Free Essay

Citations

In: English and Literature

Submitted By jholle1985
Words 5909
Pages 24
Bibliographic

Citations

I. Each of the following resource citations has three parts.

❑ The first part is the type of resource (for example, “Book, one author”). The BOLD Comic Sans font in 14 pt identifies this part of each citation.

❑ The second part is a template containing the components needed to cite the resource. The grey boxes identify the template in each citation. This part is in 12 pt Times New Roman.

❑ The third part provides an actual example of a resource found in a Lexington County District One Library Media Center. The red font in 12 pt Times New Roman, double-spaced lines and hanging indent identify this part of each citation. II. To use the citation template, highlight the template for the resource you need to cite, then copy and paste into your paper.

1st_Author's_LastName, 1st_Author's_FirstName, and 2nd_Author's_FirstName 2nd_Author's_LastName. Title. City_of_Publication: Publisher, Date_of_Publication.

III. Select one of the grey boxes and type the correct information. As soon as you click on each grey box to select it, it is highlighted—do not delete the grey box—just start typing. Notice in the sample below, “Warhol” has replaced the grey box that said “1st_Author’s_LastName” in Step II above.

Warhol, 1st_Author's_FirstName, and 2nd_Author's_FirstName 2nd_Author's_LastName. Title. City_of_Publication: Publisher, Date_of_Publication.

IV. The punctuation, italics, and underlines will be inserted automatically as you type.

Warhol, Tom, and Chris Reiter. Eagles. Tarrytown: Marshall Cavendish, 2004. V. Make sure that the lines of citations are double-spaced and that each citation has a “hanging” indent.

VI. Remember that a list of citations should be alphabetized by the first word in each citation (with the exception of “A”, “An”, or “The”).

VII. The format for these citations is based primarily on MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers: Seventh Edition. Additional sources listed in section bibliography were consulted and used for clarification. Please consult your teacher and these resources for additional information.

If errors are noted in this Bibliographic Citation Guide, please contact Elizabeth Harrell <eharrell@lexington1.net> so corrections may be made. Table of Contents Source Type Source Number Book, Introduction or Preface 1 Book, no author or anonymous 2 Book, one author 3 Book, two authors 4 Book, three or more authors 5 Book, corporate or organization author 6 Book, one editor 7 Book, two editors 8 Book in a series, volumes numbered 9 Book in a series, volumes unnumbered 10 Quotation, as quoted in a book 11 Bible, The 12 Work in Anthology or Story Collection, one author for entire collection, no editor listed…… ……………...13 Work in an Anthology or Story Collection, multiple authors represented, editor listed 14 Article, previously published, reprinted in a collection 15 Article in one volume of a multi-volume work 16 General encyclopedia article, in print, article author listed 17 General encyclopedia article, in print, article author not listed 18 Encyclopedia article on the web, Wikipedia 19 Specialized encyclopedia article, author of article listed 20 Specialized encyclopedia article, author of article not listed 21 Reference book article, [sole] author of book listed 22 Reference book article, no book author listed, book editor listed, no article author listed 23 Reference book article, no book author listed, book editor listed, article author listed 24 Reference work, in its entirety 25 Article from a multi-volume work not in alphabetical order, article author listed 26 Article from a multi-volume work not in alphabetical order, article author not listed 27 Entry from a dictionary, directory, or other alphabetically arranged reference book 28 Government publication, Congressional Record…. 29 Government publication, Federal 30 Government publication, State 31 Magazine article, weekly, in print, author listed 32 Magazine article, weekly, in print, no author listed 33 Magazine article, monthly, in print, author listed 34 Magazine article, monthly, in print, no author listed 35 Newspaper article, daily, in print, author listed 36 Newspaper article, daily, in print, no author listed 37 Newspaper article on web, author listed 38 Newspaper article on web, no author listed 39 Editorial, author listed 40 Editorial, no author listed 41 Letter to the Editor 42

Table of Contents, page 2 Source Type Source Number Pamphlet 43 Advertisement 44 Cartoons and comic strips, print 45 Cartoon and comic strips, online 46 Video or DVD recording 47 Film clip, online 48 Sound recording on compact disc, audiocassette, other 49 Specific song on a recording 50 Sound recording, online 51 Television or radio broadcast 52 Work of Visual Art—original painting, lithograph, sculpture or similar work 53 Work of Visual Art—reproduction of painting, lithograph, sculpture or similar work 54 Work of Visual Art online 55 Map or chart, in print 56 Map or chart, online 57 Interview conducted by you 58 Interview conducted by someone other than you 59 Email 60 Posting to online listserv, discussion group, blog, or other 61 Web page, personal 62 Web page, professional or organizational, author listed 63 Web page, professional or organizational, no author listed 64 Online Database (other than those in DISCUS), provided by school 65 DISCUS – Academic OneFile 66 DISCUS – AccessScience 67 DISCUS - Biography Resource Center 68 DISCUS – Book Review Index 69 DISCUS – Books and Authors 70 DISCUS – Britannica Online Public Library Edition 71 DISCUS – Britannica Online School Edition 72 DISCUS - Business and Company Resource Center 73 DISCUS - Custom Newspapers 74 DISCUS - Educator’s Reference Complete 75 DISCUS – Enciclopedia Juvenil (Spanish) 76 DISCUS - Expanded Academic ASAP 77 DISCUS – Gale Virtual Reference Library 78 DISCUS - General BusinessFile ASAP 79 DISCUS - General OneFile 80 DISCUS - General Reference Center 81 DISCUS - Health and Wellness Resource Center 82 DISCUS - Health Reference Center Academic 83 DISCUS – History Resource Center: U.S. 84 DISCUS – History Resource Center: World 85 DISCUS – Junior Edition 86 DISCUS – Kids InfoBits 87 DISCUS - LegalTrac 88 DISCUS - Literature Resources from Gale 89 DISCUS – Nursing Resource Center 90 DISCUS – Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center 91 DISCUS – Power Search 92 DISCUS – Science Resource Center 93 DISCUS - SIRS Discoverer 94 DISCUS - SIRS Knowledge Source 95 DISCUS – Small Business Resource Center 96 DISCUS – Student Edition 97 DISCUS – World Data Analyst 98

Note – According to MLA Handbook, 7th edition, item 5.5.2, “In general, omit titles, affiliations, and degrees that precede or follow names.” (i.e.: PhD, Sir, etc.)

1. Book, Introduction, Preface, Foreword, or Afterword

Author's_LastName, Author's_FirstName. Name_of_Selection. Title. By Author_of_Book. City_of_Publication: Publisher, Date_of_Publication. Pages. Print.
Cox, Lynne. Prologue. Swimming to Antarctica: Tales of a Long-Distance Swimmer. By Cox. Orlando: Harcourt, Inc., 2004. i-iv. Print.

