was born in Meng on the border of Shantung and Honan and that he held a petty official post for a time in Ch'iyüan. However, he seems to have lived most of his life as a recluse, "to be intoxicated in the wonder and the power of Nature." http://www.bookrags.com/biography/chuang-tzu/ It is said that Chuang Tzu did not desire material things and had little interest in occupying positions of high status. He rather cared, enjoyed and was mystified by dwelling in natures surroundings as well as the personal freedoms that it offered. He cared little for anything relating to positions of higher office. "When Chuang Tzu was about to die, his disciples expressed a wish to give him a splendid funeral. But Chuang Tzu said, With the heavens and earth itself for my coffin and shell; with the sun, moon, and...

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...Nadine Couto LIT-211 03/03/2014 The book Tao Te Ching was originally called Laozi, the author’s name. When people mentioned Laozi, they were referring to the book as well as the man. The Tao Te Ching is translated as The Classic of the Way and Its Virtue, or simply The Way of Life. Laozi was a quiet and secluded person, and no one would have known him had he not written the Tao Te Ching. No details are known with certainty about his life. The introduction has the purpose to describe the concept and structure of Tao. Lao Tzu was trying to explain something that was inexpressible with language. According to the text Laozi (Lao Tzu) “One of the difficulties of the poems in the Dao De Jing is that they do not provide explanations or definitions, The Dao De Jing begins with what seems to be a series of conclusions about the dao, a word and concept for which we have no English equivalent. “ (Crawford et al. 1603) With that being said, Tao is something that is beyond whatever we could possible describe. The first two lines on the introduction “ The Tao that can be told is not the eternal Tao/ The name that can be named is not the eternal name.” can be described as the Tao that can be completely explained or expressed in words is not the constant, eternally unchanging and true Tao. The main idea here is that the Tao is a concept beyond reason and logic. If the name of this Tao can be defined with words, then it is not the constant, eternally unchanging name of......

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