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Chm/110

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Chemistry of DNA
The chemistry of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is not as mysterious as some make it out to be. DNA is simply the hereditary material in all of living organisms; the biological instructions that make each species unique (National Human Genome Research Institute, 2012). Every part of our bodies contains tiny cells of DNA and within the nucleus of these cells is the information of hereditary. Nucleic acids are the building blocks of information storage; DNA and RNA (ribonucleic acid). According to Simon & Reece (2010), “There are four kinds of DNA bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), thymine (T), and cytosine (C). A always pairs with T, and G always pairs with C. These base-pairing rules enable DNA to act as the molecule of inheritance” (p. 52).
“Each base is also attached to a sugar molecule and a phosphate molecule. Together, a base, sugar, and phosphate are called a nucleotide. Nucleotides are arranged in two long strands that form a spiral called a double helix” (Genetics Home Reference, 2013, para. 3). Conversely, all four of these molecules are involved in all of the structures and processes of cells and organisms. Each molecule; proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids have specific functions, but each type of molecule usually has more than one function (University of Idaho, 2008).
As an example proteins can act as enzymes but also transport other molecules around, act as structural support and even act as protection for the cell. “Of the literally millions of different types of proteins used by living organisms, all proteins are made from the same 20 amino acids, and all are made in the same way” (University of Idaho, 2008, para. 7). Lipids help with long-term storing of energy; however, lipids are hydrophobic. Not necessarily afraid of water, but they are non-soluble. Carbohydrates provide dietary energy. Such carbohydrates are...

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