2. Book, no author or anonymous

Title. City_of_Publication: Publisher, Date_of_Publication. Print.
Go Ask Alice. New York: Avon, 1972. Print.

3. Book, one author

Author's_LastName, Author's_FirstName. Title. City_of_Publication: Publisher, Date_of_Publication. Print.
Castner, James L. Layers of Life. New York: Benchmark Books, 2002. Print.

4. Book, two authors

1st_Author's_LastName, 1st_Author's_FirstName, and 2nd_Author's_FirstName 2nd_Author's_LastName. Title. City_of_Publication: Publisher, Date_of_Publication. Print.
Warhol, Tom, and Chris Reiter. Eagles. Tarrytown: Cavendish, 2004. Print.

5. Book, three or more authors

1st_Author's_LastName, 1st_Author's_FirstName, et al. Title. City_of_Publication: Publisher, Date_of_Publication. Print.
Canfield, Jack, et al. Chicken Soup for the Teenage Soul: 101 Stories of Life, Love and Learning. Deerfield Beach: Health Communications, Inc., 1997. Print.

6. Book, corporate or organization author

Corporation's Name. Title. City_of_Publication: Publisher, Date_of_Publication. Print.
Association for Library Service to Children. Newbery and Caldecott Awards: A Guide to the Medal and Honor Books. Chicago: American Library Association, 2002. Print.

7. Book, one editor

Editor’s_LastName, Editor’s_FirstName, ed. Title. City_of_Publication: Publisher, Date_of_Publication. Print.
Goulart, Ron, ed. The Encyclopedia of American Comics. New York: Facts on File, 1990. Print.

8. Book, two editors

Editor’s_LastName, Editor’s_FirstName, and Second_Editor_FirstName Second_Editor_LastName, eds. Title of Book. Edition,_ if_any ed. City_of_Publication: Publisher, Date_of_Publication. Print.
Hanes, Sharon, and Richard C. Hanes, eds. Great Depression and New Deal: Primary Sources. Detroit: UXL, 2003. Print.

9. Book in a series, volumes numbered

Author’s_LastName, Author’s_FirstName. Title of Book. City_of_Publication: Publisher, Date_of_Publication. Print. Series Title Series_Number.
Rinaldi, Ann. The Blue Door. New York: Scholastic, 1996. Print. The Quilt Trilogy 3.
10. Book in a series, volumes unnumbered

Author’s_LastName, Author’s_FirstName. Title of Book.. City_of_Publication: Publisher, Date_of_Publication. Print. Title of Series.
Stefoff, Rebecca. The Opening of the West. New York: Marshall Cavendish, 2003. Print. American Voices From.

11. Quotation, as quoted in a book

Last name, First name of person being quoted. As quoted in Author(s)_of_Book. Title of Book. City_of_Publication: Publisher, Date_of_Publication. Print
Galo, George. As quoted in Tom Brokaw. An Album of Memories. New York: Random House, 2001. Print.

12. The Bible

Title. City_of_Publication: Publisher, Date_of_Publication. Print.
The Holy Bible: New International Version. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1989. Print.

13. Work in Anthology or Story Collection, one author for entire collection, no editor listed

Author’s_LastName, Author’s_FirstName. “Title of Story.” Title of Book. City_of_Publication: Publisher, Date_of_Publication. Pages. Print.
Crutcher, Chris. “In the Time I Get.” Athletic Shorts. New York: Greenwillow, 1991. 125-140. Print.

14. Work in an Anthology or Story Collection, multiple authors represented, editor listed

Last Name of Author of work, First Name of Author of Work. “Title of Work. ”Title of Book. Ed. Editor’s_FirstName Editor’s_LastName. City_of_Publication: Publisher, Date_of_Publication. Pages. Print.
Poe, Edgar Allen. “Annabel Lee.” Poetry for Young People: Edgar Allen Poe. Ed. Brod Bagert. New York: Sterling Publishing Co., 1995. 132-141. Print.

15. Article, previously published, reprinted in a collection

Last Name of Author, First Name of Author. “Title of Article.” Title of Journal: Volume # of Journal (Date of Journal): Pages. Print. Rpt. in Title of Book. Ed. Editor’s_FirstName Editor’s_LastName. Vol. Volume #. City_of_Publication: Publisher, Date_of_Publication. Pages.
Hansen, Chadwick. “The Character of Jim and the Ending of ‘Huckleberry Finn’.” The Massachusetts Review: Vol. V, No. 1. (Autumn, 1963): 45-66. Print. Rpt. in Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism. Ed. Dennis Poupard. Vol. 19. Detroit: Gale Research, 1986. 213-214.

16. Article in one volume of a multi-volume work

Article_Author's_LastName, Article_Author's_FirstName. “Title of Article.” Title of Reference Book. Vol #. Ed. Editor’s_FirstName Editor’s_LastName. Edition_Number ed. City_of_Publication: Publisher, Date_of_Publication. Print.
Adler, Richard. “Jonas Salk.” Biographical Encyclopedia of Scientists. Ed. Richard Olson. Vol. 1. Tarrytown: Marshall Cavendish. 1998. Print.

17. General encyclopedia article, in print, article author listed

Author’s_LastName, Author’s_FirstName. “Title of Article.” Encyclopedia Title. Edition #. Copyright Year. Print.
Costello, Bonnie. “Frost, Robert Lee.” The World Book Encyclopedia. 2000. Print.

18. General encyclopedia article, in print, article author not listed

“Title of Article.” Encyclopedia Title. Edition_Number. Copyright_Year. Print. “South Carolina.” Compton’s Encyclopedia. 2004. Print.

19. General encyclopedia article on the web, Wikipedia

“Article Title.” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Date of publication_or_revision. Web. Date_of_Access. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Article_title_at end_of_URL>.
“Emily Dickinson.” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. 30 June 2005. Web. 5 July 2005. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emily_Dickinson>.

20. Specialized encyclopedia article, author of article listed

Article Author’s_LastName, Article Author’s_FirstName. “Title of Article.” Title of Reference Book. Ed. Editor’s_FirstName Editor’s_LastName. Edition_Number. Vol. Vol_#. City_of_Publication: Publisher, Date_of_Publication. Print.
Bowers, Peter G. “Vapor Pressure.” Macmillan Encyclopedia of Chemistry. Ed. Joseph J. Lagowski. Vol. 4. New York: Simon, 1997. Print.

21. Specialized encyclopedia article, no author listed

“Title of Article.” Title of Reference Book. Ed. Editor’s_FirstName Editor’s_LastName. Edition_Number. Vol. Vol_#. City_of_Publication: Publisher, Date_of_Publication. Print.
“Aquaculture.” Encyclopedia of the Aquatic World. Ed. Marian Armstrong. Edition #. Vol. 11. New York: Marshall Cavendish, 2004. Print.

