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中國政治思想史
第六章 墨家的政治思想 思考及問題討論

報告題目:

一、孔子的尚「仁」思想不正是為救世嗎?為什麼墨子竟然將之也歸為亂源?墨子是否亂扣帽子?或者孔子在這方面真有問題?

二、很多人批評墨家的「兼愛」太過理想化,不如儒家的主張符合人性、實際可行,你認為呢?墨子又怎樣辯護自己的思想實際可行呢?

三、現代社會在政治、商業、文化,乃至於全球的激烈競爭,墨子的「兩利互惠」有甚麼好處?

四、有些仁鑑於現代社會的奢華而主張簡樸,甚至有所謂「清貧思想」,還因應著流行的環保意識,追求回歸自然的簡單。他們想法,跟墨家的主張有何異同?追求簡樸的目的又有何不同?

五、在傳統上,「賣身葬父」固然是悲劇,但又很矛盾的被謳歌為孝道,墨家怎麼看待這樣的事情?

班別:行政3B
學號:410172006
姓名:洪玉蟠

一、孔子的尚「仁」思想不正是為救世嗎?為什麼墨子竟然將之也歸為亂源?墨子是否亂扣帽子?或者孔子在這方面真有問題?

仁的概念,孔子以前就有,春秋以前人們一般把尊親敬長、愛及民眾,忠於君主和儀文美德都稱為仁,而孔子繼承了前人的觀念,並且把「仁」發展成為系統的仁說。孔子在《論語》中以仁貫穿全書,其涉及「仁」的概念思想甚至高達58段共105字,孔子把「仁」作為實踐中的指導原則。孔子的弟子樊遲問孔子什麼是仁,孔子問答說:"愛人",主要意義是善待他人。孔子的「仁」,涵義甚廣。《顏淵篇》記載顏淵、仲弓、司馬牛三人「問仁」,孔子有三種答案。

最直接的詮釋為:
子曰:「克己復禮為仁。 一日克己復禮,天下歸仁焉。為仁由己,而由人乎哉?」顏淵曰:「請問其目?」子曰:「非禮勿視,非禮勿聽,非禮勿言,非禮勿動。」顏淵曰:「回雖不敏,請事斯語矣。」自《論語·顏淵篇》。

「仁」是人與人之間的一種社會關係。社會由家庭組合而成,家裡有父母、子女,互相之間產生慈孝友悌等倫理關係。家庭裡的倫理關係,擴大為社會中君臣的政治等級關係。於是,仁既是家庭的道德關係,又是社會的政治關係。仁強調在保持社會等級的基礎上,人們要發自內心地愛人,而不是靠外力的強迫。要做到仁,行為上就必須遵守禮的規範。因此可知,孔子所強調的「仁」是種體制下的愛,而這份愛是有親疏遠近、先後順序的別愛。

別愛與墨家所強調的兼愛有著天壤之別。別愛的愛是不同等重要、有先後之別的愛;墨家所提倡的兼愛其本質是要求人們愛人如己,彼此之間不要存在血緣與等級差別的觀念。天下人廣受儒家薰陶,殊不知其所學的仁愛卻是造就自私的根源,墨家除了指出仁愛是種差別之愛外,更指出儒家思想兩項重要的缺失。

首先,在儒家的仁愛下,每個人的資源決定了一切。儒家推崇推己及人,先照顧好家裡人,有餘力再向外推展照顧他人,最後建立起安康的世道。但這思想也迫使人們開始追求財富,因為只有足夠的財富資源才能真正的照顧好家人,讓家人過上溫飽的日子,這驅使了人們掀起一股經濟主義的熱潮,人們追求仁愛的同時也在追求金錢,讓每份愛都在不知不覺中染上了銅臭味,甚至會以金錢衡量愛的價值,將原先良善的立意都扭曲變形。

再來,這份有著先後順序的別愛,強調要先照顧好親人,但到底要到甚麼程度這份照顧才是個終結?古代甚至推演至今,人們對自家人的照顧如同黑洞般,永無盡頭,父母永遠想將最好的留給孩子,孩子永遠想將所有財富留在家中供家長頤養天年,在這死循環下,所有的資源都鎖死在「照顧親人」中,人們認為給予親人的愛永遠也不夠,既然認為所給予的都不夠了,怎會有餘力考慮到他人?這造就了世人只愛自家人,不會在乎其他人生死的自私情懷,所有的溫情只可能存在於人們自家緊密的交際圈,跨出了這個小圈圈,等著你的只有堪比嚴冬的冷漠與冷情。

上述兩點造就了深植於人心的自私之愛,而這正是墨家竭力所要抨擊的弊病,墨家認為世局的亂源不在於無愛,而是局限於自家人的自私之愛,在《墨子》卷四 兼愛篇,其內文寫道:

當察亂何自起?起不相愛。臣子之不孝君父,所謂亂也。子自愛,不愛父,故虧父而自利;弟自愛,不愛兄,故虧兄而自利;臣自愛,不愛君,故虧君而自利,此所謂亂也。雖父之不慈子,兄之不慈弟,君之不慈臣,此亦天下之所謂亂也。父自愛也,不愛子,故虧子而自利;兄自愛也,不愛弟,故虧弟而自利;君自愛也,不愛臣,故虧臣而自利。是何也?皆起不相愛。...

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