Free Essay

Classical Order

In: Other Topics

Submitted By sosarah
Words 1181
Pages 5
20th Century Design

1. Examples of megalithic and geoglyphic sites from around the world.

* Machu Picchu

A city built in 15th century on top of a mountain in southern Peru for the Inca civilization.

URL * Matt, N 2008, Top ten historical sites in the world, Nomadic Matt’s Travel Site, viewed 6 September 2012, http://www.nomadicmatt.com/travel-blogs/ten-historical-sites/ * Machu Picchu Facts 2008, Peru-Facts.co.uk, viewed 7 September 2012, http://peru-facts.co.uk/machu-picchu-facts.html * Jarus, O 2012, Machu Picchu: Facts & History, Live Science, viewed 7 September 2012, http://www.livescience.com/22869-machu-picchu.html

* Tikal

It is located in Guatemala and was an important city of the Maya inhabited in the 900 – 300 BC. Tikal comprises of 5 step pyramids, a paved plaza and 3 acropolises holding tomb chambers.

URL * Gill, N.S 2012, Tikal, About.com, viewed 7 September 2012, http://ancienthistory.about.com/od/archaeologicalsites/g/010609tikal.htm * Villatoro, M.K 2011, 7 Facts about Tikal, Travel Experta – Central America Travel Expert, viewed 7 September 2012, http://travelexperta.com/2011/04/7-facts-about-tikal.html * Matt, N 2008, Top ten historical sites in the world, Nomadic Matt’s Travel Site, viewed 6 September 2012, http://www.nomadicmatt.com/travel-blogs/ten-historical-sites/

* Moai Statues

About 887 Moai statues carved from the hard stone of the Rano Raraku volcano between the years 1250 and 1500. All of them are located in Easter Island.

URL * The Last Secret of the Moai 2010, Kuriositas, viewed 8 September 2012, http://www.kuriositas.com/2010/05/last-secret-of-moai.html * Matt, N 2008, Top ten historical sites in the world, Nomadic Matt’s Travel Site, viewed 6 September 2012, http://www.nomadicmatt.com/travel-blogs/ten-historical-sites/ * Easter Island Facts 2010, Magic Planet Productions viewed 8 September 2012, http://sacredsites.com/americas/chile/easter_island_facts.html

2. My name in Egyptian Hieroglyphics.

The symbols mean:

S – Fold of cloth
A – Vulture (Eagle)
R – Mouth
A – Vulture (Eagle)
H – Twisted Flax

Millmore, M 1997, Ancient Egyptian Hieroglypic Writing, EYELID PRODUCTIONS, viewed 6 September 2012, http://www.eyelid.co.uk/hiero1.htm

3. Origin of cuneiform writing.

Cuneiform was the world first written language created in Mesopotamia by the Sumerians about 3000 B.C.E. The term cuneiform comes from the word cuneus in Latin for ‘wedge’ as the writing style denoting the wedge-shaped. In the beginning, they drew simple pictures by carving the clay. All the pictures were related more directly to daily life such as head, fish, bird and sun. However, this earlier system had many limitations and was very complicated especially to represent combinations of idea. Eventually, the Sumerian scribes started combining symbols and signs to express different meanings. For example, by combining the signs for mountain and woman, the scribe could represent the slave women because slave women were obtained from the mountain. The scribes found that by carving the clay with a pointed tip will cause chips and detachment of clay fragments. Thus, continuous cleaning was required while carving on the tablets. To avoid this mishap, they implement a stylus which they began to impress straight marks. As a result, curves were replaced with straight marks. All the pictures and signs were altered and became abstract symbols. At last, the figures lost their realism and were unrecognizable.
Carboni, G 2006, The history of writing, Fun Science Gallery, viewed 9 September 2012, http://www.funsci.com/fun3_en/writing/writing.htm#2.4
T.N & T.D.H 1998, The Evolution of Cuneiform, History & Thought of Western Man Rich East High School, viewed 9 September 2012, http://www.richeast.org/htwm/cune/cune.html
Hirst, K.K 2012, Cuneiform Texts and The Writing of History, About.com, viewed 9 September 2012, http://archaeology.about.com/od/ancientcivilization1/fr/vandemieroop.htm 4. A piece of Buddhist design.

The Golden Pavilion is one of the famous Buddhist Japanese temple located in Kyoto, Japan. Initially, the pavilion was served as a retirement villa for Shogun Ashikaga Yoshimitsu. After he died, it was converted into a Zen temple by his son in accordance with his wishes. The temple stands 42 feet high with 3 stories. Each floor having different architectural style and representing different aspect. The first floor named Ho-sui-in was constructed in the Shinden style used as a palace. There are two statues of the Shaka Buddha and Yoshimitsu stored in the first floor. The second floor is named Cho-on-do was built with Bukke style, the style of the Samurai commonly used for Samurai residential. This floor is surrounded by Kannon Bodhisattva (Buddist statue) and Four Heavenly Kings statues. At the top of the temple, the small upper floor was constructed based on the architecture found in Chinese Zen temples. It was used for tea ceremonies and meetings with friends. Based on the style and architectural features, it certainly adds great value to the temple as well as the site also consists of historical objects of the Buddha. The reason I chose this piece of Buddhist building is because of the location which is truly breathtaking. The building was built overlooking a large pond surrounded by beautiful garden and scenery. Besides that, I love how the building was perfectly structured. Each floor possesses own meaning and responsibilities which show that the shogun was an organised person. Last but not least, the building symbolises wealth, prosperity and peace as the second and third floor are covered entirely both inside and outside by gold leaf.

Touropia 2011, 10 Most Famous Temples in Asia, Touropia.com, viewed 9 September 2012, http://www.touropia.com/famous-temples/
Dunn, J.J.C 2007, The Golden Pavilion, HowStuffWorks.com, viewed 9 September 2012, http://tlc.howstuffworks.com/family/golden-pavilion-landmark.htm
GoJapanGo.com 2012, Golden Pavilion, viewed 9 September 2012, http://www.gojapango.com/travel/golden_pavilion.html
Japan-guide.com 2012, Kinkakuji (Golden Pavilion), viewed 9 September 2012, http://www.japan-guide.com/e/e3908.html

5. A designed Chinese cultural artifact.

Chinese Guardian Lion in the Forbidden City, Beijing

This Chinese Guardian Lion as known as ‘Foo Dog’ is typically seen all over China. It is well known as a powerful mythic protector from the Han Dynasty (206 BCE) until the end of empire in 1911 which stood in front of Chinese Imperial temples, government offices, palaces and the wealthy. The lions are traditionally made from decorative stone that are expensive such as marbles, bronze or iron. Instead of being the protector, the lions symbolize of a family’s wealth or social status. In different dynasty, the appearance of the face of the lions and features in the decorative items were slightly changed.

Yayasilver 2012, Imperial Guardian Lion “Fu Dog”, asianform.com, viewed 9 September 2012, http://asianform.com/page.php?pid=42
Crenshaw, R 2009, Foo Dog History, Island Beer Club of Coronado, viewed 9 September 2012, http://islandbeerclub.com/foodog.htm
Char4u.com 2012, Foo Dogs are Ancient Guardians, viewed 9 September 2012, http://www.char4u.com/article_info.php?articles_id=161

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