22. Reference book article, [sole] author of book listed

Author’s_LastName, Author’s_FirstName. “Title of Article.” Title of Reference Book. City_of_Publication: Publisher, Date_of_Publication. Print.
Perkins, Dorothy. “Shanghai.” Encyclopedia of China: The Essential Reference to China, Its History and Culture. New York: Facts on File, 2000. Print.

23. Reference book article, no book author listed, book editor listed, no article author listed

“Title of Article.” Title of Reference Book. Ed. Editor’s_FirstName Editor’s_LastName. Edition_Number. Vol. Vol_#. City_of_Publication: Publisher, Date_of_Publication. Print.
“Deportations.” Learning About the Holocaust: A Student’s Guide. Ed. Ronald M. Smelser. Vol. 3. Farmington Hills: Gale, 2001. Print.
24. Reference book article, no book author listed, book editor listed, article author listed

Article_Author's_LastName, Article_Author's_FirstName. “Title of Article.” Title of Reference Book. Ed. Editor’s_FirstName Editor’s_LastName. Edition _Number. Vol. Vol_#. City_of_Publication: Publisher, Date_of_Publication. Print.
Whitcombe, Todd W. “Einstein, Albert.” Chemistry: Foundations and Applications. Ed. J.J. Lagowski. First Edition. Vol. 4. New York: Macmillan, 2004. Print.

25. Reference work, in its entirety

Editor's_LastName, Editor's_FirstName, ed. Title. City_of_Publication: Publisher, Date_of_Publication. Print.
Matuz, Roger, ed. Contemporary Southern Writers. Detroit: St. James, 1999. Print.

26. Article from a multi-volume work not in alphabetical order, article author listed

Author’s_LastName, Author’s_FirstName. “Article Title.” Title. Vol. Vol_#. City_of_Publication: Publisher, Date_of_Publication. Print.
Morris, Pat. “Tiger.” World of Animals. Vol. 2. Danbury: Grolier, 2003. Print.

27. Article from a multi-volume work not in alphabetical order, article author not listed

Editor’s_LastName, Editor’s_FirstName,ed. Title. Edition _Number. Number_of_volumes vols. City_of_Publication: Publisher, Date_of_Publication. Print.
Toon, Ann and Stephen B., eds. “Tiger.” Grzimek’s Animal Encyclopedia. Vol. 14. Detroit: The Gale Group, Inc., 2003. Print.

28. Entry from a dictionary, directory, or other alphabetically- arranged reference book

“Name of Entry.” Title Edition #. Year_of_Publication. Print
“Citation.” Merriam Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary. 10th Edition. 1995. Print.

29. Government Publication, Congressional Record

Cong. Rec. Day Month Year: Page Number(s). Print
Cong. Rec. 3 January 1980: 15. Print

30. Government Publication, Federal

Name of Government. Name of Agency. Title of Publication. Place_of_Publication: Publisher, Date. Print

United States. U.S. Department of Labor. Occupational Outlook Handbook. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Bulletin 2540. Indianapolis: JIST Publishing, 2003. Print
*Note: Types of congressional publications include bills, resolutions (Res.), reports (Rept.) and documents (Doc.). See 5.5.20 of the MLA Handbook 2009 for additional information.

31. Government Publication, State

Name of State. Name of Agency. Title of Publication. Place_of_Publication: Publisher, Date. Print.
South Carolina. 115th General Assembly of SC. 2008 South Carolina Legislative Manual. Columbia: General Assembly of SC, 2008. Print

32. Magazine article, weekly, in print, author listed

Author’s_LastName, Author’s_FirstName. “Title of Article.” Title of Magazine Day Month Year: Pages. Print.
Isaacson, Walter. “How to Raise the Standard in America’s Schools.” Time 27 Apr. 2009: 32-37. Print.
NOTE: The preferred format for dates is DATE MONTH YEAR. All months should be abbreviated except May, June, and July in the Works Cited List.

33. Magazine article, weekly, in print, no author listed

“Title of Article.” Title of Magazine Day Month Year: Pages. Print.
“Oprah Honors Her Heroes at Three-Day Bash in Santa Barbara, CA.” Jet 6 June 2005: 25-28. Print.

34. Magazine article, monthly, in print, author listed

Author’s_LastName, Author’s_FirstName. “Title of Article.” Title of Magazine Month Year: Pages. Print.
Scheer, Roddy. “Ocean Rescue: Can We Head Off a Marine Cataclysm?” E: The Environmental Magazine July–Aug. 2005: 37-40. Print.

35. Magazine article, monthly, in print, no author listed

“Title of Article.” Title of Magazine Month Year: Pages. Print.
“Which Alternative Treatments Work?” Consumer Reports Aug. 2005: 10-11. Print.

36. Newspaper article, daily, in print, author listed

Author’s_LastName, Author’s_FirstName. “Title of Article.” Name of Newspaper [City_of_Publication] Day Month Year, Edition: Pages. Print.
Halliburton, Suzanne. “Team’s Time-Trial Win Puts Armstrong on Top of Standings.” State [Columbia, SC] 3 July 2005, Final Edition: C1+. Print.
If the newspaper is not well known or is a local paper, the name of the city and state are included in brackets [ ] after the title of the newspaper.

37. Newspaper article, daily, in print, no author listed

“Title of Article.” Name of Newspaper [City_of_Publication] Day Month Year, Edition: Pages. Print.
“Foreigners Cross U.S. Borders with Ease.” State [Columbia, SC] 5 July 2005, Capital Final: A1+. Print.
City and state of publication—see example 35.

38. Newspaper article on web, author listed

Author’s_LastName, Author’s_FirstName. “Title of Article.” Name of Newspaper, Date_of_Newspaper. Web. Date_of_Visit_to_Site <URL_of_Site>.
Weiss, Jeffrey. “Scientology: What It Is and Isn’t.” State [Columbia, SC] 03 July 2005. Web. 05 July 2005 <http://www.thestate.com/mld/thestate/news/nation/12045227.htm>.
If the newspaper is not well known or is a local paper, the name of the city and state are include in brackets [ ] after the title of the newspaper.

39. Newspaper article on web, no author listed

“Title of Article.” Name of Newspaper [City_of_Publication] City. Date_of_Newspaper. Web. Date_of_Visit_to_Site <URL_of_Site>.
“Tropical storm heads toward Louisiana.” State [Columbia, SC] 05 July 2005. Web. 05 July 2005 <http://www.thestate.com/mld/thestate/12053281.htm>.
If the newspaper is not well known or is a local paper, the name of the city and state are include in brackets [ ] after the title of the newspaper.

