Premium Essay

Classical Conditioning

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By aimanwahaj
Words 1402
Pages 6
Running Head: CLASSICAL CONDITIONING

Generalisation & Discrimination Are Characteristics of Classical Conditioning- An Evolutionary Perspective
[Name of the Student]
[Name of the Institution]
Generalisation & Discrimination Are Characteristics of Classical Conditioning- An Evolutionary Perspective
Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning also called respondent conditioning; packaging type I or Pavlovian conditioning is a concept of behaviourism proposed by Ivan Pavlov in the early twentieth century. This theory focuses on the learning achievements due to the association between stimuli of the environment and automatic reactions in the body. This notion of involuntary reaction is the main point that differentiates the operant conditioning. It is a learning theory that states that a natural, mostly innate, unconditioned reflex can be added by learning a new conditioned reflex. The assumptions and techniques of classical conditioning can also be used to treat anxiety, compulsive behaviours or anxiety-like symptoms. From the classical conditioning, the concerns triggered behaviours that are instrumental and operant; conditioning to distinguish that affect spontaneous behaviour (Clark & Squire, 2008, pp. 77-81).

Phenomena Associated With Classical Conditioning ← Generalization: The conditional response (CR) is not only obtained with a specific stimulus, but with elements that have some resemblance to the conditioned stimulus (CS). The behaviour is adopted or avoided in other circumstances some resemblance reinforced or punished behaviour (Staats & Staats, 2009, p. 37). ← Discrimination: The conditional response (CR) was obtained in a situation with very specific stimuli and is not similar in others. The behaviour is adopted or avoided in specific circumstances and is not in other having some resemblance reinforced or punished...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Classical Conditioning

...Classical Conditioning Lon H. Gray University of Phoenix PSY/390 Learning and Cognition SC11BSP07 April 11, 2012 Dr. Rick Bazant Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov is the father of classical conditioning, a learning theory that is also called Pavlovian conditioning. Pavlov was a Russian physiologist centered in experimental science, in which his experiments were novel and innovative. Pavlov and his team accidently discovered classical conditioning while studying the functions of the digestive system in dogs. While conducting studies Pavlov and his team noticed increased salivation for objects other than the food. The dogs began salivating when unrelated stimuli, such as the experimenters, footsteps, or white lab coats appeared. They initially noted these responses as a psychic reflex. As a fundamental scientist and possessing little faith in psychology, Pavlov struggled with this notion and nearly dismissed the opportunity to investigate it. Against the advice of his colleagues and under strict team rules Pavlov and his associates decided to investigate conditioned reflexes. Classical conditioning is a learning theory that focuses on an association between paired stimuli, in an attempt to draw like responses. According to Olson and Hergenhahn (2009) classical conditioning is “An experimental arrangement whereby a stimulus is made to elicit response that was not previously associated with that stimulus” (p. 446). Exploring classical conditioning......

Words: 1217 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Classical Conditioning

...Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning theory involves learning a new behavior via the process of association. In simple terms two stimuli are linked together to produce a new learned response in a person or animal. There are three stages to classical conditioning. In each stage the stimuli and responses are given special scientific terms: Stage 1: Before Conditioning: * In this stage, the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) produces an unconditioned response (UCR) in an organism. In basic terms this means that a stimulus in the environment has produced a behavior / response which is unlearned (i.e. unconditioned) and therefore is a natural response which has not been taught. In this respect no new behavior has been learned yet. 





























For example, a stomach virus (UCS) would produce a response of nausea (UCR). In another example a perfume (UCS) could create a response of happiness or desire (UCR).

This stage also involves another stimulus which has no affect on a person and is called the neutral stimulus (NS). The NS could be a person, object, place etc. The neutral stimulus in classical conditioning does not produce a response until it is paired with the unconditioned stimulus.
 Stage 2: During Conditioning: * During this stage a stimulus which produces no response (i.e. neutral) is associated with the unconditioned stimulus at which point it now becomes known as the conditioned stimulus (CS). 
For example a stomach virus (UCS) might be......