40. Editorial, author listed

Author’s_LastName, Author’s_FirstName. “Title of Article.” Editorial. Name of Newspaper [City_of_Publication] Day Month Year: Pages. Print.
Bolton, Warren. “New Foundation Chief Impressed with Organization, Community.” Editorial. State [Columbia, SC] 5 July 2005: A8. Print.
City of publication—see example 35

41. Editorial, no author listed

“Title of Article.” Editorial. Name of Newspaper [City_of_Publication] Day Month Year, Edition: Pages.
“It Shouldn’t Take Lawyers to Get State to Meet Basic Needs.” Editorial. State [Columbia, SC] 5 July 2005: A8.Print.
City and state of Publication—see example 35.
42. Letter to the Editor

Author’s_LastName, Author’s_FirstName. Letter. Name of Newspaper [City_of_Publication] Day Month Year, Edition: Pages. Print.
Matthews, Jim. Letter. State [Columbia, SC] 5 July 2005, Final Edition: A8. Print.
City and state of Publication—see example 35

43. Pamphlet

Name of Organization. Title of pamphlet. City_of_Publication: Publisher, Date_of_Publication. Print.
American Library Association. Outstanding Books for the College Bound and Lifelong Learners. Atlanta: Young Adult Library Services Association, ALA, 2004. Print.
If there is not a date of publication, use n.d. after the publisher.

44. Advertisement

Product. Advertisement. Publication Date_of_Publication: Page Numbers. Print.
Tropicana Orange Juice. Advertisement. Better Homes and Gardens July 2005: 15. Print.

45. Cartoons and comic strips, print

Artist's_LastName, Artist's_FirstName “Title of cartoon or comic strip.” . Format. Name_of_Publication Date_of_Publication. Print.
Schulz, Charles. “Classic Peanuts.” Comic strip. State 17 July 2005. Print.

46. Cartoon and comic strips, online

Cartoonist's LastName, Cartoonist's FirstName. “Title of Cartoon.” Cartoon. Publication Title Web. Date_of_Publication. Date_of_Access <URL>.
Matson, R. J. “Johnny Carson Show in Heaven.” Cartoon. New York Observer Web. 26 Jan 2005. 05 May 2005 <http://www.politicalcartoons.com>.

47. Video or DVD recording

Title of Film. Dir. Director's Name. Perf. Performers Names. Distributor, Date_of_Publication. . Format.
Andrew Lloyd Webber’s The Phantom of the Opera. Dir. Joel Schumacher. Perf. Gerard Butler, Emmy Rossum, Patrick Wilson, and Minnie Driver. Warner Brothers, 2004. DVD.

48. Film clip, online

Title of Film. By Author_FirstName Author_LastName. Publisher, Date_of_Publication. Web site title. Web. Date_of_Access <URL>.
Elements of Chemistry: Atoms: The Building Blocks of Matter. United Learning, 2003. United Streaming. Web.22 Nov 2004 <http://www5.unitedstreaming.com/index.cfm>.
NOTE: Author information not available so was omitted in citation.

49. Sound recording on compact disc, audiocassette, other

Artist LastName, Artist FirstName. Title of recording. Perf. Performer_FirstName Performer_LastName. Publisher, Date_of_Publication. Format.
Farmer, Nancy. House of The Scorpion. Perf. Robert Ramirez. Recorded Books, 2003. CD.

50. Specific song on a recording

Artist LastName, Artist FirstName. “Title of song.” Perf. Name_of_Performer(s). Title of recording. Perf. Performer_FirstName Performer_LastName. Format. Publisher, Date_of_Publication.
Holst, Gustav. “Mars, the Bringer of War.” Perf. New York Philharmonic. The Planets. Cond. Leornard Bernstein. CBS Records, 1985. CD.
NOTE: Citation information depends on the desired emphasis. Composer, performer, conductor, etc. may be necessary.

51. Sound recording online

Artist_LastName, Artist_FirstName. “Title of Recording.” Title of Work. Broadcast_Source. Date_of_Broadcast. Web. Date_of_Access <URL>.
Nafisi, Azar. “Mysterious Connections that Link Us Together.” This I Believe. NPR. Web. 18 July 2005. 19 July 2005. <http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=4753976>.

52. Television or radio broadcast

“Title of episode.” By Author’s_FirstName Author’s_LastName. Perf. Performer_FirstName Performer_LastName. Title of Program. Title of Series. Name_of_network. Call_letters_of_local_station, City_of_local_station. Broadcast_date. Format.
“Publish and Perish.” By Tom Szentgyorgi. Perf. Dennis Farina, Michael Imperioli, S. Epatha Merkerson, Sam Waterson, Bryan Hyman, Kaleo Griffith, and Guy Boyd. Law and Order. NBC. WIS, Columbia. 20 Apr 2005. Television.

53. Work of visual art—original painting, photograph, sculpture or similar work

Artist's_LastName, Artist's_FirstName. Title. Date of composition. Medium of composition. Institution housing the work, City_of_Institution.

Cezanne, Paul. Self-Portrait in a Straw Hat. 1875-76. Oil on canvas. Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Note: For a work in a private collection, give the name of the collection (Collection of…), then the name of city where collection is located. If collector is unknown or wishes to be anonymous, use Private collection without a city name.

54. Work of visual art—reproduction of painting, photograph, sculpture or similar work

Artist's_LastName, Artist's_FirstName. Title. Date of composition. Institution housing the work, City_of_Institution. Title of source in which art appears. By Author of source material. City_of_Publication: Publisher, Date_of_Publication.
Toulouse-Lautrec, Henri de. At the Circus: Trained Pony and Baboon. Date of composition. Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago. Toulouse-Lautrec: The Moulin Rouge and the City of Light. By Robert Burleigh. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 2005.

55. Work of visual art online

Artist_LastName, Artist_FirstName. Title of image. Date of creation. Physical_location_of_Image, City_of_Location. Web_Page_Title. Web. Date_of_Access <URL>.
Vermeer, Jan. Girl with Pearl Earring. 1665. Mauritshuis, The Hague. Jan Vermeer 1632-1675. Web. 3 Apr 2004. <http://www.mystudios.com/art/bar/vermeer/vermeer-girl-with-earring.html>.

56. Map or chart, in print

Title of Map or chart. Description [Map or Chart]. City_of_Publication: Publisher, Date_of_Publication. Print.
Visitor Transit Map. Map. Chicago: Regional Transportation Authority, 2004. Print.

57. Map or chart, online

“Title of graphic.” Graphic Type. Copyright Holder. Name of site providing graphic. Publisher. Web. Date_of_Access <URL>.
“People with Problem Drinkers in the Family.” Chart. The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. PBS. National Health Center for Health Statistics. Web. 09 Feb 2005 <http://www.pbs.org/wnet/closetohome/policy/html/alcohol.html>.