Words: 385 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Classical Conditioning

...Classical Conditioning PSY/390 November 2, 2011 Elizabeth Alexander-Bernard Classical Conditioning * Ivan Pavlov was born on September 14, 1849 in Russia. He was studying to become a priest, but then change his mind and study physiology for most of his life. His model was a behaviorist and the things involved with this model are response and stimuli. Ivan Pavlov is considered the father and founder of classical conditioning. He won the Nobel Prize in 1904 for physiology of the digestion. Pavlov discovered classical conditioning through studying the digestive tracts of a dog on accident. During the conditioning the dogs would salivate at the click of a metronome. This established the basis for condition reflexes and classical conditioning. This paper will describe the theory of classical conditioning. Pavlov study focus on observing the organism not by the mental thought process. I will explain a scenario in which you would apply classical conditioning theory. Describe my selected scenario and prepare a chart in which you illustrate how I would apply classical conditioning theory to the scenario. * The theory of classical conditioning as you can see in the picture below. Before conditioning if the dog is given food the response is that the dog starts to salivate this is considered an unconditioned stimulus with an unconditioned response this just happen naturally. With a neutral stimulus if the dog hears a bell the response is he does not salivate......

Words: 705 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Classical Conditioning

...Introduction to Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning is a type of learning that had a major influence on the school of thought in psychology known as behaviorism. Discovered by Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov, classical conditioning is a learning process that occurs through associations between an environmental stimulus and a naturally occurring stimulus. Behaviorism is based on the assumption that learning occurs through interactions with the environment. Two other assumptions of this theory are that the environment shapes behavior and that taking internal mental states such as thoughts, feelings, and emotions into consideration is useless in explaining behavior. It's important to note that classical conditioning involves placing a neutral signal before a naturally occurring reflex. In Pavlov's classic experiment with dogs, the neutral signal was the sound of a tone and the naturally occurring reflex was salivating in response to food. By associating the neutral stimulus with the environmental stimulus (the presentation of food), the sound of the tone alone could produce the salivation response. In order to understand how more about how classical conditioning works, it is important to be familiar with the basic principles of the process. The Unconditioned Stimulus The unconditioned stimulus is one that unconditionally, naturally, and automatically triggers a response. For example, when you smell one of your favorite foods, you may immediately feel very hungry...

Words: 1123 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Classical Conditioning

...Classical Conditioning Paper Accidently founded by Ivan Pavlov, classical conditioning is basically learning by association behavior. A better definition would be “A process of behavior modification by which a subject comes to respond in a desired manner to a previously neutral stimulus that has been repeatedly presented along with an unconditioned stimulus that elicits the desired response” (Farlex, 2011). This paper will describe the theory of classical conditioning and demonstrate how one would apply the classical conditioning in everyday life. Theory of Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov, a Russian physiologist, was performing research on the digestive system of a dog by using the data from the dog’s salivation when in the middle of these tests he by accident noticed that certain behaviors can be conditioned (Alloy, Riskind, & Manos, 2005). First, one must understand that behaviorism in psychology is based on the belief that learning happens through relations with the environment (Cherry, 2011). Pavlov found that several of the reactions were occurring due to prior learning. He obtained this important information by noting that the dogs would salivate even before they were offered the meat. Pavlov concluded that the dogs were conditioned and learned from the entrance of the lab assistant, who was generally the person who brought in the meat. He expanded his experiment further by introducing a bright light or a loud sound to see if the dogs would salivate when seeing......

Words: 829 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Classical Conditioning

...Classical Conditioning Jennifer XXXXXXXXX PSY 390 - Learning and Cognition XXXXX XX, 2012 Janice Williams Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning is a form of behavioral learning and was first introduced when Ivan Pavlov stumbled upon it by accident when he was studying the physiology of digestion in dogs. He noticed that the dogs would not just begin salivating when the meat powder was introduced, but when the person responsible for feeding them would enter the room. Behaviorism is a school of thought in psychology based on the assumption that learning occurs through interactions with the environment (Cherry, 2012). Classical conditioning is when two stimuli are presented in close succession repeatedly, until the response given to one becomes associated with the other. An example of this was when Pavlov introduced the bell right before he brought the dogs food i.e. unconditioned stimulus, it would cause an automatic reaction or unconditioned response. The bell would be the conditioned stimulus or neutral stimulus. When paired together, the US and the CS would cause CR or conditioned response. In the scenario I have chosen, I will prepare a chart outlining how I will train my dog to sit through classical conditioning. As it stands now, he does not sit immediately on command; it takes several attempts of saying the word sit in order to get him to complete this task. He is currently conditioned to only sit after I have repeated the word sit several times......