58. Interview conducted by you

Name of person interviewed. Type of interview. Date_of_Publication.
Bagert, Brod. Telephone interview. 22 Nov 2004.
*NOTE: The type of interview should be designated, i.e., Personal interview, Telephone interview, E-mail interview. In this instance, the date of publication is the date the interview took place.

59. Interview conducted by someone other than you

Name of person interviewed. Interview by Interviewer's name. Source of Interview. Publication source. Publication City. Date_of_Publication. Format.
Rowling, J.K. Interview by Katie Couric. Dateline NBC. WIS. Columbia. 17 July 2005. Television.
NOTE: The format of the interview could be DVD, print, radio, television, web, email, etc.

60. Email

Writer's_LastName, Writer's_FirstName. “Title of Message.” Email to Recipient's Name. Date_of _Email. E-mail.
Boltjes, Janet. “Re: district research guide.” Email to Elizabeth Harrell. 31 May 2005. Email.

61. Posting to online listserv, discussion group, blog, other

Writer's_LastName, Writer's_FirstName. “Title of Message.” Name of Institution or Organization. Date_of_Posting. Name of Forum. Web. Date_of_Access <URL>.
Russell, Carrie. “Re: Copyright and Fair Use.” Online Posting. 4 May 2005. LM_NET. Web. 12 June 2005 <http://www.eduref.org/plweb-cgi/fastweb?getdoc+listservs+LM_NET+443344+0+wAAA+copyright>.

62. Web page, personal

Author’s_LastName, Author’s_FirstName. “Title of Page.” Date_Published_or_Last_Revised. Web. Date_of_Visit_to_Site <URL_of_Site>.
Valenza, Joyce. “The Neverending Search”. 05 Sept 2004. Web. 05 July 2005. Web. <http://www.joycevalenza.com/>.

63. Web page, professional or organizational, author listed

Author’s_LastName, Author’s_FirstName. ”Title or Description of Page.” Name of Institution or Organization. Date_of_publication_or _revision. Web. Date_of_Visit_to_Site <URL_of_Site>.
Kooser, Ted. “American Life in Poetry: Column 014.” The Poetry Foundation. 2005. Web 05 July 2005. < http://www.americanlifeinpoetry.org/columns/014.html >.

64. Web page, professional or organizational, no author listed

“Title or Description of Page.” Name of Institution or Organization. Date_of_publication_or_revision. Web. Date_of_Visit_to_Site <URL_of_Site>.
“Supreme Court Clarifies Sony Decision, Fair Use Preserved.” American Library Association. 27 June 2005. Web. 05 July 2005 <http://www.ala.org/ala/pressreleases2005/june2004abc/groksterdec.htm>.

65. Online Database – provided by school

“Article Title.” Original Publication Name.Publisher_of_Original_Publication, Original_Date_of_Publication. Name of Electronic Resource. Electronic Resource Vendor. Web. Date_of_Access. <URL_provided_by_school>.
"Gamma Ray." UXL Encyclopedia of Science. 2nd ed. UXL, 2002. Student Resource Center. Thomson Gale. Web. 20 July 2005. <http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/SRC>.
Note: See school library media specialist for password information and URL for online database.
66. DISCUS - Academic OneFile

Author’s_LastName, Author’s_FirstName. “Article Title.” Original Publication Name Original_Date_of_Publication: Pages. Academic OneFile. Gale. DISCUS. Date_of_Access. <http://find.galegroup.com>. Document Number
Gropp, Robert. “Nothing Average About Change.” Science Activities 2009: 59-60. Academic OneFile. Gale. DISCUS. 9 Feb. 2009. <http://find.galegroup.com>. 1234567

67. DISCUS – AccessScience

Author’s_LastName, Author’s_FirstName. “Article Title.” Original Publication Name Original_Date_of_Publication: Pages. AccessScience. McGraw-Hill. DISCUS. Date_of_Access. <http://www.accessscience.com>. Document Number
Pasachoff, Jay M. “Andromeda.” AccessScience@McGraw-Hill 2008. AccessScience. McGraw-Hill. DISCUS. 9 Feb 2009. < http://www.accessscience.com >. 1234567
Note: Page number/ range is not included because the information is not provided in the database.

68. DISCUS - Biography Resource Center

Author’s_LastName, Author’s_FirstName. “Article Title.” Original Publication Name Original_Date_of_Publication: Pages. Biography Resource Center. Gale. DISCUS.. Date_of_Access. <http://galenet.galegroup.com>. Document Number
“Sandra Day O’Connor.” American Decades 1998. Biography Resource Center. Gale. DISCUS. 30 June 2005. <http://galenet.galegroup.com>. 1234567
*Note – Author and Page_Number/Range were omitted because information was not included.

69. DISCUS – Book Review Index Online Plus

Author’s_LastName, Author’s_FirstName. “Article Title.” Original Publication Name Original_Date_of_Publication: Pages. Biography Resource Center. Gale. DISCUS. Date_of_Access. <http://find.galegroup.com>. Document Number
De lint, Charles. “Twilight.” The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction Apr 2008: 38-41. Book Review Index Online Plus. Gale. DISCUS. 6 Aug 2009. <http://find.galegroup.com>. A176592248

70. DISCUS – Books & Authors

Author’s_LastName, Author’s_FirstName. “Article Title.” Original Publication Name Original_Date_of_Publication: Pages. Books & Authors. Gale. DISCUS. Date_of_Access. <http://www.bna.galegroup.com>. Document Number
“Verna Aardema.” Books & Authors 2001: Books & Authors. Gale. DISCUS. 8 Aug 2009. <http://www.bna.galegroup.com>. 1234567
*Note: Author name and page numbers were omitted in the citation because the information was not provided.

71. DISCUS – Britannica Online Public Library Edition

Author’s_LastName, Author’s_FirstName. “Article Title.” Original Publication Name Original_Date_of_Publication: Pages. Encyclopaedia Britannica Online Library. Gale. DISCUS. Date_of_Access. <http://www.library.eb.com>. Document Number
“Industrial Ecology.” Encyclopaedia Britannica 2009: Encyclopaedia Britannica Online Library. Gale. Discus. 6 Aug 2009. <http://www.library.eb.com>. 9472586.
*Note: Author name and page numbers were omitted in the citation because the information was not provided.