Words: 883 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Classical Conditioning

...RUNNING HEAD: Classical Conditioning Paper Classical Conditioning Paper PSY/390 Dr. Gerald Thauberger July 9, 2012 Theory of classical conditioning The theory of Classical conditioning is the process of an unconditioned stimulus becomes conditioned. Classical conditioning was illustrated by Ivan Pavlov by using dogs as the subjects, to show the association of food, dogs and a bell. Pavlov used the bell to sound when it was time to feed the dogs to better understand if the dogs would be able to associate the sound with feeding time. So if we look a little further we are able to associate classical conditioning with involuntary behavior, because the behavior is something that we are trained to act out? So for instance in the morning when we get up to brush our teeth this is something that we were trained to do since toddler age. Our parents bought us a toothbrush and conditioned us to get up every morning and brush our teeth. Scenario We have three dogs that my wife really adores very much and spends most of her time with. All the dogs seem to be very attached to my wife and show her by jumping on her and giving her kisses on a regular basis. But because all of the dogs are attached to her they seem to get jealous of one another and will start to fight instantly if she is around all of them at the same time. Each dog seems to have their own personality like Bear which is a lab and her first dog is very spoil, Sheba who is the only girl is a boxer mixed with......

Words: 839 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Classical Conditioning

...Classical conditioning is defined in Psychology as “a type of learning in which a neutral stimulus comes to bring about a response after it is paired with a stimulus that naturally brings that response” (Feldman, 2010, p 163). Having to do with reactions and learning, the definition of classical conditioning can be abbreviated into the idea of involuntary behavior. The example of Pavlov’s dog illustrates this as the dog came to associate the sound of a bell with food, causing a reflective action of salivating even when the bell was not paired with food. Ivan Pavlov a Russian physiologist that never intended to do psychological research is best known for his intricate work with the drooling dog experiment that leads to his further research in conditioning. His experiment to demonstrate classical conditioning and how much a dog salivates when the animal thinks food is going to be given; Pavlov attached a tube on the dogs’ mouth to measure precisely salivation. What’s learned with Pavlov’s experiment is a conditioned stimulus to a condition response. From the moment we are born to the day we pass on, we are currently learning new things day by day. A person often learns through some form of conditioning in life. Some people associate learning with school or another kind of educational institutes, but we learn in different places and situations in our life. Learning is the result of the consequences of inappropriate behavior. Respect, discipline, and good manners are what we......

Words: 788 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Classical Conditioning

...Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov accidentally discovers Classical conditioning when he was doing research on the digestive system, by offering food and different stimuli to dogs. He notices that the dog salivated not to physiological conditioning, but a learned response to the sight of food or the white lab coat that brought the food to them. He showed that the salivary response to the presentation of food is an unconditioned reflex and that salivation at the expectation of food is a condition reflex. Pavlov also used a metronome as a neutral stimulus and got the same results when it ticked and food was given. Pavlov wrote of the results. "We observed that, after several repetitions of the combined stimulation, the sounds of the metronome had acquired the property of stimulating salivary secretion" (26 psychology.about.com). By doing this test he showed that the metronome was a conditioned response. The scenario chosen is when house training my new two month old puppy (Nervous) she is very hyper when she gets excited she will have an accident in the floor, if not taken outside right away. I have learned to watch her when she is playing with my other dog or with me if she gets to excited she will just stop and wet right where she is and look at you while she is doing it. I found that if I put her outside right after playing with her and every two hours, she will not wet the floor. She had gotten to the point that when she has to use the bathroom she will go to the door......

Words: 705 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Classical Conditioning

...Classical Conditioning Paper PSY 390 September 19, 2011 Chelsea Hansen Classical Conditioning Paper The primary premise of psychology is the study of one’s behavior through mental research as well as physical experiments. Classical Conditioning is the study of one’s behavior through research and experiments and trying to identify the conditions one put themselves in or are put in to study their behavior. “Classical Conditioning is a technique used in behavioral training.” (http://psychology.about.com/od/cindex/g/classcond.htm) A Russian physiologist by the name of Ivan Pavlov is believed to be the igniter to classical conditioning though his intense research and experiments with dogs and his saliva theoretical presentations and experiments. Pavlov also believed that “classical conditioning is a learning process that occurs through associations between an environmental stimulus and a naturally occurring stimulus.” (http://psychology.about.com/od/behavioralpsychology/a/classcond.htm) Theory of Classical Conditioning and Scenario The theory of classical conditioning that was most famous by Ivan Pavlov was the digestive system where he then accidently had his attention drawn to “psychic reflexes.” (http://www.learning-theories.com/classical-conditioning-pavlov.html) The scenario that will be used in this paper will be how prisoners are classically conditioned with “chow time” (time to eat) in the prison system. In the prison systems inmates and their natural reflex of...

Words: 756 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Classical Conditioning

...qwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmrtyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmrtyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmrtyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmrtyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwer...