72. DISCUS – Britannica Online School Edition

Author’s_LastName, Author’s_FirstName. “Article Title.” Original Publication Name Original_Date_of_Publication: Pages. Encycloapedia Britannica Online Library. Gale. DISCUS. Date_of_Access. <http://www.accessscience.com>. Document Number “Global Warming.” Encyclopedia Britannica 2009: Encyclopaedia Britannica Online Library. Gale. DISCUS. 6 Aug 2009. <http://www.school.eb.com>. 9037044
*Note: Author name and page numbers were omitted in the citation because the information was not provided.

73. DISCUS - Business and Company Resource Center

Author’s_LastName, Author’s_FirstName. “Article Title.” Original Publication Name. Original_Date_of_Publication: Pages. Business and Company Resource Center. Gale. DISCUS. Date_of_Access. <http:/find.galegroup.com>. Document Number
Kang, Stephanie. “Barefoot(ish) in the Park: Nike Shoe Is Like Not Wearing One.” Wall Street Journal Eastern Edition. 3 June 2005: B1+. Business and Company Resource Center. Gale. DISCUS. 5 June 2005. <http://find.galegroup.com>. 1234567

74. DISCUS - Custom Newspapers

Author’s_LastName, Author’s_FirstName. “Article Title.” Original Publication Name [City_of_Publication] Original_Date_of_Publication: Pages. Custom Newspapers. Gale. DISCUS. Date_of_Access. <http://find.galegroup.com>. Document Number
Watts, Judy. “Hugo Survivors Vow They Won't Stick Around for Hurricane.” Post and Courier [Charleston, SC] 2 Sept. 2004: A8. Custom Newspapers. Gale. DISCUS. 5 June 2005. <http://find.galegroup.com>. 1234567
*Note: If the newspaper is not well known or is a local paper, the name of the city and state are included in brackets [ ] after the title of the newspaper.

75. DISCUS – Educator’s Reference Complete

Author’s_LastName, Author’s_FirstName. “Article Title.” Original Publication Name Original_Date_of_Publication: Pages. Educator’s Reference Complete. Gale. DISCUS. Date_of_Access. <http://find.galegroup.com>. Document Number
Foote, Carolyn. “It’s a Mad Mad Wordle: for a New Take on Text, Try This Fun Word Cloud Generator.” School Library Journal July 2009: 32-34. Educator’s Reference Complete. Gale. DISCUS. 27 Aug 2009. <http://find.galegroup.com/>. A203954312

76. DISCUS – Enciclopedia Juvenil (Spanish)

Author’s_LastName, Author’s_FirstName. “Article Title.” Original Publication Name Original_Date_of_Publication: Pages. . Gale. DISCUS. Date_of_Access. <http://find.galegroup.com>. Document Number
“Antilope.” Enciclopedia Juvenil. 2009. Gale. DISCUS. 25 Aug 2009. <http://find.galegroup.com>.
*Note: Author’s name, page numbers and document number were not included because the information was not provided.

77. DISCUS – Expanded Academic ASAP

Author’s_LastName, Author’s_FirstName. “Article Title.” Original Publication Name Original_Date_of_Publication: Pages. Expanded Academic ASAP. Gale. DISCUS. Date_of_Access. <http://find.galegroup.com>. Document Number
Wisely, Steven R. “Meeting the Needs of Students Through the Library Media Center.” Multimedia Schools Sept. 2003: 6+. Expanded Academic ASAP. Gale. DISCUS. 12 Nov 2004. <http://find.galegroup.com>. 12345678
78. DISCUS – Gale Virtual Reference Library

Author’s_LastName, Author’s_FirstName. “Article Title.” Original Publication Name Original_Date_of_Publication: Pages. Expanded Academic ASAP. Gale. DISCUS. Date_of_Access. <http://go.galegroup.com>. Document Number
Hobson, Margaret Kriz. “Climate Competition Heats Up.” National Journal 7 Aug 2009. Expanded Academic ASAP. Gale. DISCUS. 6 Aug 2009. <http://go.galegroup.com>.
*Note: Page numbers are omitted in the citation because the information was not provided.

79. DISCUS - General BusinessFile ASAP

Author’s_LastName, Author’s_FirstName. “Article Title.” Original Publication Name Original_Date_of_Publication: Pages. General BusinessFile ASAP. Gale. DISCUS. Date_of_Access. <http://find.galegroup.com>. Document Number
Consoli, John. “Big Nascar Ratings Pressure Partners: Racing Body Officials Looking to Maximize TV Rights Fees on Next Deal.” Mediaweek 27 June 2005: 4+. General BusinessFile ASAP. Gale. DISCUS. 2 July 2005. <http://find.galegroup.com>. 1234567

80. DISCUS - General OneFile

Author’s_LastName, Author’s_FirstName. “Article Title.” Original Publication Name Original_Date_of_Publication: Pages. General OneFile. Gale. DISCUS. Date_of_Access. <http://find.galegroup.com>. Document Number
“What, if Anything Should Be Done about Global Warming Is a Knotty Issue.” National Review 7 Sept 2009: 10. General OneFile. Gale. DISCUS. 25 Aug 2009. <http://find.galegroup.com>. 12345467
81. DISCUS - General Reference Center

Author’s_LastName, Author’s_FirstName. “Article Title.” Original Publication Name Original_Date_of_Publication: Pages. General Reference Center. Gale. DISCUS. Date_of_Access. <http://find.galegroup.com>. Document Number
Stacks, John F. “June 17, 1972: Not Just Any Burglary.” Time 31 Mar 2003: A54. General Reference Center. Gale. DISCUS. 4 Aug 2004. <http://.galegroup.com>. 1234567

82. DISCUS - Health and Wellness Resource Center

Author’s_LastName, Author’s_FirstName. “Article Title.” Original Publication Name Original_Date_of_Publication: Pages. Health and Wellness Resource Center. Gale. DISCUS. Date_of_Access. <http://find.galegroup.com/>. Document Number
Norrgard, Carolyn. “Caring for Someone with Alzheimer's Disease.” Clinical Reference Systems 1 Jan 2004: 569. Health and Wellness Resource Center. Gale. DISCUS. 18 Mar 2005. <http://find.galegroup.com>. 1234567

83. DISCUS - Health Reference Center Academic

Author’s_LastName, Author’s_FirstName. “Article Title.” Original Publication Name Original_Date_of_Publication: Pages. Health Reference Center Academic. Gale. DISCUS. Date_of_Access. <http://find.galegroup.com>. Document Number
Fraser, Stephen. “Smoke Screen: Sweet-Sounding Cigarettes Are 'Candy-Flavored Cancer'.” Current Health Dec 2004: 15+. Health Reference Center Academic. Gale. DISCUS. 2 Feb 2005. <http://find.galegroup.com>. 1234567

84. DISCUS – History Resource Center: U.S.

*Note: A variety of formats are used in the sources for this database. Copy and paste the ‘source citation’ at the end of each article into your works cited page. Change the line spacing to ‘double’ and the indentation to ‘hanging’. Add the document number to the end of the citation.

85. DISCUS – History Resource Center: World

*Note: A variety of formats are used in the sources for this database. Copy and paste the ‘source citation’ at the end of each article into your works cited page. Change the line spacing to ‘double’ and the indentation to ‘hanging’. Add the document number to the end of the citation.

86. DISCUS – Junior Edition

Author’s_LastName, Author’s_FirstName. “Article Title.” Original Publication Name Original_Date_of_Publication: Pages. Junior Edition. Gale. DISCUS. Date_of_Access. <http://infotrac.galegroup.com>. Document Number “New Year, New Waistline.” World Almanac and Book of Facts. 2009: 74. Junior Edition. Gale. DISCUS. 8 Aug 2009. <http://infotrac.galegroup.com>. 1234567
*Note: Author’s name and the document are not included in the citation because the information was not provided.

87. DISCUS – Kids InfoBits

Author’s_LastName, Author’s_FirstName. “Article Title.” Original Publication Name Original_Date_of_Publication: Pages. Kids InfoBits. Gale. DISCUS. Date_of_Access. <http://galenet.galegroup.com>. Document Number “Killer Whale.” The Columbia Encyclopedia 2000. Kid InfoBits. Gale. DISCUS. 9 Aug 2009. <http://galenet.galegroup.com>. BX3201111212
*Note: Author’s name and the document are not included in the citation because the information was not provided.

88. DISCUS - LegalTrac

Author’s_LastName, Author’s_FirstName. “Article Title.” Original Publication Name Original_Date_of_Publication: Pages. LegalTrac. Gale. DISCUS. Date_of_Access. <http://find.galegroup.com/>. Document Number
LaMay, Craig L. “America's Censor: Anthony Comstock and Free Speech.” Communications and the Law Sep 1997: 1-59. LegalTrac. Gale. DISCUS. 14 Feb 2004. <http:/find.galegroup.com>.1234567

89. DISCUS – Literature Resources from Gale

Author’s_LastName, Author’s_FirstName. “Article Title.” Original Publication Name Original_Date_of_Publication: Pages . Literature Resources from Gale. Gale. DISCUS. Date_of_Access. <http://go.galegroup.com>. Document Number
Nesselson, Lisa. “Review of Vampires.” Variety 1983: 51-88. Literature Resources from Gale. Gale. DISCUS. 11 Jan 2006. <http://go.galegroup.com>. 1234567

90. DISCUS – Nursing Resource Center

Author’s_LastName, Author’s_FirstName. “Article Title.” Original Publication Name Original_Date_of_Publication: Pages . Nursing Resource Center. Gale. DISCUS. . Date_of_Access. <http://find.galegroup.com/>. Document Number
Haggerty, Maureen. “Hypothyroidism.” Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine 2006: Nursing Resource Center. Gale. DISCUS. 9 Aug 2009. <http://find.galegroup.com/>. DB2621270838
*Note: Page numbers were not available for this source.

91. DISCUS – Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center

Author’s_LastName, Author’s_FirstName. “Article Title.” Original Publication Name Original_Date_of_Publication: Pages . Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Gale. DISCUS. Date_of_Access. <http://find.galegroup.com/>. Document Number
Furchtgott-Roth, Harold. “The United Nations Should Not Interfere with Internet.” At Issue: United Nations 2008. Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Gale. DISCUS. 9 Aug 2009. <http://find.galegroup.com/>. EJ3010477214
*Note: Page numbers were not available for this source.

92. DISCUS – PowerSearch

*Note: PowerSearch cross-searches the Gale databases in DISCUS. It does not need to be cited. You will need to cite the particular database you use (found in the Source Citation at the end of each article accessed).

93. DISCUS – Science Resource Center

Author’s_LastName, Author’s_FirstName. “Article Title.” Original Publication Name Original_Date_of_Publication: Pages. Science Resource Center. Gale. DISCUS. Date_of_Access. <http://galenet.galegroup.com/>. Document Number
Fraser, Craig. “Astronomy and Cosmology: Twentieth Century.” History of Modern Science and Mathematic 2008. Science Resource Center. Gale. DISCUS. 9 Aug 2009. <http://galenet.galegroup.com/>. CV2640700010
*Note: Page numbers were not available for this source.

94. DISCUS - SIRS Discoverer

Author’s_LastName, Author’s_FirstName. “Article Title.” Original Publication Name Original_Date_of_Publication: Pages. Sirs Discoverer. DISCUS. Date_of_Access. <http://discoverer.prod.sirs.com>. Document Number
Coleman, Joseph. “Kyoto Global Warming Pact Takes Effect.” Shawnee News-Star 16 Feb 2005: Sirs Discoverer. DISCUS. 4 Mar 2005. <http://discoverer.prod.sirs.com>. 1234567
*Note: Page numbers were not available for this source.

95. DISCUS - SIRS Knowledge Source

Author’s_LastName, Author’s_FirstName. “Article Title.” Original Publication Name Original_Date_of_Publication: Pages. SIRS Knowledge Source. SIRS. DISCUS. Date_of_Access. <http://sks.sirs.com>. Document Number
Grossman, Cathy Lynn. “Pope's Health Raises Questions About Life Support.” USA Today 24 Feb 2005: Sirs Knowledge Source. DISCUS. 10 May 2005. <http://sks.sirs.com>. 1234567
*Note: Page numbers were not available for this source.

96. DISCUS – Small Business Resource Center

Author’s_LastName, Author’s_FirstName. “Article Title.” Original Publication Name Original_Date_of_Publication: Pages. Small Business Resource Center. Gale. DISCUS. Date_of_Access. <http://find.galegroup.com>. Document Number “Carpet Cleaning Service: Carpet Chem Corporation.” Business Plans Handbook 1997: 29-43. Small Business Resource Center. Gale. DISCUS. 9 Aug 2009. <http://find.galegroup.com>. L1550400003

97. DISCUS – Student Edition

Author’s_LastName, Author’s_FirstName. “Article Title.” Original Publication Name Original_Date_of_Publication: Pages. Student Edition. Gale. DISCUS. Date_of_Access. <http://find.galegroup.com>. Document Number “Scientists Open Doors to Diagnosis of Emphysema.” Obesity, Fitness & Wellness Week 5 Sept 2009: 136. Student Edition. Gale. DISCUS. 25 Aug 2009. <http://find.galegroup.com>. A206729215

98. DISCUS – World Data Analyst

Author’s_LastName, Author’s_FirstName. “Article Title.” Original Publication Name Original_Date_of_Publication: Pages. World Data Analyst. Encyclopaedia Britannica DISCUS. Date_of_Access. <www.world.eb.com>. “Afghanistan.” Encyclopaedia Britannica 2009. World Data Analyst. Encyclopaedia Brittanica. DISCUS. 25 Aug 2009. <www.world.eb.com>.
*Note: Author’s name was not available for this source.
*Note: There are no document numbers for the sources in this database.