Words: 779 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Classical Conditioning

...Classical conditioning is the process of learning through association. In our experiment, the teacher was able to classically condition a student without the student even realizing it. The experiment was to get to get the student to turn off the lights when exposed to a certain video slide. The unconditioned stimulus was the teacher student telling the student to turn off the lights. The unconditioned response was the student turning off the lights. The conditioned stimulus was the certain video slide that was presented. The conditioned response was the student turning off the lights to the video slide. The student ended up turning off the lights upon seeing the video slide. This is clear evidence of the student being classically conditioned. The teacher did not have to tell the student to turn off the lights. The sequence of events in order that occur are the unconditioned stimulus and unconditioned response first. These are always introduced first in the experiment. The stimuli that got paired together were the teacher’s commands and the video slide. The result of the behavior was the student doing the action of turning the lights off without being told to do so. A great example of classical conditioning is the professor having the students to take attendance. At a certain time, the teacher would hand out the sign-in sheet for students to sign. He would at first have to tell the students it’s time to sign-in. This is the unconditioned stimulus. The conditioned stimulus is......

Words: 298 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Classical Conditioning Paper

...Classical Conditioning Paper PSY/ 390 May 05, 2014 Professor Chelsea Hansen Classical Conditioning Paper Abstract: Throughout this paper a theory of classical conditioning will be described and detailed. A selected scenario in which I the writer was able to apply a classical conditioning theory. The description of the scenario will be detailed as well as demonstrated on a chart which was prepared in order to illustrate how someone would apply a classical conditioning theory to the selected scenario. It is important to remember that classical conditioning is a technique that is used in primarily behavioral training. Usually it is when a naturally occurring stimulus is paired with a responsive stimulus. Afterwards a more previously neutral stimulus is then paired with the more naturally occurring stimulus. The outcome is that the previously neutral stimulus comes in to evoke and the response is without the presence of the naturally occurring stimulus. The most common names given to the two following elements are known as the conditioned stimulus and the conditioned responses. Classical conditioning came to life through the hard work and dedication from the well world renowned investigations of Psychologist Ivan Pavlov. Pavlov Born September 14, 1849 in Russia knew from very early he loved the study of psychology and worked hard on focusing on the Classical Conditioning theory “Operant and classical conditioning are two different ways in which organisms come to......

Words: 909 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

A Look at Classical Conditioning

...A Look at Classical Conditioning | Aaron P. Dean | | A Clockwork Orange | Outline I. A brief overview of “A Clockwork Orange” (A.C.O.) A. General Information and Plot Synopsis B. Alex DeLarge C. Thesis Statement II. Classical Conditioning D. What is Classical Conditioning? i. The Pavlovian Method a. The Basic Components * Defined Theories b. Specific examples in A.C.O. ii. John Watson’s Approach c. Emotional Conditioning * Key Elements iii. Specific examples in A.C.O. E. Tying It All Together iv. Ethical Concerns v. In the Modern Era III. Conclusion A Brief Overview of “A Clockwork Orange” General Information and Plot Synopsis A Clockwork Orange is a book written in 1962 by Anthony Burgess. However the film adaptation, made by Stanley Kubrick, was not made until 1971 and it is of this to which I will be writing. This film stars a very young Malcolm McDowell who plays the role of Alex DeLarge. Alex is a boy in his mid-to-late teens [15 or 16, I believe] who lives in a quasi-futuristic version of England. This land is controlled by a totalitarian style government, and plagued by adolescent street gangs who engage in what is affectionately referred to as ‘The Ultraviolence’ which mainly consists of vandalism, assault, drug use, theft, rape, and murder. Alex, the leader of one such gang,......

Words: 2041 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Classical Conditioning Paper

...Running head: Classical Conditioning Classical Conditioning University of Phoenix, Online Learning and Cognition PSY/390 May 1, 2011 Classical conditioning is best explained and defined by analyzing its theorists and their experiments. J.B. Watson and Ivan Pavlov were instrumental in classical conditioning with their experiments of human beings and animals which were ground-breaking to the field of Psychology (Haworth, 1992). We will explore classical conditioning by analyzing both theorist’s experiments as well as introduce a scenario in which classical conditioning would be applicable and demonstrate its effectiveness through a chart illustration. J.B. Watson John Broadus Watson was a psychologist born in Greenville, S.C. in 1878 and died in 1958. He focused his studies and analysis on the observation of human beings. He originated the school of behaviorism which deals with behavior in response to stimuli. He saw psychology as the study of human behavior and the ability to predict and control those behaviors. John B. Watson is very well known for his experiment called “Little Albert” in which he theorized that children have three basic emotional reactions which are fear, rage and love. Through his experiment, he wanted to prove that these three basic emotional reactions could be artificially conditioned in children by operant means. In the Little Albert experiment, Watson took an 11-month old infant...

Words: 956 - Pages: 4