Works Cited
(For creation of the Lexington 1 Bibliographic Citation Guide, 2009)

Gibaldi, Joseph, ed. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 7th ed. New York: MLA, 2009. Print.
Trimmer, Joseph, ed. A Guide to MLA Documentation. 8th ed. Boston: Wadsworth, 2010. Print.
Brizee, Allen, ed. ”The OWL at Purdue.” Purdue University Online Writing Lab. 2009. Web. 31 Aug 2009.

-----------------------
Created 7/20/2005
J. Boltjes, GHS

Last revised 9/13/09
M. Bydalek, WKHS
E. Harrell, LHS

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...Abstract The media has been a tool for influencing the consumer choice of product in a competitive market. These have been influencing, persuading, informing and enlightening the target audience on a particular product through the means of advertising. Nigeria is as a developing nation in all aspects, economically, technologically, politically, physically and otherwise, therefore, citizens should concentrate on how to create revenue for the nation and also bring about employment and advertising is one means to achieve both purposes. Thus, the need for the researcher to embark on the research titled “The Impact of Advertising on the Consumers Choice of Soft Drink – A study of Coca-Cola” with specific reference to Nigerian Bottling Company Plc. Also the design method used by the researcher which is more effective for social sciences is survey method the researcher made use of the most efficient and effective method of sourcing for information from sources that are relevant to the study. Questionnaires were distributed as one of the valid instruments used for gathering information. Respondents were selected randomly and the hypotheses were tested using the simple percentage and chi-square (X2) goodness-of-fit-test formula to arrive at a definite conclusion. The results reflected the impact of advertising on the consumer’s choice of soft drink. Recommendations and conclusions were made based on the findings of the researcher one of the recommendations is that since advertising......

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...and Style Guide refer only to the most common kinds of sources you will be consulting for your research paper. For other sources not covered in this handout, kindly refer to the MLA 7 Formatting and Style Guide found at the Online Writing Lab of Purdue University, which can be accessed at: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/1/. MLA Works Cited Page: Books When you are gathering book sources, be sure to make note of the following bibliographic items: author name(s), book title, publication date, publisher, place of publication. The medium of publication for all “hard copy” books is Print. Basic Format The author’s name or a book with a single author's name appears in last name, first name format. The basic form for a book citation is: Lastname, Firstname. Title of Book. City of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. Medium of Publication. Book with One Author Gleick, James. Chaos: Making a New Science. New York: Penguin, 1987. Print. Henley, Patricia. The Hummingbird House. Denver: MacMurray, 1999. Print. Book with More Than One Author The first given name appears in last name, first name format; subsequent author names appear in first name last name format. Gillespie, Paula, and Neal Lerner. The Allyn and Bacon Guide to Peer Tutoring. Boston: Allyn, 2000. Print. If there are more than three authors, you may choose to list only the first author followed by the phrase et al. (Latin for "and others") in place of the subsequent authors' names, or you......

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...Use the following essay to integrate in-text or parenthetical citations and to create a reference list. Lightweight Lit By Brian Green I really enjoy literary discussions. I love it when people at trendy restaurants smack their lips in appreciation of the latest South American novelist, Egyptian poet, or Armenian essayist. By eavesdropping on these discussions, I can find out what’s going on in the world of “great literature” so that when people ask me what I’ve read lately I can pretend that I, too, am devoted to highbrow literature. I’m ashamed to admit my secret vice, but, because we’re friends, I can tell you…I love “trash.” I’m embarrassed about it, and I know that my intellectual friends would ridicule me if they found out. Still, I have very good reasons for enjoying light literature. I find it educates, relaxes, and entertains in a way that more cerebral reading doesn’t –at least, not for me. The educational nature of popular or junk literature is often overlooked. From reading countless police novels, I know the workings of the Los Angeles and New York police departments inside out. I have a thorough grounding in the operations of the CIA, the KGB, MI5 and any number of less illustrious spy agencies. I’ eagerly awaiting the first novel about a hero from Canada’s CSIS. Science-fiction books have detailed for me the ways of life, war, travel, and even agriculture in outer space. My education even includes the laws of nature in alternative......

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...Citations hello hello hello i need help writting essays because i suck at it. sad face. skdhgilwlie rp kejnwoierj fvkwjnovcw wnlvew ewlknvoew ewnlvoeri gklweiqfhei qehr. mfgoiwjrwi sdnfvqkiuhr ndfvjq;oe fk kfgnq sgnl fnqel wfgnoi rewnvl ewfgnlwk dngl dfng;poe e kjvfoware ngew rew sjnqfiuerh wndfiwuhr rfnqkieuwr8 enfvivuer mvgnqoi wsj wekfhuie knfuiw sfnkwiejwoenfenww,wv mbwefw ,ef kwhefke kwfnow ewsfnwoknfe, wekdjnvw, kwefnwe dsngwe sekgngqiew rwfneklw wqdngiqwer jdgnweir negqfleri sdkgnvkwer kgmnlw rjewglori ergnwleri erdgkwnl venmglweo gfrwlegn jrgwle gwnlk few kb kug nby nkuy oiu gte ctr jhbuy fdklqbhuer erlwknfgviqle rejnvfoiwger erfgnvwie gwrnelkeriw ngfqiwrerqgnq iuqergh wf wjehoi ewqflng nwoig weqgerkngloire rwl wviewiu vlkfnwei fwlifw snciwnc wjeniwnv wkwsf woenkwdcw dwciew sndcoweiwe wkivwen wsfnwoeiwe nwue w weeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee e ewgijwr relqir qdqsnleoi rqweq rkego9 2rt io24ut knoiwreqo weswoiqhgpre ergfireo wgnkd wsenfiwv weoewgi rwenow edkjero svwrneie wkehro3 rerdkj3o4 erkgnoeri wknfkvej kwenrgoei genjeov ier oevjoe hello hello hello i need help writting essays because i suck at it. sad face. skdhgilwlie rp kejnwoierj fvkwjnovcw wnlvew ewlknvoew ewnlvoeri gklweiqfhei qehr. mfgoiwjrwi sdnfvqkiuhr ndfvjq;oe fk kfgnq sgnl fnqel wfgnoi rewnvl ewfgnlwk dngl dfng;poe e kjvfoware ngew rew sjnqfiuerh wndfiwuhr rfnqkieuwr8 enfvivuer mvgnqoi wsj wekfhuie knfuiw sfnkwiejwoenfenww,wv......

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